<>1904:1907; Russia experienced four years of extreme political disorder with the First Russian Revolution (the 1905 Revolution) at the center

<>1904:1905; German sociologist of world fame and influence, Max Weber (1864-1924), published articles, later a book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

<>1904:Russian writer of growing world fame Leo Tolstoy on church and state [VSB,3:733]

<>1904:USA Senator from Indiana Albert Beveridge published The Russian Advance after traveling the Trans-Siberian Railroad [RFP2,1:153-67]

<>1904:USA State of Oregon, much under the influence of national "populist" trends in the Progressive Era, passed "Initiative and Referendum" law
*--One century later, "conservative" Oregon political activist Greg Wasson sought to inform and inspire voters with some history about initiative & referendum and the role of political parties, Oregon Catalyst: Oregon's Premier Conservative Political Blog (since 2005)
*--Another essay by Wasson [E-TXT] "1913-Supreme Courts Begins Attack on Initiative"
*--Initiative and Referendum Institute at the University of Southern California [IRI] webside features Oregon with a few inaccuracies, but still useful as a gauge of how the USA Progressive Era continues to influence politics, sometimes seeming to illustrate how late-19th-century "left-wing liberalism" or "radicalism" has been captured in the "Tea-Party" movement in the early 21st-century

<>1904:Geographical Journal 23:424-31. Geo-politician H. J. Mackinder published "The Geographical Pivot of History" [E-TXT]
*--Russia, he wrote, was the geo-political heartland, at the center of the "world island" [MAP] within which the future of the world was to be determined [ID]
\\
*2014ap02 = Geopolitics of Empire: Mackinder's Heartland Theory and the Containment of Russia -- Puppet Masters -- Sott.net [E-TXT] An attempt to bring Mackinder into 21st c.
*--Look at how the SAC webpage "Geography" uses Mackinder's geo-political theories [SAC-TXT]
*--Parker, Historical Geography:29, 329, 371-4, 377

<>1904:British diplomat Roger Casement compiled a report that exposed imperialist brutality of the Belgians in the Congo [E-TXT excerpts | Full E-TXT]
*--The report followed three years after Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness appeared [ID]
\\
*--Wki
*--LOOP on "century of peace"

<>1904:USA sociologist Thorstein Veblen published The Theory of Business Enterprise [excerpts in CCC3,2:900-27 | CCS:660-7 | CCS,2:40-7]
*--Veblen emphasized historical particularities of time and place rather than universal laws of economics
*--He felt that an industrial and engineering elite offered the best resolution -- a "technocratic" resolution -- of social and economic dislocations caused by large-scale industrial modernization
\\
*--LOOP on WW1a

<>1904:USA Chicago| Russian history professor and political activist Pavel N. Miliukov delivered lectures which were one year later published in book form as Russia and Its Crisis

<>1904ja02:ja05; Saint Petersburg | Union of Liberation [Soiuz Osvobozhdeniia] founding conference agreed on political program [DPH:296]

<>1904ja26:1905au23; Manchuria | Russo-Japanese war opened when Japan attacked Russian outposts [MAP]

<>1904fe:Plehve approved charter of Assembly of Saint Petersburg workers. Recreated state-controlled labor unions or "police socialism"

<>1904ap:France and England signed Entente Cordiale, a bilateral imperialist diplomatic refinement of the 1885 inter-European Berlin Treaty {ID}

<>1904sp:Zemstvo liberal Dmitrii Shipov met a third time with Plehve and Witte in the hope that the state might cut some slack for expanding Zemstvo movement

<>1904my04:Socialist Revolutionary Party [SRs] Draft program [H05:268-73]
*--The big agrarian socialist movement was working to define itself as an organized political party

<>1904jy15:SRs new and terroristic "Battle Organization" assassinated Russian Interior Minister, Count Viacheslav Plehve, ending his 15-year career

<>1904au26:1905ja; Russian Interior Minister Sviatopolk-Mirskii abandoned reactionary policies of his assassinated predecessor and tried moderation for five crucial months

<>1904se01:SPB| Russian News Agency (eventually known as TASS) founded [E-TXT]

<>1904se17:se25; Paris conference of revolutionary and oppositional political parties [H05:54-5 | Ganelin:13-15,54]

<>1904oc25:Dmitrii Shipov met with Sviatopolk-Mirskii to seek approval of national Zemstvo Congress [Ganelin:16-22]
*--A sign of crisis, the tsarist state wavered between repression and concession

<>1904no:Union of Liberation issued program [VSB,3:724]
*--Over the next months, the Union encouraged formation of various separate unions of vocational intelligentsia, engineers and technicians
*--These were not state-sponsored but voluntary "grass-roots" unions

<>1904no04+: Sviatopolk-Mirskii report [GARF, cited in Ganelin:56] Nicholas I agreed with the report [Ganelin:32]

<>1904no06:no09; Saint Petersburg | First national congress of Zemstvo, led by Dmitrii Shipov, issued 11 theses [VSB,3:741-3 | H05:279-81 | MR&C2:385]
*--Banquet campaign began

<>1904de:Paris meeting of Russian liberal & revolutionary political parties agreed to cooperate (SDs did not participate)

<>1904de02:de06 & de08; Russian ministers debated Sviatopolk-Mirskii report
*--Witte wrote draft of de12:Ukaz (below) [MR&C2:387]

<>1904de05:Russia | Union of engineers & technicians, the first professional union [PR&R]

<>1904de11:(NS?)Saint Petersburg labor demonstration [MR&C2:366-7]

<>1904de12:Russian Emperor Nicholas II decree [Ukaz] to Russian Imperial Senate [H05:282-5 | MR&C2:387-8 | Ganelin:39-41]

<>1904de13:de31; Azerbaijan, Baku oil fields | General strike among workers in this vital center of Russian Imperial petroleum potential

<>1904de20: Manchuria | Russian forces in Port Arthur capitulated to the Japanese. Russian international and domestic crises peaked together
\\
LOOP on 1905 Revolution

<>1904de30:French socialist movement tried to create Union of French Socialists Parties [DPH:325-6]

<>1905:1916; Germany | Albert Einstein's relativity theory published
*--The idea of "relativity" resonated far beyond the science of physics

<>1905:English political theorist A. V. Dicey published his Harvard University lectures on liberalism and collectivism, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, which were nothing less than a history of democracy in England in the 19th century [CCS,1:791-802]

<>1905:USA | Western Federation of Miners [WFM], a radical labor union that broke with AFL seven years earlier, met secretly with Daniel De Leon [W], the head of the Socialist Labor Party [W], and Eugene Debs, ex-leader of the American Railway Union and now head of the Socialist Party (founded in 1900)

<>1905ja09:St.Petersburg | "Bloody Sunday" opened when a large but peaceful assembly of factory workers and their families marched toward the Winter Palace, residence of Emperor Nicholas II and his family

<>1905ja11:Russian ministers ignored Sergei Witte request to discuss the tragic implications of Bloody Sunday [see above]

<>1905ja17; Moscow Agricultural Society member Aleksei Ermolov reported to Nicholas II about the Gapon incident [H05:124-5 | *1925:KrA#8:49-69 | Page:68-9]

<>1905ja18:Russian Council of Ministers met [Ganelin:69]

<>1905ja22:oc22; A.G. Bulygin replaced Sviatopolk-Mirskii as Interior Minister. Bulygin lasted nine months, through the October crisis

<>1905ja22:Moscow Noble Assembly passed "loyal" conservative resolution and a liberal resolution [H05:105] Gentry politics vacillated

<>1905ja29:Saint Petersburg | Shidlovskii Commission was created to investigate labor situation in the capital city. The commission was named after its leading figure, Senator Shidlovskii; not to be confused with Sergei Shidlovskii, a founder of the Octobrist political party. Commission members were not only bureaucrats as in traditional imperial politics but now also representatives of workers themselves. Politically aroused workers overwhelmed bureaucrats on the Commission, and it soon had to be dissolved
*--Official fear of spontaneous popular initiative, especially that among wage-laborers, was so great that the commission was quickly dissolved [H05:122-3]

<>1905fe03 and 1905fe11:Council of Ministers met [Ganelin:85f] Topic = Should elected representatives of the public be brought into government?

<>1905fe04:Moscow | SRs "Battle Organization" assassinated the Emperor’s uncle, Grand Prince Sergei Aleksandrovich, with a bomb

<>1905fe18:Tsar Nicholas II issued ukaz authorizing ordinary subjects to petition him for relief of grievances
*--Interior Minister A.G. Bulygin's rescript followed, stating that the tsar would soon "assemble the most trustworthy  men, having the confidence of the people and elected by them, to undertake the preliminary examination and consideration of legislative measures" [CF=H05:129-30, and MR&C2:394-5]

<>1905fe24: Manchuria, Mukden | Japanese forces defeated Russian forces [wrx&REV]
*--For the tsarist state, international crisis continued to mix with domestic crisis
*--For that reason, the LOOP on 1905 Revolution extends through the next 30 or so SAC entries

<>1905mr31(NS):Morocco,Tangiers, NW African coast| German Kaiser Wilhelm on a state visit declared his support for the sultan of Morocco [Wki-ID]

<>1905fe28:Russian office clerks & bookkeepers union came to life

<>1905mr:1905my; Paris | Russian politicos, away from home, issued the program of the "Union of Liberation" [H05:273-9]

<>1905mr:Russian Monarchical Party [Monarkhicheskaia Partiia] founded by state servitors [chinovniki], high-ranking aristocrats, and other "official reactionaries"
*--Compare this "official aristocratic" group and its political views with the rural gentry aristocrats

<>1905mr12:Russian teachers formed grammar-school union; soon physicians & lawyers formed unions

<>1905mr14:Russian Emperor issued Ukaz on freedom of religion

<>1905ap03:Russian pharmacists'union

<>1905ap05:Russian writers'union

<>1905ap07:Tver Governor Urusov reported on "general dissatisfaction" or rebelliousness among peasants. Villagers, the high official said, were not much interested in "the anti-government struggle on questions of constitutions and political rights"

<>1905ap17:Russian Emperor issued Ukaz re. religious tolerance for Old-Ritualists [Raskolniki], sectarians and followers of other previously illegal faiths [VSB,3:766]
*--The tsarist state moved to heal an old and great wound to the Russian "body-politic"
\\
*--Andrei Conovaloff of has made valuable suggests to SAC editor on this topic. See his "Taxonomy of Molokane, Pryguny and Dukh-i-zhizniki" [E-TXT]

<>1905ap19:Geneva & Paris | Russian SDs debated at Congress #3

<>1905ap22:26; Moscow Zemstvo Congress #2 deliberated on need for new election law (the so-called "Four-Tail" election policy: Voting should be equal, direct, universal, and secret) [H05:142-3]

<>1905ap27:Russian women's rights union were a reflection of mounting revolutionary crisis in Russia, but also of general European trends

<>1905my:Russia | Kokovtsov kmm re.mfg [Roosa"Russ.Ind"(1975)]

<>1905my08:my09; Moscow | Union of Unions [Soiuz soiuzov] founding meeting as a national organization of all unions of working and professional people, including 14 unions of academics, lawyers, agricultural accountants, medical doctors, veterinarians, railroad personnel, journalists and writers, zemstvo constitutionalists, women's and Jewish rights activists, and other engineers and technicians

<>1905my14:my16; Tsushima Straits between Korea and Japan | Japanese annihilated 32 Russian naval vessels that had come all the way from European waters

<>1905my24:my26; Zemstvo congress #3
\\
*--H05:159-60

<>1905je14:je25; Russian Black Sea fleet, Odessa port | Russian sailors revolted on naval Battleship Potemkin (pronounced PaTIOMkin) [Page:76-7]

<>1905je09:Tver guberniia village elder Nil Smirnov issued declaration based on decisions taken at the Ryleev village assembly [Page:73] =

<>1905jy:Russia, Peterhof | Secret state conference [H05:161(foolish description) & 165]

<>1905jy06:jy09; Moscow | Zemstvo congress#4 petitioned Nicholas II [H05:160]

<>1905au06:Saint Petersburg | Interior Minister S.G. Bulygin submitted his constitutional project which called for the creation of a State Duma with limited advisory powers [Raeff2:142-52 | VSB,3:702-3 | DPH:300]
*--Full Russian text in GDR:30-54]

<>1905au13:Moscow | All-Russian Peasant Union [Vserossiiskii Krest'ianskii Soiuz] founding Congress
*--Kursk guberniia peasants followed actions of Congress through the journal Russkoe slovo [Russian word] [VEO, Agrarnoe dvizhenie v Rossii v 1905-1906 gg., 1:56]
*--For past three years, rural dissatisfaction mounted. Now peasants mobilized in a way not unlike all other social groups caught up in the 1905 revolutionary era [PR&R:446-8]
\\
*--Robinson, ch6 (hungry villages), ch7 (peasant world), ch8 (decline of nobility & rise of "Third Estate"), ch9 (origins of 1905)
*--Maureen Perrie, Agrarian Policy:107-111
*--Stephen Dunn, Peasants of Central Russia
*--Beatrice Farnsworth and Lynne Viola, eds. Russian Peasant Women
*--Sir John Maynard, The Russian Peasant and Other Studies
*--Mary Matossian, "The Peasant Way of Life". In The Peasant in Nineteenth-Century Russia
*--Christine D. Worobec, Peasant Russia: Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Period

<>1905au17:Russia | Provisional regulation of university promised university autonomy

<>1905au23:se05; USA NH | Russia-Japan treaty negotiations to end Russo-Japanese War lasted 2 weeks and ended with the signing of the  Portsmouth Treaty [TXT] [E-TXT] [McC1:11-12 | RFP2,1:170-2]
*--USA President Theodore Roosevelt lent his good offices in the negotiations between Russia and Japan
*--Ten years earlier, few could have foreseen the rise of USA as a new overseas imperialist state, USA was now a noteworthy factor in global politics, even if old Europe might not yet have been ready to take USA seriously, or Japan, or Russia, for that matter. Old Europe was on the eve of destruction. Of the three nations represented on the postcard just below, only two, USA and Japan, were to survive WW1 intact

A postcard commemorating New Hampshire negotiations
Left to right = Russian Finance Minister Count Sergei Witte, Baron Rosen,
US President Theodore Roosevelt,
Japanese Ambassador to the US Kogoro Takahira, and Japanese Foreign Minister Jutaro Komura


[SOURCE]

*--In this year, an early case in international law (i.e., law beyond the limits of nation-state sovereignty), was heard when an English/Russian Commission of Inquiry convened [RWP1,2:167-70]+
*--For Russia, crises in international relations and domestic politics seemed to be abating, so the tsarist state entered the critical October days still hoping to suppress mass unrest with a combination of force and uncertain promises of reform
\\
*--Saul,2:153-8, 459-507
*--Alan Kimball, "The United States and the Soviet Union: Toward a Mutual Pacific Frontier" (1984) {TXT on long-term background to 20th-21st cc.  Russian/Japanese international relations]
*--John A. White, The Diplomacy of the Russo-Japanese War

*--LOOP on WW1a

<>1905se12:se15; Moscow | Zemstvo congress #5, 194 members attended
*--LOOP on 1905 Revolution

<>1905se19:Moscow railroad strike [H05:175-6]

<>1905fa:Buryat gatherings represented indigenous opposition to tsarist imperialist authority in their lands [GDR:162]

<>1905oc:Baltische konstitutionelle Partei formed, made up of conservative German gentry aristocrats
*--Lithuanian & Latvian nationalist movement under way
*1905oc:Kursk | People's Party [Narodnaia Partiia implying "National Party"]
*--Was this party representative of aristocratic gentry conservative politics or aristocratic state servitor conservative politics?

<>1905oc07:Russian railroad strike began after a union member was arrested [VSB,3:744]

<>1905oc08:Petersburg Governor General Trepov issued decree limiting rights of public assembly
*--This futile act flew in the face of mounting, near-universal public mobilization which was filling public places in all the larger cities of the Empire

<>1905oc09:Sergei Witte, fresh back from treaty negotiations that settled the Russo-Japanese War, submitted a bold memo to Nicholas II [VSB,3:703-4]

<>1905oc11:Russian wage-laborers submitted petition on working conditions to Witte & he replied [Nevison:18-19]

<>1905oc12:oc18; Moscow | Partiia narodnoi svobody [Party of Popular Freedom], a bold new liberal party, the first openly organized political party in Russian history, held its founding congress. They were not best known by their formal name. Instead, the name "Constitutional Democrats" came into wider usage. In fact, they became best known by the Russian initials for Constitutional Democrat, "KD". And these two Russian letters sounded like the unflattering French word for an adolescent in military training, "KA-DEH" [cadet]. Thus a back-formed nickname also came into wide usage = Kadety (Cadets) KDs]
*--Program [McC1:33-5 | H05:292-300 | DIR2:405-10 | DIR3:438f | VSB,3:724]
*1905oc14:Pavel Miliukov addressed the congress of this most liberal of the Russian political parties [VSB,3:726]
*--KDs prepared for the anticipated State Duma
\\
*--Terence Emmons, The Formation of Political Parties and the First National Elections in Russia

<>1905oc13:Witte submitted yet another bold memo to Nicholas II. Witte's personal views did not get in the way of his practical political good sense [VSB,3:704-5]

<>1905oc13:Saint Petersburg Soviet [of Workers'Deputies] met for the first time as the wage-labor strike movement spread along Russian rail lines
*--The Soviet representing a new and more explicitly political-institutional form of wage-labor mobilization
\\
*--Oscar Anweiler, Soviets: The Russian Workers, Peasants, and Soldiers Councils,1905-1921

<>1905oc14:Moscow general strike began after more than a week of mounting work stoppage, led by the railroad unions. Georgii Khrustalev-Nosar, described the strike movement =

Within ten days strikes had seized the entire network of Russian railways, extending over 40,000 kilometers and employing 750,000 clerks and workers. Out of Moscow, as the center, the strike flame sent its rays spreading to the periphery. The railway strike predetermined the general strike.

The strike movement traveled on steel rails and shut down factories, plants, -- all of life in the industrial centers. [...] The strike revolution gave birth to the Soviet [Page:80-1]

*--Railroads were vital to all participants in modern life

<>1905oc14:Russian Emperor issued Ukaz in order to gain some control over freedom of assembly, which was now an altogether "voluntary" association, totally out of the control of official "assignment"
<>1905oc15:Council of Ministers closed all Russian universities

<>1905oc16:All-Russian general strike began; a remarkable, massive, open, national rebellion [H05:180-9]
*-- Wage-labor political behavior was so far in essence not unlike the behavior of other "working people", rural, urban, clerical, professional (including  university professors and students) -- they all went out on strike

<>1905oc17:Russian Emperor Nicholas II issued October Manifesto [TXT] [Russian TXT] [VSB,3:705 | Mehlinger:331-2 | DIR2:384-5 | McC1:13-4 | H05:195-6 | CCC2,2:596 | DPH:301-2]

<>1905oc17:Saint Petersburg Soviet newspaper Izvestiia [News] began publication [VSB,3:745]

<>1905oc17:Sergei Witte reported to Emperor Nicholas II in connection with his assignment to coordinate the actions of the several ministries in preparation for the formation of a State Council

<>1905oc18:Moscow workers passed labor strike resolution [VSB,3:744]

<>1905oc19:oc20; Saint Petersburg | Nicholas II issued a second Manifesto in connection with the revolutionary crisis

<>1905oc19:1906wi; Emperor Nicholas II letters to his mother [PFM:89-92]

<>1905no:1907; Union of Russian Peoples [Soiuz russkikh liudei], a reactionary political party, formed and composed its program [VSB,3:728 | DIR2:410-16]
*--Later founded Black Hundreds [Chernye sotny] (anti-Semitic, reactionary political party)
*--What is the relationship of "reactionary social movements" like this and "official reactionary" policy?

<>1905no:Russian SRs program [McC1:32-3 | DIR2:399-405 | DIR3:431-8]

<>1905no03:Russian Imperial Decree cut peasant redemption payments in half for next year & abolished them altogether as of 1907 [DIR2:385-6 | DIR3:415-17 | DPH:302]
*--A forty-year-old deficiency in the greatest of the great reforms thus was corrected
*--Reforms continued under high-pressure revolutionary circumstances

<>1905no06:no10; Moscow | All-Russian Peasant Union Congress #2 [H05:219]
*--Max Weber numbered members at 500, but more nearly 200 [MWG:243-4]
*1907:1915; Journalist report on peasants in Saint Petersburg [Nevison:49f]

<>1905no06:no13; Moscow | Zemstvo congress #6 (last)
*--Pavel Miliukov was admitted to organizational committee and claimed readiness to support Witte government [PR&R:533]
*--Congress sent deputation to see Witte = Sergei Muromtsev, Fedor Kokoshkin, and Ivan Petrunkevich. These deputies insisted that ministers in the new government be responsible to (under the authority of) the Duma rather than to the tsar [PR&R:534 | Manning,Crisis:187 says Witte refused to see deputation]
*--Ivan Petrunkevich, Memoirs of a Social Activist [ORBIS]

<>1905no10:no14; Moscow-Saint Petersburg | Octobrist Party [Soiuz 17 Oktiabria; Union of October 17] founded

<>1905no15:(oc15??) Saint Petersburg dmx fnd PPP [MWG:64 or259]

<>1905no16:Moscow | Committee of the All-Russian Peasant Union arrested six days after their second congress

<>1905no16:Perm Postal Employees passed political resolution [FFS:212-23]

<>1905no17:Vladimir Province, Kovrov District Land Captain reported to the Provincial Governor about rural disorders =

In the city of Kovrov a nest of troublemakers has been stirring, and they include people of various classes [sosloviia] and professions. They cover themselves by functioning as local zemstvo officials, working on agricultural committees and economic councils and serving on the committee for public temperance. This group has grown significantly and persistently carries on its evil work. They distribute pamphlets by Henry George, revolutionary leaflets and proclamations. They circulate appeals [off-prints?] of an edition of Donskaia rech' [voice of the Don, a newspaper] which contains the French 18th century Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and distribute large quantities of harmfully oriented newspapers to the peasants free of charge. They make tours of the villages and conduct secret discussions with [...] ruinous effects upon the population. Many workers among the peasants (I assume that they are paid by the agitators) promise all kinds of future gains and recruit their fellow villagers, who, as is known, are extremely ready to trust the tale-bearers and know-it-alls of their own villages. In daily mass meetings in the workshops even visiting orators lecture on all manner of subjects. It is rumored that some of the workmen are armed. In the evenings, youth walk about boldly singing revolutionary songs. The townsfolk, fearing unpleasantness, try to avoid leaving their homes at such times. In these meetings both the workers and the peasants of my region take part. Seeing that they get away with their illegal activity these people act insolently and teach this to the peasants. || All pronouncements of the Moscow Peasant Union appear in the villages in the form of proclamations which call for changing the old ways ... yes, even of banishing the chiefs, the clerks and land captains from the district peasant assembly [volostnoi skhod] [Page:72]

<>1905no17:no20; Moscow Union of Landowners [Soiuz zemlevladel'tsev] meeting called for statist reactionary measures and suppression of peasant disorder [MWG 1/10:250] Gentry politics

<>1905no19:no20; Saint Petersburg | Sergei Witte conference with political moderates within the Zemstvo congress, most of them members of the recently formed Octobrist Party [PR&R:534] =

<>1905no22:Committee of the Post & Telegraph union arrested

<>1905no22:Moscow then Saint Petersburg | Georgii Khrustalev-Nosar became chairman of workers'Soviet [WRH3:496-7 | *1913:RRe#2:89-100]

<>1905no24:Russia | End of preliminary censorship in early phases of the 1905 Revolution
*--The imperial state brought an end to the 110-year-old constraint [ID] on Russian print culture
*--Unfinished business of the "great reform" era [ID] was taken up again under revolutionary pressure
*--After end to preliminary censorship, a steady trickle of reform continued
\\
*--Daniel Balmuth, Censorship in Russia, 1865-1905
*--Charles Ruud, Fighting Words: Imperial Censorship and the Russian Press, 1804-1906

<>1905no26:Moscow | President of workers'Soviet, Khrustalev-Nosar arrested, and 26-year-old Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) replaced him
*1905no26:de05; Saint Petersburg | Foreign newspaper correspondent Nevison:77-80 (diary) covered these critical 11 days

<>1905de02:Saint Petersburg workers'Soviet issued Financial Manifesto calling on peasants to refuse to make redemption payments, demanding all wages be paid in gold or hard coin, full weight, and recommending all wage-laborers withdraw deposits from banks, "demanding all payments in gold" [VSB,3:746 | DPH:303-4 | Postgate:385 (part)]
*--State moved to suppress eight newspapers, and this just over one week after the passage of a new and progressive censorship reform [ID]

<>1905de03:Saint Petersburg Soviet members arrested during meeting in Free Economic Society building

<>1905de04:Kostroma newspaper reported debates in peasant gatherings

<>1905de04:Petersburg | Octobrist Party held its second conference

<>1905de05:de07 & de09; Tsarskoe Selo "monarchical cnf" included Wtt gvt & ShpD, Gch Korf, PL Bobrinskii, VA [MWG:266 | protocol, Byloe 3(25) (1917 September):217-65]

<>1905de07:de19; Moscow strike & revolutionary disturbance [Nevison in Moscow?]
*--Resolution [VSB,3:746-8]

<>1905de11:Russian Election law for State Duma signaled governmental retreat from promises in the October Manifesto [ID] [Russian text GDR:94-102]
*--Official reaction regained some of its momentum after the setbacks of the previous 18 months
\\
*--LOOP on 1905 Revolution

<>1906:French highway engineer and political ideologist, often associated with movements called "syndicalist", Georges Sorel (1847-1922) wrote Reflections on Violence [Abridged E-TXT | CCC2,2:954-63 | BMC1:566-71 | BMC4:633-41]

<>1906ja:Persia (Iran), Tehran and its suburbs the site of mounting popular disorder

<>1906ja:ap26; St.Petersburg events described by Nevison:309-16

<>1906ja:Socialists-Revolutionaries [SRs], now a huge, unified and nation-wide party, held their First Congress and issued a program, which included reaffirmation of the need for "terroristic struggle, central and local, individual and mass". The program furthermore stated that "the new debauch of arbitrary rule finds the party once again at its battle station" [VSB,3:719-21]

<>1906ja:Russian Marshals of nobility (i.e., chairmen of regional noble assemblies) gathered and passed a resolution in which they declared their willingness to help their sovereign restore peace and achieve the promises of the October Manifesto. However, they acknowledged serious difficulties and thus made recommendations [FFS:200-3] =

More Gentry politics

<>1906ja05:11; KDs Party Congress#2

<>1906ja14:Nicholas II signed Council of Ministers countermeasures against activism among state servitors [FFS:213]

<>1906ja22:Nizhnii Novgorod peasant petition outlined long history of discontent in their village Malyi Seskin, ending with a list of seven demands =

  1. Forests, lands and ponds owned by institutions, ministries [kabinetskie], private individuals, monasteries, churches and gentry [pomeshchich'i] should be turned over to to those who work them, under conditions of communal land management [obshchinnogo zemlepol'zovaniia]
  2. Direct and indirect taxes should be abolished and replaced by graduated progressive taxes
  3. Universal and obligatory [primary and secondary] education and accessibility to higher educational institutions to all who wish, at state expense
  4. Freedom of expression, press, assembly, union and strike
  5. Inviolability of the individual, home and correspondence
  6. Abolition of capital punishment, military quartering and courts martial
  7. Swift convocation of the State Duma
*--Signed by 90 peasants in assembly, with their elder [starosta], and with notary signature of district police captain [ispravnik] [GDR:163-4]
*--Minsk area ditto [164-5]
\\
*--Oleg Bukhovets subjected about 200 peasant petitions of this era to aggregate analysis and offered a summary of their content

<>1906ja26:Moscow| Twenty-six Russian business companies submitted a declaration to the Council of Trade and Industry in which they took a stand against centralized organization of the Council and in favor of significant break-up into thirteen regional councils [FFS:256+]

<>1906ja30:Russian women's Progressive Party, program [FFS:303-8]

<>1906fe:gbx Zmv mtg, conflict pro- & anti-lbx [MWG]

<>1906fe:German sociologist Max Weber published "Zur Lage...", the first of two monograph-length studies of the Russian Revolution of 1905, for which purpose he learned the rudiments of Russian. First and second study published together in MWG [Weber]

<>1906fe05:Congress#1, Vserossiiskaia Torgovo-promyshlennaia partiia [cf.1905no11:]
*--Liberal industrialist Pavel P. Riabushinskii used phrase "class consciousness" & urged resistance to "intelligentsia socialism" [OCP:274]
*--Urban "bourgeois" consciousness came to life under conditions of revolutionary crisis and struggled to make a clear distinction between liberalism and socialism
\\
*--"Association of Industry and Trade, 1906-1917" in MERSH
*--"Riabushinskii", a Russian English-language website [W] | Russian-language website [W]

<>1906fe08:fe12; Octobrist Party held a conference

<>1906fe20:Tsarist manifesto and two ukazes about two chambers of the new legislative body
(1) The Imperial State Council [Sovet] would now be made up of delegates, one half elected and one half appointed by the tsar. Earlier, all were appointed by the tsar
(2) A "second house", the State Duma would be made up of elected delegates, but elections were not to be direct. Delegates were chosen in a four-tier process designed to mute the popular will [VSB,3:769-70 | MWG] [Russian text GDR:102-]
*--Ministries were not put under the authority of the two-chambered legislature. They remained responsible only to the tsar
*--The tsar no longer was formally described as having "unlimited autocratic power" [neogranichennaia samoderzhavnaia vlast']. The word "unlimited" was removed from his title
\\
*--LOOP on 1905 Revolution

<>1906fe21:Russian National Congress of Old-Ritualists [Raskolniki] sent address to Emperor Nicholas II [FFS:298-9]

<>1906fe22:fe23; Russian laws handed down with respect to relationship of southern imperial possessions to the new legislative institutions [GDR:123-33]

<>1906mr06:Russian State Duma election began

<>1906mr08:Russia | Ekaterinoslav guberniia Nobility submitted address to Emperor Nicholas II which showed how village disorders vexed gentry politics, yet also showed how anxious gentry were for the Emperor to honor the promises made in the October Manifesto [FFS:203-6]

<>1906mr08:Russian Senate received two ukazes about management of state budget [GDR:132-5]

<>1906mr08:mr11; Russian state took measures to maintain control over the electoral process [GDR:136-41]

<>1906ap07:ap12; Russian Council of Ministers deliberated with Nicholas II about the new Fundamental Laws [VSB,3:770-2]

<>1906ap10:ap25; Stockholm | Russian SDs Congress #4 (The Unity Congress [!!]) tried to bring Russian Marxists back together

<>1906ap14:Sergei Witte resignation became widely known

<>1906ap18:San Francisco earthquake described by USA author Jack London [Eye:418-21]
*--The first century in the history of a great Pacific-Rim urban center was punctuated by a great natural calamity [W#1] [W#2] [W#3] [W#4]

<>1906ap22:ap23; Russian nobles gathered in "Congress of Noble Circles" and passed a resolution which reflected conservative gentry politics

<>1906ap23:Russia's new Fundamental Laws were issued [TXT] [original draft, Council of Ministers draft, & final version: Mehlinger:336-44 | cf. DIR2:387-93 | DIR3:417-25 | VSB,3:772-4 | DPH:395-6 | GDR:141-60]

<>1906ap27:1906jy08; First State Duma formally opened with KDs playing a central roll [VSB,3:774-6] but lasted only two months and two weeks

<>1906ap27+: First Duma Labor Group [Trudovaia Gruppa; best known as Trudoviki], a largely peasant political faction, formed in the midst of parliamentary proceedings

<>1906my:dvr.unx (??soiuz zemledel GO 05no17) fnd; cnx gnt pty

<>1906my05:State Duma replied to Emperor Nicholas II speech [RRC2,2:445-49 | Harper:40-1 | VSB,,3:776-7]

<>1906my08:1906je01; In its first month of existence, the State Duma debated a series of significant legislative bills but could get none of the most important into law =

<>1906my13:Peasant representative to the First Duma I.T. Losev protested a declaration handed down by Council of Ministers President Goremykin

<>1906je:Moscow| Postal and telegraph workers' proclamation [FFS:216-17]

<>1906je07:Kolomna| Factory managers petitioned the Chairman of the First Duma, asking him to achieve a legal solution of the land question, even if it means taking lands owned by factory managers [FFS:254-5]

<>1906je11:Russian nationwide nobles congress sent address to Nicholas II defending the "inviolability of property rights" of gentry landowners [VSB,3:800]
*--The previous seventeen years of gentry politics may be defined as promotion and defense of exclusive noble soslovie interests and landowning power within social/service hierarchies
*--All this was a clear failure now, just as it had been a half century earlier
\\
*--Robert Edelman, Gentry Politics on the Eve of the Russian Revolution: The Nationalist Party, 1907-1917
*--Roberta Thompson Manning, The Crisis of the Old Order in Russia: Gentry and Government (1982)

<>1906je20:Duma received an "Agrarian bulletin" [Agrarnoe soobshchenie] which hinted at impending agrarian reform [GDR]

<>1906je20:Emperor Nicholas II acknowledged privately that things were not going well in his Duma =

<>1906je23:Duma took up the issue of whether to allocate 15 million rubles to promote more vigorous economic productivity [GDR]

<>1906jy04:State Duma Agrarian Commission reported [GDR:175-80]

<>1906jy06:Old-guard monarchist-absolutist statesman Goremykin pushed out of prime-ministership, and Petr Stolypin ushered in as Prime Minister

<>1906jy10:Finland | Dissident delegates from the suppressed State Duma, with KDs and Trudoviki at the center, fled to Finland and issued the Vyborg Manifesto [McC1:43-4 | VSB,3:779 | Meeting described in Harper,Russia:50-51 | Nevison:351-2]

<>1906jy10:London International Peace Conference | Maksim Kovalevskii delivered speech [Nevison:360-1]
*--Nevison described voluble crowds at the Conference, caught up in the excitement of the Russian "march of democracy" [358]

<>1906jy17:In the style of the Vyborg Manifesto [ID], revolutionary appeals continued from the dispersed groups within the First Duma

<>1906au:Germany | Max Weber published the second installment of his quick study of the First Russian Revolution

<>1906au19:Stolypin & tsarist Council of Ministers composed law on field court-martial squads, empowering them to quell unrest in the countryside [VSB,3:783]

<>1906se:Russian universities reopened after nearly a year in official suspension

<>1906oc03:oc07; Trudoviki held their first Conference in preparation for the Second Duma

Prime Minister Petr Stolypin
stolypin.jpg (32113 bytes)

<>1906no09:Tsarist ukaz outlined ambitious new departures in agrarian reform  [TXT] [VSB,3:803-4 | McC1:142-4 | GDR]

<>1907:1917; Polish-born member of Russian Marxist socialist political party (SDs) Felix Dzerzhinskii (1877-1926) was arrested and sent to Siberian prison and exile for nine years, described in publication of his Prison Diary and Letters

<>1907:Philippine Islands | USA sponsored elections to a national legislature
*--This was the second such elected legislature in all of Asia
*--It was the first such in a client state closely supervised by a patron state (USA)
*--USA was inspired by the Progressive Era at its height

<>1907:Moscow "Religious-Philosophical Society in Honor of Vladimir Solov'ev" formed

\\
*--Florovsky,2:233-83


<>1907:1913; Isle of Capri | Russian émigré author Maksim Gorky produced some of his greatest works = the novel Mother [TXT#1 | TXT#2] and his three-part autobiography which opened with part one, "My Childhood" [Detstvo] and concluded with, "My Universities" [Moi universitety, not completed until 1923]

<>1907:French philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941) published Creative Evolution, an idealist critique of scientific knowledge [CCC2,2:1027-34 | BMC1:594-6 | BMC4:623-6]
\\
*--"[Bergson] was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927. Bergson argued that the intuition is deeper than the intellect. His Creative Evolution (1907) and Matter and Memory (1896) attempted to integrate the findings of biological science with a theory of consciousness. Bergson's work was considered the main challenge to the mechanistic view of nature. He is sometimes claimed to have anticipated features of relativity theory and modern scientific theories of the mind." [Source]

<>1907wi:Elections to Second Duma under way [GDR]

<>1907mr07:1907je03; Second State Duma opened more than a half year after the First Duma was dissolved, and it lasted just under three months before the state dissolved it as well [GDR]

<>1907my12:London | Russian SDs at Congress #5 heard Lenin's report on peasantry [VSB,3:808-9]

<>1907je03:Manifesto dissolving Second Duma [TXT] [VSB,3:787-8 | McC1:47-8]

<>1907je:Hague | Second International Peace Conference

<>1907jy30:(13.7.40 Meiji): Saint Petersburg | Russian-Japanese treaty re. Manchuria, Korea & Mongolia [DIR2:432-4 | DIR3:473-78]
*--In essence, the treaty divided Manchuria into "North Manchuria" under Russian authority and "South Manchuria" under Japanese authority
*--Korea was granted fully to Japan (with "most favored nation" status assigned to Russia). Outer Mongolia was granted to Russia
*--Ernest B. Price, The Russo-Japanese Treaties of 1907-1916 Concerning Manchuria and Mongolia
*--More treaties in Japanese-Russian international relations [DIR2:]

<>1907au18:1919; English-Russian entente lasted 12 crucial years [E-TXT | DIR3:467-72]

<>1907oc15:St.Petersburg director of the Chief Prison Administration A.M. Maksimovskii assassinated by Ragozinnikova [VSB,3:809-10]

<>1907no01:1912je09; Third State Duma, elected according to the new Stolypin electoral law, lasted its full term, four and a half years

<>1908:Root-Takahira agreements

<>1908:USA Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] organized. The struggle against crime was also a feature of the Progressive Era

<>1908jy23:Turkey (Ottoman Empire) | "Young Turks", led by Enver Pasha [W.ID] (1881-1922) and Mustafa Kemal (1880-1938), launched nationalist/reformist movement against old Ottoman elites

<>1908:All-Russian Women's Congress| Anna Kalmanovich speech [BRW:321-4]

<>1908au:London | Russian SRs held First General Party Conference under leadership of Viktor Chernov [VSB,3:810-11]

<>1908se:Austria annexed Yugoslavian territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina [W]

<>1908no:Russian poet Aleksandr Blok seemed to welcome a revolutionary future, though with dread, as he anticipated the destruction of the intelligentsia: "The People & the Intelligentsia" [Raeff3:359-63]
*--Blok took on other interpretive issues in "Catiline: A Page from the History of World Revolution" [RRS:291-320]
*--Blok never let go of his revolutionary fascination and dread
*--Andrei Belyi, another Symbolist poet, wrote on "Revolution and Culture" [RRS:271-90] Some of his essays have been translated
\\
*1979:1980; ENG.OX| Avril Pyman, The life of Aleksandr Blok| v1= The distant thunder, 1880-1908| v2= The release of harmony, 1908-1921 (rich in long translated citations from original sources)

<>1908de29:English financier Lord Furness (Christopher Furness [W-ID] ) delivered a speech excoriating wage-labor unions and extolling virtues of controlling markets by combination of large corporations, monopolies, economic cartels, or, here, "amalgamations" [CCC2,2:795f | CCC3,2:870-6]
*--Three years earlier John P. Davis warned of overweening power of big business = Corporations: A Study of the Origin and Development of Great Business Combinations and of their Relation to the Authority of the State [E-TXT]
\\
*--LOOP on WW1a
*--LOOP on "finance"

<>1909:Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud delivered lectures in USA on origin and development of psychoanalysis [CCC2,2:1061-83]

<>1909:Russian intellectuals published Vekhi [Signposts; Landmarks] a collection of essays critical of the Russian intelligentsia [ID], especially its revolutionary radicalism

<>1909:Lenin published Materialism & Empirio-Criticism [Edie,3:410-36]
*--Prominent Russian philosopher Liubov Akselrod [pseudonym "Ortodoks"], a powerful woman’s voice among Russian Marxists, reviewed Lenin’s essay [Edie,3:457-63]
*--Still an émigré, Lenin had to content himself with philosophical ramblings in isolation from actual politics

<>1909fe12:USA NYC | The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [NAACP] formed
*--[W] describes how the group was "formed by a group of black and white citizens committed to helping to right social injustices"
*--FOUNDERS: Mary White Ovington, Dr. Henry Moscowitz, Oswald Garrison Villiard, William English Walling, Ida Wells-Barnett and W.E.B. DuBois led the "Call" to renew the struggle for civil and political liberty
*--The Progressive Era put attention to racial issues

<>1909+: Cubism introduced in west European painting, with Pablo Picasso playing a leading role

<>1909fe20:Italian newspaper Le Figaro featured "Initial Manifesto of Futurism" on its front page

<>1909fe26(NS):London| International Declaration concerning the Laws of Naval War [E-TXT]
*--Many nations signed, but not one state ratified this effort at transnational regulation of warfare
*--Naval blockade was a widely used tactic in WW1, but England was the most effective practicioner

<>1909jy14:1917jy; German Kaiser Wilhelm II appointed Theobald Bethmann-Hollweg as Chancellor
*--As successor to the high post held earlier by Otto von Bismarck [LOOP], Bethmann-Hollweg guided the German Empire into WW1 and remained in office until near the end of "The Great War"
\\
*--W#1 | Wki
*--Moyer.VICTORY:50-54

<>1909jy25:English Channel first crossed by air| French pilot Louis Blériot described feat [Eye:422-3]

<>1909au03:St.Petersburg| First of four sessions of the Special Council for the distribution of war budget between army and navy, chaired by Petr Stolypin
\\
*--Many historians see this Council as a sign of positive improvement in Russian preparedness for modern war, but Russian historian K.F. Shatsillo sees it very differently ["The Roots of the Armament Crisis in the Russian Army at the Start of World War I", WWI&XXc:206-10] = "As early as 1909/1910, the decisions of the Council planted the roots of the armaments crisis faced by [Russian] ground forces at the beginning of World War I" [clumsy English translation adjusted by SAC editor]
*--Other historians emphasize tensions mounting in the relationship of foreign and domestic politics, at this time particularly connected with reckless Foreign Ministry action with respect to Austria, Bosnia/Herzegovina and the Turkish Straits [ID]. When Prime Minister Stolypin inserted himself into the business usually reserved for Imperial insider-elite foreign-policy and military establishments, he demonstrated yet another positive feature of his tough-minded but reformist policies [E-TXT of Melissa Bokovoi review of McDonald.UNITED praises McDonald's strong interpretation of the relationship of Russian domestic and foreign politics in the years after 1905 and before WW1] =

<>1909oc12:Japanese Prince Ito killed by Korean terrorist, causing Japan to impose an imperialist dictatorship in Korea

<>1910:English journalist and pundit Norman Angell [Wki], in The Great Illusion [E-TXT | Excerpt CCC3,2:1277-96] disputed the possibility that modern warfare could in any way bring benefit to a nation

<>1910:Russian political activist and theorist Moisei Ostrogorskii published Democracy and the Party System in the United States: A Study in Extra-Constitutional Government, based on a vast earlier book, Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties [TXT]

<>1910:Petersburg liberal intelligentsia [ID] defended their cause against the attacks launched the year before by the Vekhi group

<>1910:Russian Bolshevik branch of the SDs -- SDs(b) -- drew up pessimistic platform. They anticipated no Marxist revolution soon [VSB,3:811-12]

<>1910:Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii at the height of his career. He pioneered color photography [TXT]
*1912:Selo Kolchedanskoe (SE from Ekaterinburg, eastern slopes of Ural Mts.), founded 1673 as frontier fortress [color pix by Prokudin-Gorskii]

<>1910ja18:England, Liverpool | Suffragette [a woman fighting for the right to vote] Lady Constance Lytton, disguised as a laboring-class woman, described how police force fed her in the Walton Gaol [jail] [Eye:423-5]

<>1910fe08:USA Secretary of State Philander Knox memo to the Russian state
\\
*--Zabriskie
*1946au:The Far Eastern Quarterly#5,4:461-463  [E-TXT of Albert Parry's informative review of Zabriskie]

<>1910je14:Russian Third Duma passed complicated Stolypin land law, four years after the initial tsarist ukaz [VSB,3:807-8]

<>1910jy07 (4.7.43 Meiji): Petersburg | Russian-Japanese treaty (1912:and 1916:other treaties) [DIR2:434-9]

<>1910au08 (NS au22):Japan annexed Korea. Tension between Japan and China over Manchuria
\\
*--Peter S. H. Tang, Russian and Soviet Policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia, 1911-1931

<>1910no07:Leo Tolstoy died, ending a career of national and international cultural and "spiritual" influence that spanned about a half century
*--Vladimir Chertkov's memoir on the last days of Tolstoy [TXT]

<>1910no07:1920no; Ten years of Mexican Revolution overlapped the years of WW1

<>1911:English labor activist and public intellectual L.T. Hobhouse defended liberalism in its modern evolution toward welfare legislation, Liberalism [CCS,1:803-24]

<>1911:German Social Democratic Party activist Robert Michels became pessimistic about prospects for democracy in modern industrial societies and wrote critically about political parties, A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy [CCS:507-31 | CCS,1:7 897-921]
\\
*--LOOP on WW1a

<>1911:USA abrogated 1832:treaty of Navigation and Commerce with Russia, in part because of Russian treatment of Jews, but also in connection with growing global diplomatic and economic competition between Russia  and USA

<>1911my:1911de; Persian government hired US businessman W. Morgan Shuster [ID] treasurer general in an effort to reform national finances

<>1911my09:Serbia, Beograd | A secret, nationalistic, paramilitary political organization, "Union or Death" [Black Hand (ID)], composed their "Constitution" [TXT]
*--They sought to wrest from Austro-Hungary AND Ottoman Turkish control all territories they considered part of the Yugoslav "national" historical heritage

<>1911my21: At the extreme western edge of AfroAsia [ID] on the Atlantic seaboard, the Second Moroccan Crisis [Agadir Crisis] shook European tranquility

<>1911jy:USA | Great international energy corporation Standard Oil broken into smaller companies

<>1911se01:Kiev opera house, in the presence of Nicholas II, Dimitrii Bogrov, both a revolutionary terrorist and and agent of the secret police, assassinated Prime Minister Petr Stolypin, a premature end to a brilliant seven years at the official center of Russian events

<>1912:Russian avant painter Wassily Kandinsky published Concerning The Spiritual In Art, And Painting In Particular

kandinskii.composition.VI.jpg (29121 bytes)

<>1912:USA election year marked apex of "progressive" movement

<>1912fe12:1949oc01; Republic of China declared by Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925). At least de jure , it lasted 37 years

<>1912fe26:Saint Petersburg | Mikhail Rodzianko, president of State Duma (a member of the Octobrist Party) and loyal subject of the tsar, was brave enough to report to Emperor Nicholas II about the antics of Grigorii Rasputin and the great harm they were doing to Russia

Contemporary cartoon showed
Nicholas II and his wife
in Rasputin's control
Rasputin cartoon.jpg (87878 bytes)

In an entirely other direction, in 1910 the Russian Orthodox Church recorded its liturgical best wishes to the tsar and his family, "Many more years" [Mnogoletie]
At the one-minute mark the deacon wishes good health and long life to the young tsarevich [W]
Another 1910 recording of the Orthodox liturgy [W]

<>1912ap04:Russia experienced widespread labor demonstrations in protest against the massacre of something between 200 and 500 Siberian workers in the gold fields of the Lena River region

<>1912ap27:Russian military was beginning to pull itself out of the 7-year slump that followed the Russo-Japanese War [ID]
*--EG=Decree ordered officers and soldiers of the Russian army in time of war to spare civilians and their properties, to spare the wounded and imprisoned enemy, to  honor the unarmed enemy soldier who sought mercy, and to refrain from plundering the dead [VSB,3:819]
*--This on the eve of an early demonstration of the vicious possibilities of modern total war

<>1912je09:Full five-year term of Third State Duma ended

<>1912je15:Russian judicial reform reinstituted the elected justice of the peace [mirovoi sud] [VSB,3:819-20]
*--The position of the Land Captain in the countryside was weakened, but this widely despised institution continued to function more or less as it had for 23 years

<>1912oc17:1913jy30; European imperialist, colonialist and nationalist crisis in international relations resulted in two Balkan Wars, the actual beginnings of WW1

<>1912no24:no25(NS):Basel (Switzerland)| After the Balkan Wars broke out, the Second International convened an "Extraordinary International Socialist Congress" to deal with impending militarist/imperialist catastrophe. The Congress declared that European wars were no longer national wars but were imperialist wars
*--Manifesto issued by the Congress [E-TXT | Also see B&WW1:79]

\\
*--W. Bruce Lincoln, In War's Dark Shadow: The Russians Before the Great War (1983)
*--Donald M. Wallace, Russia: On the Eve of War and Revolution (1984)
*----------, Russia (LND:1912) [914.7 W155]
*--Masur.BRL, chapter "War and revolution":257-95| Berlin elites did not understand the power of wage-labor [+ agricultural laborers for that matter] and the need for political power to compromise with this new clx
*--MacMillan.ROAD
*--Reynolds.SHATTER
*--Waites.CLASS
*--Blom.VERTIGO bears the 1912 photo below on its cover, as if to illustrate the comment of a contemporary Frenchman, Pierre Loti, when he said, "Today humanity ... sees its evolution accelerating too furiously, just as all things that topple into a deep abyss accelerate" (SAC editor's translation)

1912-Lartigue race car lxt
*1912:Great French photographer Jacques-Henri-Lartigue captured the energetic image of a passing race car
\\
*--Bibliography on the Great War [E-TXT]
*--LOOP on WW1a

<>1912no15:1917oc06; St.Petersburg | Fourth State Duma lasted nearly five years

<>1913:German political economist Werner Sombart published Zur Geistesgeschichte des modernen Wirtschaftsmenschen [A contribution to the spiritual history of modern businessmen, translated into English in 1915 as The Quintessence of Capitalism], combining social science methods with the subtle new discipline psychology [CCS,2:98-125]
*--Sombart began as a "scientific Marxist" but evolved in the direction of Nazi-style nationalism [ID], all this without letting go his desire to be "scientific"

<>1913:Spanish scholar and essayist Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), Del sentimiento trágico de la vida (1921: Eng. translation, The Tragic Sense of Life) [CCC2,2:1096-1104]

<>1913:USA Federal Reserve Act [ID]

<>1913mr01:Pravda | Russian émigré revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, "Historical Fate of the Doctrine of Karl Marx" (on Russia and Asia, among other things) [E-TXT | Excerpts StH:3-5 | KMM:246-7]
*--In this year before the outbreak of WW1, Petersburg police filed ID photo of young revolutionary from Georgia, Soso Dzhugashvili, who would later gain world fame as Joseph Stalin

<>1913mr03:USA, WDC | "Votes for Women", a detail from cover of the Official program - Woman suffrage procession [source]

votes for women.gif (40119 bytes)

<>1913my29 (NS):Paris | Russian composer Igor Stravinsky's ballet, "Rite of Spring". caused riots when premiered [YouTube Joffrey Ballet recreation]

*1912:Paris | Vaslav Nijinsky [Vatslav Nizhinskii or Wacław Niżyński (his parents were Polish)] [Wki]
danced in ballet set to Debussy's "Afternoon of a Faun"
[YouTube | Wki]

Nijinsky Afternoon Faun 1913.jpg (19215 bytes)

<>1913se04:German provincial school teacher, Ernst August Wagner, bludgened and butchered his wife and four chldren
*--He proceeded that morning to have a pitcher of beer at the home of his brother and family
*--He then took the train to nearby Mülhausen where he set fire to four houses
*--Furthermore, with two pistols in hand, he shot 20 people at random on the town streets. Eight of his victims died [Blom.Vertigo tells this story in order to suggest that the distance between these pre-WW1 years and our own time might not be as great as we sometimes presume]
*--Certainly we need to remember stories like Wagner's (above) when we entertain ourselves with the myth of the "long and peaceful European 19th century, 1814-1914"

1914sp:Berlin Frühlings-Schau [Spring Exhibition] poster
This was a fantastic epoch of European high cultural and pop-art creativity

\\
*--Wagar on early 20th-century Russian arts [three-paragraph TXT]

<>1914ja:Russian Prime Minister was again the old establishmentarian Ivan Goremykin
*--Eight months before the outbreak of WW1, power was shifting toward anti-Witte/anti-Stolypin factions, IE=anti-reform, but worse =
*--The Finance Ministry fell into the hands of insider profiteers, ready to rig imperial procurement in ways that allowed large sums of state revenue to flow into their pockets
\\
*--LOOP on "finance"

<>1914fe:Russian statesman Petr Durnovo memo on futility of war with Germany [TXT | GRH:3-23 | Excerpts = VSB,3:793-8 | DIR2:450-66 | RRC2,2#42]
*--The reactionary old police official and ex-Interior Minister was at the end of his career, but he saw that the Russian Empire might also be at its end
*1914my10:Compare Durnovo's memo with conservative Duma member N.E. Markov's speech in the Duma which encouraged patching up relations with Germany, and which warned of the unnatural and unreliable quality of "Russian/English friendship" [GRH:24-8]
\\
*--JGO article E-TXT

<>1914mr13:St.Petersburg evening financial newspaper with wide circulation ran a confidence-building piece "Russia Wants Peace, but is prepared for war" (possibly written by War Minister V. A. Sukhomlinov) [GRH:190-2]
*--In just over a year, Sukhomlinov was dismissed, brought down by court intrigue [GRH:233-7]

<>1914ap:USA CO, Ludlow mining region | US troops opened fire on striking miners and their families temporarily housed in an encampment set up by the Rockefeller Co. The episode came to be known as "The Ludlow Massacre"
*--This US military attack on US wage-labor was commemorated in a song written by Oklahoma-born folk singer Woody Guthrie [E-TXT | SOUND SNIPPET]

<>1914je28 (NS):Yugoslavia, Sarajevo (a possession of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) | Heir to the Austro-Hungarian imperial throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian nationalists
*--Borijove Jevtic, a conspirator in the plot, described events [Jevtic's memoir does not take up on the following webpage until headline "A Royal Murder" [F/], but you might consider the remarkable presumptions embedded in the editorial introduction -- the secondary commentary to Jevtic's memoir E-TXT | Eye:441-4]

<>1914jy29 (NS):Paris| Last meeting of the International Bureau of the Second International

<>1914jy31: London Stock Exchange, the most important financial center in the world, was forced to shut down for the first time in its history. A week-long economic crisis forced this closure as markets collapsed. Global financial crisis and WW1 loomed simultaneously
*--The financial crisis ran parallel with the diplomatic crisis described above [ID]
*--What is the best way to explain the relationship between these two crises?
\\
*--Roberts.SAVING
*--LOOP on "finance"

<>1914au01:1918mr; World War One represented the fourth big booted step of global European imperialist militarism back home to Europe itself [ID]

<>1914au03:British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey said, "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime"

<>1914au04 (NS):Berlin | Hugo Haase, the influential leader of the largest political party in Germany, the Social Democrats, delivered a speech to the German Reichstag [parliament]. He tried to explain why his party seemed to reverse itself and vote for war credits in support of the German Imperial Army as WW1 broke out [CWC:83-7]

<>1914au08(NS):Russian State Duma met in special session. Three memoir accounts of this extraordinary patriotic session [VSB,3:831-3] =

  1. French Ambassador Georges Maurice Paléologue
  2. Mikhail Rodzianko
  3. Pavel Miliukov

<>1914au09:All-Russian Union of Cities founded at a congress of city mayors in the first days of WW1, suggesting (falsely) that urban political culture might strengthen under conditions of modern total war [GRH:130-2]

<>1914au:Belgium on the Western Front and Russia on the Eastern suffered early brutal defeats

<>1914se03:Paris ordered evacuated (prematurely) [W]

<>1914se03:Ottoman Turkey (still a neutral power in WW1) announced termination of all "Capitulations" in the defense of "sovereignty of the State" [HDE,2:2-3]
\\
*--Rogan.FALL
*--LOOP on Ottomans
*--LOOP on Southern Front

<>1914se09:German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg outlined German war aims in which the treatment of neighbor nations, both on the European battlefield and after victory, resembled German treatment of its imperialist domains in Central Africa [BNE:208-11]

<>1914se22:German submarine attacks extended the modern battlefield under the sea [W]
\\
*--Wki

<>1914fa:German WW1 effort enhanced by creation of Kriegsrohstoffabteilung [KRA or Wartime Raw Materials Division], a hybrid civilian/military institution

<>1914no05:Petrograd | Five Bolshevik deputies in Fourth State Duma were arrested

<>1914no10:Belgium, first battle around the town Ypres resulted in startling casualties on all sides
*--YouTube footage
*--For German veterans in the post-WW1 years, this event was mythologized and made into a sacred moment of German militaristic valor [EG]

<>1914no:Italy appointed Sidney Sonnino Minister of Foreign Affairs
*--Sonnino was disposed to see Italy's interests best served in alliance with Central Powers
*--However, he realized that Austro-Hungary was unlikely to concede certain Adriatic coastal territories to Italy
*--Therefore Italy shifted into alliance with France, Great Britain and Russia
*--Major combatants along the Southern Front of WW1, EG=Italy, Bulgaria, Turkey, were slow and unstable in their movement toward commitment to one side or the other in the expanding WW1 conflct

<>1914de11:French soldier George Morillot was killed in action. He had prepared a letter home in case this happened =

If this letter comes into your hands it will be because I am no more and because I shall have died the most glorious of deaths. Do not bewail me too much; my end is the most to be desired. Speak of me from time to time as of one of those men who have given their blood that France may live and who has died gladly.
\\
*--Quoted in In Maurice Barrès [ID], The Undying Spirit of France (1918), a collection of soldiers' letters home from the front, illustrating nationalistic views, often like the above in which the individual dissolves the self via blood sacrifice into that great emotional European cognitive abstraction, "the nation" so that "the nation" might live. Thanks to Richard A. Koenigsberg for sharing the quotation

<>1914de25:Troops on Western Front decided on their own to declare a brief and touching "Christmas Truce" [Eye.WW1:66]

<>1915:1916; Petrograd | Police surveillance on Rasputin revealed ribald details in the everyday life of the Empress'favorite holy man [VRX:21-56]
\\
*--Elem Klimov historical film about Rasputin, Agoniia

<>1915:German (Czech-born) writer Franz Kafka published "The Metamorphosis" [TXT]

<>1915:London | An elite, insider group of English public men formed "The Round Table"

<>1915:1917; Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud delivered series of lectures at the University of Vienna which came to be known as his General Introduction to Psychoanalysis [CCS:73-113 and CCS,1:213-53, also includes some later general descriptions by Freud. Other Freud texts in BMC1:611-17]
*--Freud also began to address everyday life questions about broader public issues, EG= "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915) [CWC,9:155-75 | CCS:179-200 | BPE:617-36]

<>1915ja18:Japan confronted China with 21 demands [RWP1,3:224-8]
*1915mr15:USA Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan responded
*1915my11:Bryan outright rejected Japanese intentions in China and reaffirmed "Open Door" policy

<>1915ja19:ja30; German air attacks on ports in East Anglia extended the modern battlefield into the skies. Submarine attacks at sea continued

<>1915fe:Russian soldiers of the 437th Chernigov Infantry Brigade appealed for an end to the awful war [RWR:9]
*1915:1917; Excerpts from Russian soldiers'letters intercepted by censors give immediate sense of battlefield experience [RWR:11-14]

<>1915wi:Austro-Hungarian armies seriously depleted and battered over the more than three months of 2-front winter-time campaigning
*--In one direction on the Eastern Front, they moved northeasterly in poorly coordinated union with German imperial forces against the Russian Empire
*--1915mr17:Russians captured critical fortress city Przemysl in Galicia ["right-bank Ukraine"] [Wki w/ YouTube video | Eye.WW1:81, 109]
*1915de:Allies retreated under pressure from Russian forces in bitter winter war along Carpathian Mt. passes [Eye.WW1:136-46]
*--In another direction on the Southern Front, Austro-Hungary moved in the direction suggested by recent decades of expansionist ambition [EG] into Serbian and other Slavic territories
\\
*--Tunstall.BLOOD

<>1915fe19:Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov communicated Russian expectation to gain control over Istanbul and the Turkish Straits at the successful completion of the war [full set of exchanges between Russia, Britain and France on this vital geo-political point in HDE,2=7-11]

<>1915mr18:English-French attack on Ottoman Turkish Empire, a WW1 ally of Germany and other Central Powers


2016ja:Yerevan airport poster [photo by Bob Berdahl]

<>1915ap22(NS): Germans the first to use poison gas on the Western Front in the early hours of the unending Battle of Ypres
*--Engineering sciences and industrial technology contributed to modern warfare [Wki#1 & Wki#2 describe the battlefield]

<>1915ap26(NS): Italy signed secret Treaty of London with Allies, after flirting with both sides in the Great War (much like the Ottoman Turks)
*1915my23(NS):Italy declared war on stumbling Austria-Hungary only after receiving from England and France promises of great territorial rewards along the Southern Front [treaty E-TXT]

<>1915my27:Russian Congress of War Industries Committee formed to promote entrepreneurial cooperation with the imperial state in wartime mobilization of the Russian economy. The requirements of modern total war were becoming clear to all, however belatedly

<>1915je01 (?my31NS?):London| Germany spread its internal-combustion engine powered dirigible balloon attacks from the continent to the English island -- the famous Zeppelins could now jump the Channel

<>1915je14:Emperor Nicholas II, from GHQ on the Eastern Front, dispatched "rescript" to the President of the Council of Ministers, Goremykin, urging intensification of the work of a Special Commission, made up of members of the legislative institutions and representatives of industry, to achieve adequate wartime mobilization of the Russian economy [GRH:121-3 | ]
*--The absence of basic governmental policies regarding wartime mobilization contributed to the deterioration of economic and social conditions [GRH:179, 181-5]
*1915au30:Over two months later, the sluggish machinery of state got underway with specific measures [GRH:123-4]
\\
*--Gatrell.WALKING

<>1915jy:Russian wartime home-front economic mobilization aided by formation of Zemgor

<>1915au:Russia | WW1 was now one year old, but only now was a Special War Council created to address needs for wartime mobilization [GRH:123]
*--In Russia and elsewhere, military mobilization in WW1 was a central component in the rise of military-industrialism as a 20th-century transformation of now global trends in economic modernization
\\
*--Murray N. Rothbard, a major "Liberatarian" political theorist and macro-economist, wrote "War Collectivism in World War I" [E-TXT]

<>1915au12:Russian State Duma Chairman Rodzianko appealed to the tsar to reconsider his decision to relieve and personally replace Grand Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich as commander in chief of Imperial Russian forces. For a year, Russian high command was in extreme disorder [GRH:194-212]

<>1915au17:Russian universities dealt with admission of women [BRW:192-3]

<>1915au24:au27(se05-se08 NS):Switzerland| (First) Zimmerwald Conference of Europe-wide Social-Democratic Party leaders [B&WW1:309-70]

<>1915au25:Russian State Duma faction, Progressive Bloc, issued a strong anti-governmental program [GRH:134-40]

<>1915se03; Autocratic Russian state suspended [prorogued] the State Duma

<>1915se07:se09; Moscow Congress of Representatives of Provincial Zemstvos

<>1915se09+:Russian War Industries Committee and Association of Industry & Trade gave a boost to lagging official wartime mobilization [VSB,3:841-2 | GRH:124-9]
*--Two Zemgor resolutions [GRH:149-52 | DIR3:517-19]
*--Zemgor showed vigorous public effort to aid wartime mobilization and bitter resentment toward official obstruction of that effort

<>1915se16:Russian Prime Minister Nikolai Shcherbatov, new to the office since June 5th, reported on "very tense" public reactions to the 1915se03:State Duma prorogation [GRH:152-4]
*--Ten days later Shcherbatov was himself dismissed

<>1915se26:1916my03; Aleksei Khvostov, a member of the Black Hundreds and leader of rightist factions in the Fourth Duma, was appointed Interior Minister [GRH:227-32]
*--Khvostov diverted huge sums from the state treasury, cutting into wartime budgets, supporting cronies and their radical rightist publications
\\
*--LOOP on war & Revolution

<>1915se29:USA loaned $500M to England and France [W]
*--The financing of modern war took its dimensions from the giganticism of the second industrial revolution
*--Among the many fronts of WW1, there was certainly a looming financial battlefield of unprecedented proportions

<>1915oc:German socialist journal Der Kampf [The struggle] published Social Democrat Rudolf Hilferding's "Co-Partnership of Classes?" [CWC:87-102 (8x11)]

<>1915oc18:1918se30; Bulgaria belatedly entered WW1 when it declared war on Serbia [Eye.WW1:128-33]

<>1915no:Russian sailor rebellion [VRX:57-70] Military morale plummeted [GRH:220-6]

<>1916:Russian author Andrei Belyi published his novel Petersburg, a powerful piece of political fiction which explored in most creative ways the meaning of the 1905 Revolutionary period. Does the novel reflect the realities of WW1 every bit as much as those of the 1905 Revolution?

<>1916:Swiss Protestant theologian, a leader of a "neo-orthodox" movement in his church, Karl Barth delivered an address "The Righteousness of God" [BMC1:667-70 | BMC4:664-7]. Is there any way to think of Belyi (above) and Barth as representatives of war-time culture?

<>1916ja31:The Great Zeppelin Raid showed that the heavens could be an effective battlefield in the industrial age
*--The Zeppelin showed the potential of military technology in a most astonishing way [W]

<>1916wi:As the Gallipoli disaster wound down [ID] and as the Battle of Verdun opened [ID], English diplomat Mark Sykes began significant discussions with French counter-part François George-Picot about joint war aims along the Southern Front

<>1916fe05:Switzerland, Zurich | Hugo Ball, German avant-garde theater director, opened the Cabaret Voltaire and demonstrated that culture could also be a battlefield

<>1916fe21:Battle of Verdun [W] opened and raged for weeks

<>1916fe:German journal Die Frau [The woman] published Max Weber, "The Laws of the Gospel and the Laws of the Fatherland" which sought to explain why Germany had to worship the god of war, in the name of a great nation's destiny, and why at different times one might worship the god of the Sermon on the Mount [CWC:151-5]

<>1916fe:Russian Prime Minister Goremykin relieved of duties, his long career now at an end

<>1916ap:At sea, Adolf K.G.E. von Spiegel described successful U-Boat attack on a steamer [Eye:457-9]

<>1916ap24:ap29 (NS); Ireland, Dublin General Post Office, headquarters for a week-long rebellion against English imperialist rule [Eye.WW1:178]

<>1916ap24:ap30 (NS); Kienthal in Switzerland| Second "Zimmerwald Conference" of European progressive (largely socialist) activists and parties who were taking a stand against WW1 [B&WW1]

<>1916ap23:1916se21; Russian Grand Prince Nikolai Mikhailovich wrote seven remarkable letters to his Emperor and kinsman, Nicholas II, in which he urged creation of a high-level, blue-ribbon commission to begin planning for the end of the war and the creation of a New Europe [GRH:63-77 (my05 to oc04 on NS calendar)]
*--This was a rare moment. As WW1 approached its third year, very little efforts were being made among Allies or Central Powers to formulate shared war aims
*1916jy26:Kherson guberniia|Grand Prince Nikolai Mikhailovich also tried to inform the tsar about conditions in rural villages near along the lower reaches of the Dnepr River [Ditto:179-81]

<>1916my31:je01; British and German navies, with the great industrial-era battleships at the center of action, squared off against one another on the North Sea near Jutland [Wki with MAPS]
*--The battle was essentially a draw, with slight military advantage going Germany's way
*--But losses were so great that the German battleships never ventured in sortie again
*--The great battleship arms race that contributed to the outbreak of WW1 came down to this, but =
*--The submarine warfare continued, under and on the oceanic battlefield

<>1916je:Russian Central Asia| After tsarist decree ordered military conscription of male Islamic youths, wide-spread anti-imperialist and anti-Russian rebellion arose
*--Ottoman military and political leader, Enver Pasha, rose to leadership of a pan-Turkish movement in these areas, stretching over AfroAsia
\\
*1991:|>Paksoy,NV| " 'Bashmachi': Turkistan National Liberation Movement, 1916-1930s" [E-TXT F/Enver Pasha/]
*--Sokol.REVOLT

<>1916jy:Russian Bolshevik leader Lenin issued his widely influential pamphlet "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" [E-TXT | CCC3,2:1079-88]

<>1916jy01:1916no18; English and French troops began the tragic Somme offensive [W]

<>1916jy:USA journal Atlantic Monthly #118:86-97 ran Randolph Bourne's critique of the idea of "assimilation" and defense of a more pluralistic or multi-cultural approach to citizenship, "Transnational America" [E-TXT]

<>1916au27: Romania entered the war on the side of the Allies, fighting mainly in Hungarian-speaking western regions
*1916oc: Romanian army medical officer described the battlefield [Eye.WW1:243-5]
*--Within four months the German army had shattered Romanian forces

<>1916oc01:London | Michael MacDonagh described bringing down a German Zeppelin L31 [Eye:467-9]
*--The battlefield extended into civilian urban settings via mechanized and industrialized new types of military hardware

<>1916oc:Okhrana police report on conditions of Russian everyday life [Florinsky,End:133-7,143,165-7,191,214-15 | DRR:8-12]
*--More on Russian wartime economic conditions [RWR:23]
*--French ambassador to Russia, Maurice Paleologue, described a nasty Russian demonstration against their Allies (and that included France) [Eye.WW1:249]
*1916no01:Russian liberal oppositional leader Pavel Miliukov spoke before the State Duma [GRH:154-66 | McC1:88-90 | VSB,3:870 | RWR:24-7 | ]. He said,

When the Duma declares again and again that the home front [IE=everyday life] must be organized for a successful war and the government continues to insist that to organize the country means to organize a revolution, and consciously chooses chaos and disorganization -- is this stupidity or treason?
Voices from the left of the hall answered Miliukov's rhetorical question = "It's treason!". Miliukov continued,
In the name of our responsibility to those people who elected us, we shall fight until we get a responsible government which is in agreement with the three general principles of our program. Cabinet members must agree unanimously as to the most urgent tasks, they must agree and be prepared to implement the program of the Duma majority, and they must rely on this majority not just in the implementation of this program, but in all their actions
Miliukov clearly linked the sorry fate of the domestic political home front with the sorry fate of the international Eastern Front of WW1

<>1916no19:Russian State Duma reacted with enthusiasm to delegate Vladimir Purishkevich's impassioned general critique of wartime government conduct and to his sensational attack on Rasputin [GRH:166-75]

<>1916no25:Petrograd everyday life conditions described by police [1992no29:MNe#48:4]

<>1916de:Russian rural conditions described in a letter by Grand Prince Nikolai Mikhailovich to Emperor Nicholas II [DIR3:519-21]

<>1916de:London | First issue of Russian Co-operator: a Journal of Co-operative Unity appeared with brief history of Russian cooperative movement since 1865 [VSB,3:842-4]

<>1916de14:Congress of the Nobility issued sharply critical resolution on political conditions on high [GRH:177-8 | DIR3:521-2]

<>1916de16:Petrograd basement of Prince Feliks Yusupov's palace| High-ranking conspirators, led by the dashing Prince, murdered Rasputin [RWR:27-30]
*--This was the end of Rasputin's four years of mischief at the highest tsarist level
\\
*2016de31:BBC News| "How was Russian mystic Rasputin murdered?" [E-TXT]
*--fontanka.ru| "Как убивали Распутина" [E-TXT with rare fotos]
*--Klimov's film AGONIIA portrays the murder in graphic and tense detail

*--LOOP on war & Revolution

<>1916de19:English government took over shipping and mining in order to maximize efficiency of military mobilization

<>1916de25:On Christmas Day Russian Emperor Nicholas II appealed to the troops to stand firm against Germany and Austria-Hungary [GRH:51-3]

<>1917:German industrialist and public figure Walter Rathenau published Von kommenden Dingen [In days to come] [E-TXT | CCC3,2:928-36]
SAC editor recommends the following passages from the E-TXT =
ch#2:49-60 ("The Goal")
ch#3,pt#1:111-28 ("The Way of Economics")
ch#3,pt#3:184-7 and 229-86, esp. 261 to the end ("The Way of the Will")

<>1917ja07:Nicholas II issued a Special Order of the Day [DIR3:522 | GRH:51-3]. Central Powers had put out peace feelers, but Nicholas had no interest in them. Nicholas replied =

Germany declared war and attacked Russia and her Ally France at the most unfavorable moment for them. But now these two countries are supported by noble Italy and powerful England. They have been fortified by the struggle. They are able in their turn to enter into peace negotiations with Germany when they consider the time favorable for them. This time has not yet come: [1] the enemy has not yet been expelled from the provinces they have seized; [2] Russia has not yet attained the aims created by this war -- [2.a] the possession of Tsargrad [Constantinople] and the Straits, and [2.b] the formation of a whole and independent Poland out of its three existing but as yet separate parts [ID] is still not assured

<>1917fe:French troops in the trenches on the Western Front grew restive and soon were in open rebellion against the dreadful war

HERE'S A PEAK AHEAD =

<>1917no30:de04:Oklahoma City OK, USA| Almost one century after these wintry days of WW1, contractors began remodel four classrooms of Emerson High School [lxt]. When they began to pull away the old white-boards, they made a startling discovery. Beneath rested another set of chalkboards -- untouched since 1917. Protected and undisturbed, the century-old writings and drawings looked like they were made just yesterday

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