<>1680:1730; Southern New World colonies (future USA) | In this half century, black slaves became the backbone of a profitable agricultural economy tightly connected with growing world markets for tobacco and slaves
*--Over the previous century and a half, economic globalization entered world history and expanded dramatically

*--LOOP on "Imperialism and Revolution"
*--LOOP on Slavery

<>1682ja12: Mestnichestvo [ancestral hierarchy among noble state servitors to the tsarist throne in Moscow] was abolished [VSB,1:238-40]

<>1682ap14:Old-Ritualist Archpriest Avvakum burned at stake on orders of Orthodox Church

<>1682ap27:Russian tsar Fedor died. Several weeks of dynastic disorder followed before Sofiia was proclaimed Regent, ruling in the place of the two young heirs, Peter and Ivan
*--Bushkovitch:80-125 (on era of Fedor)

<>1682my15:my19; Strel'tsy [Musketeers] [ID] rebelled [VSB,1:240-1]
*--The great Boyar diplomat Artamon Matveev was killed in this rebellion
*--Bushkovitch:49-80 (on Matveev and the rebellion)

<>1682je:1689se; Sofiia reigned as Regent for youthful co-tsars Ivan V (her brother) & Peter I (her half-brother) for seven years

<>1683:Vienna, capital city of the diminished Austrian Empire, came under siege by Ottoman Turks but survived with difficulty

<>1685:Siberian Amur River valley | Albazin ostrog [frontier fortress] created
*--Albazin was a bold and unprecedented projection of Russian Voevoda power into the Amur River basin
*--Tensions between the Chinese Empire and Russia mounted in SE Siberia

<>1686:Poland and Russia settled long conflict. Vasilii Golitsyn played a key diplomatic role

<>1687:Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy founded [Slaviano-greko-latinskaia akademiia or SGL; original name = Ellino-grecheskaia akad.] [VSB,1:248]

<>1687:England | Isaac Newton published Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica

<>1689ja:1689fe; English Convention Parliament issued two declarations that constitute what the English like to call "The Glorious Revolution" [W#1 | W#2]=
(1) Parliament declared

That king James II, having endeavored to subvert the constitution of the kingdom by breaking the original contract between king and people, and by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of the kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is vacant

(2) Parliament issued "The Declaration of Rights" which established the "true, ancient, and indubitable rights of the people of this realm", especially that any law issued or suspended without the consent of Parliament was henceforth illegal [TXT]
*--500 years of general European exploration of various notions of deliberative and/or representative assemblies, "parliaments" reached a certain apex at this point, though the history of parliaments was far from complete

<>1689au27:Siberia | Nerchinsk Treaty signed by Russia & China [DMR2:331-3]

<>1689se:1695; Regency of Sofiia replaced by regency of Peter I's mother

<>1690mr17:Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Joachim issued testament [VSB,2:361-3]

<>1692:New World colonies (future USA) MA Salem witch trials targeted certain women accused of being in league with Satan; result: a score of "witches" executed

<>1694:1696; tsar Peter I and Ivan V co-tsars for two years under regency of Peter's mother

<>1696:1725; tsar Peter I assumed sole authority upon death of Ivan V and reigned for 29 years

<>1697:Siberia | Russian frontier/imperialist expansion to Kamchatka Peninsula [g] [DC&V,2 (documents cover 1700:1797)]

<>1697mr:1698su; Russia sent a large delegation, "the Grand Embassy", to visit west European capitals [g], led by Lefort and including tsar Peter as lowly ensign

<>1697:Netherlands, Amsterdam| French philosopher Pierre Bayle had to publish his massive and influential, but very controversial, Dictionnaire historique et critique [Historical and Critical Dictionary] in Amsterdam where he had been forced into religious exile from his homeland [UO library holds an abridged English translation]
*--Russian tsar Peter I also in a sense fled to Amsterdam to see the emerging new world up close
*--Many Europeans were distressed by "the Westernization" of "The West", but young tsar Peter was not. Au contraire [to the contrary -- as we are about to see]
*--W#1 | W#2

<>1698su: Strel'tsy [Musketeers] rebelled [DIR2:1-12 | DIR3:1-13] causing Peter, once back from Vienna, to respond in a decisive and cruel fashion

<>1699:tsar Peter I gave Nev'ianskii zavod [factory] in Urals to Nikita Demidov
*--Demidov was a famous Tula area blacksmith, a commoner whose talents appealed to Peter
*--Demidov took Peter's grants of mines and metallurgical factories in Siberia, developed them, became rich, and was ennobled by Peter

<>1699:1700; First intense period of Russian tsar Peter's radical "dress code", grooming laws, and other behavioral regulations

<>1700:Moscow | At the death of Adrian, Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, tsar Peter refused to allow appointment of a replacement
*--In this year tsar Peter did reform the Russian calendar, replacing the old Orthodox calendar with the Julian Calendar [DIR3:14]
*--Now secular Russia was at least in the same century and almost always in the same year as the other European nations
*--While the Julian Calendar was more in line with European norms, Europe was at this time moving away from the Julian Calendar in favor of the Gregorian
*--Every century the Julian Calendar fell one day behind the Gregorian, and as of 1700 it was eleven days behind [more on Russian calendar]

<>1700:1721; Sweden and Russia fought the "Great Northern war" for 21 years

<>1702:Moscow | Japanese castaway Dembei [ID] met tsar Peter, who greeted and hired him to teach Japanese

<>1702de16:Saint Petersburg Vedomosti [News] became first Russian newspaper [BL&T:50f]

<>1703:Saint Petersburg declared the new city to be the new capital of a new Empire [W] [VIDEOTAPE+05449]
*--Tsar Peter I shifted from the old heartland capital Moscow to the shores of the Gulf of Finland and fast by the Baltic Sea [g]
*--Peter opened his "window to the West", and the Petrine transformation was in full swing [DIR2:12-21]
*--But the Great Northern War delayed construction of the new capital city for two decades

Petersburg | The Stock-Exchange embankment on the Neva River
SPB birj.jpg (19462 bytes)

<>1705:+; Bashkir steppes again animated by a movement to promote Muslim grandeur

<>1707mr25:Russian decree against peasant serfs fleeing their villages and obligations [DIR2:125 | DIR3:139]

<>1709je27:Russia, on the southern frontier (Ukraine), 200 miles SE from Kiev (!!) [g], near the city Poltava | Russia delivered first decisive military defeat to invading Swedish armies

<>1710:English envoy Charles Whitworth described Peter [VSB,2:316]. Other first-hand accounts [321-6]

<>1711:London | "South Sea Co." was chartered

<>1711fe22:Russian tsar Peter I issued a short ukaz =
"WE appoint the governing Senate to administer in OUR absence" [VSB,2:336-7 | Russian TXT PiB 11,1:100 | DIR3:15]
*--Tsar Peter just then set off to the south, deep within Russian territory, on a campaign against the so-far very successful invading armies of the powerful early-modern "Western" monarch, Swedish King Charles XII, who was now teamed up against Russia with a new Ottoman Turkish ally

<>1713:1714; Kuril Islands (stretching out to sea from the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula toward the NE corner of the Japanese island Hokkaido [g]) explored by Russian adventurers. They made land fall on Sakhalin Island [Sansom,WWJ:212]

<>1713:Russian political-economist Fedor Saltykov wrote Propozitsii [Proposition]

<>1714:Saint Petersburg | Peter I decrees on building of new capital [BL&T:16]

<>1714fe14:By decree, Peter I made education compulsory for the Russian nobility [DIR3:15]

<>1716fe:1717oc; tsar Peter I made his second European tour (CF=first great trip abroad)
*--Tour lasted one year and nine months! That's a long time for an early modern absolute monarch to be away from the homeland throne
*--The first months were in German-speaking central Europe, the winter of 1716-1717 in The Netherlands and Belgium, and the spring in France
*--The "Aleksei crisis" drew Peter back from western Europe
*2017je22:Novaia gazeta | "Пётр Первый в розлив из бочки. В Бельгии отпраздновали трехсотую годовщину великого посольства Петра Первого в Европу [E-TXT]
*2017:Russia Beyond | "The first Romanov political exile: How Peter the Great's son fled Russia" [ E-TXT]

<>1716:London | John Perry published The State of Russia under the Present Czar[sic] covering events and personalities between 1689-1712, including information on the Volga-Don Canal project [W-TXT | Excerpts = VSB,2:316-20 | RRC2]

<>1717:Russian Vice-Chancellor (high diplomatic post) Petr Shafirov, who was a close confidant of Peter I, published Discourse Concerning the First Causes of the War between Sweden and Russia [DK136.S45+1]

<>1717de11:tsar Peter I, fresh from his second European tour, decreed new imperial administrative institutional reforms [VSB,2:337-8]

<>1718je:Tsar Peter I authorized (and probably took part in) torture and death of his son Aleksei [DIR2:25-30 | DIR3:28-33 | More correspondence of Peter and Aleksei, etc.= VSB,2:338-41]

<>1718:Neva River-Volga River canal project which stretched along the banks of Lake Ladoga [g] (begun in 1702), moved into final phase
*--Menshikov was put in charge with the usual meager results
*--After 1721, the project was handed over to Burkhard von Münnich. He completed the task, but not until after Peter's death

<>1719de10:Peter I issued decree on College of Mining
*--Others followed in which the state chartered private enterprise in heavy industrial sector [VSB,2:354-5 and 357-8]
*--Economic as well as institutional modernization were all a part of the Petrine plan, but every action was under the pressure of war-time crisis
*--As the Great Northern War wound down, the Petrine transformation was able to extend its reach into neglected areas of "civilian" or non-military need
*--Florinsky,1(13) deals with the war and the economy under Peter
*--Raeff:89-92 summarizes Peter I's economic policies

<>1720:1722; Siberia, SE slopes of the Ural Mountains, at edge of Bashkir steppes | Governmental official, Vasilii Tatishchev, founded & directed factories and mines

<>1720:Saint Petersburg described [BL&T:17-18]

<>1720fe28:tsar Peter I issued the General Regulation which reformed government procedure
*--Peter denied himself and his Senate the authority to issue verbal laws
*--Only written laws would henceforward be recognized as legitimate

<>1721:Siberian port city Okhotsk [g] was the point of departure for a Russian expedition to find Japan via Kuril Islands [SHJ, 3:202]
*--In these years, 1719-1721, Ivan Evreinov and F. Luzhin completed a geological and cartographic exploration of Kamchatka and the Kuril islands at the furthest NE extreme of Siberia

<>1721ja16:Peter I decree on municipal administration [VSB,2:346 and 355-7]
*--This reform built on early efforts that had slackened during wartime
*--Peter returned again to this important institutional/administrative project again before his death

<>1721ja25:Peter I issued "The Spiritual Regulation" for the administration of the Russian Orthodox Church [KM.S759 | Excerpts = VSB,2:370-1 | KRR:334-6 | DIR3:34-42]

<>1721au20:Sweden and Russia ended the "Great Northern War" with Nystadt Treaty [VSB,2:342| ORW:11]

<>1721oc22:Petersburg Trinity Cathedral | Russia commenced formal celebration of the Nystadt Treaty and victory over Sweden

<>1722:Russian theologian and imperial political advisor Feofan Prokopovich, "Sermon on Royal Authority.... [Raeff3:14-30 | VSB,2:342-3]

<>1722ja24:Systematic categories of state service set by a formal, institutional Table of Ranks [VSB,2:328-9 | DSD,2:4-14 | KRR:228-9 | DSD,1:4-14 | DIR2:17-19 | DIR3:19] =

  1. civilian
  2. military
  3. church
  4. royal court

<>1723:1727; Frenchmen Bernard Picart and Jean Frederic Bernard produced the massive 7-folio-volume Religious Ceremonies of the World...

<>1724:Russian political-economist and state servitor (of peasant origins) Ivan Pososhkov (1652-1726) wrote a critical analysis of Russian problems and submitted it to Peter I = Book on Poverty and Wealth [HN523.K56613+1] (written a half-century before Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations but not published until 1842) [Excerpts = VSB,2:326-7 and 358-61 | KRR:312-18 | DIR2:31-6 | DIR3:42-49]

<>Peter's economic policies in two decades of mercantilist war exhausted Russia

<>1725:Bashkir lands contained state zavody [factories] worked by 5422 male serfs. Russia exploited Bashkir steppes in support of economic modernization

<>1725:Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences founded after Peter’s death, but on a plan he ordered [VSB,2:368-9 | DIR2:19-20 | DIR3:21-2 |BL&T:108]

<>1725ja28:1762je28; Russia entered a 37-year ERA BETWEEN "GREATS" from the death of Emperor Peter I "the Great" until Empress Catherine II "the Great"

<>1726fe08: Supreme Privy Council [Verkhovnyi tainyi sovet] for a short while became the central autocratic authority [VSB,2:377]

<>1727:Siberia | Kiakhta Treaty between Russia and China continued cooperative relations among these two powers on the Siberian frontier

<>1728:Moscow | Bashkir delegation led by Yarnei Yanchurin
*--Bashkir steppe brought under more regular Russian administration when Ufa guberniia was separated from Kazan
*--Ufa region called "provintsiia" under authority of Senate
*--Population there not required to render military service

<>1730ja19:Russian Senatorial party, led by Dmitrii Golitsyn, imposed "Conditions" on Empress Anna [TXT] [Raeff2:44-52 | VSB,2:378 | DIR2:36-43 | DIR3:49-56]

<>1730:Bashkir lands in western Siberian steppes [g] administered by A.P. Volynskii who opposed the idea of an independent territory. He was antagonistic toward the Muslim faith, but his concept was at heart imperialist rather than religious. He built more fortresses, refurbished old. Mapped the region. Exploited Bashkir territory, claiming the right of a superior civilization over the civilization of Islamic "infidels"
*--Michael Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 [DK43.K485]

<>1730c:Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula [g] | Russian Academy of Sciences explorer Stepan Krasheninnikov described indigenous rebellion observed during the first Kamchatka expedition [Lensen,Eastward:30-3]
*--Stepan Krasheninikov, Explorations of Kamchatka, North Pacific scimitar; report of a journey made to explore eastern Siberia in 1735-1741, by order of the Russian Imperial Government [DK771.K2K813+1]
*1731:1733; Ivan Kirilov organized second Kamchatka expedition, revived Petrine mercantilist concept. Closer to home =
*1731:Petersburg-Lake Ladoga canal, started by Peter I, was finally completed

<>1732:Russian government ordered Vitus Bering to explore Siberian waters for Japan
*--It was made clear that Asia terminated in the far NE at the shores of the straits now called "Bering Straits" [DIR3:143-7]

<>1734:1737; Siberia, southern Ural Mountains [g] | Vasilii Tatishchev was dispatched to create more zavody [factory strong points]

<>1736:Persian (Iranian) Safavid dynasty at an end

<>1736ap25:Russian decree against fleeing peasant serfs [DIR2:125-6 | DIR3:140]

<>1737:Siberian Department established by the Russian state to administer imperialist expansion to the Pacific Ocean
*--Bering and Steller charted the northern Siberian coastline

<>1737ap14:Siberia, Orenburg | Kirilov dismissed. Later directors of the Orenburg Expedition in Bashkir territory =
*1737:1739; Vasilii Tatishchev
*1739:1742; V.A. Urusov [noBrE]
*1742:1744; I.I. Nepliuev (44:60; Governor)

<>1738:Russian ballet school founded in Petersburg

<>1738:Bering's first expedition into Siberian waters in search of Japan. It was slow going, but then =

<>1738:1739; Russia and Ottoman Turkey at war, ending in the Treaty of Beograd [Serbia, Belgrade]
*--Russia gained dominion over the northern Black Sea coastline

<>1741:1745; Lower reaches of the Volga River, at the western edge of the Bashkir steppes, near Tsaritsyn (Volgograd; Stalingrad] [g]) | Astrakhan Governor Vasilii Tatishchev "pacified" Kalmyk people. Tatishchev was a severe but able Siberian frontier administrator whose career spanned two decades

<>1741:1762; Russian Empress Elizabeth [Elizaveta] [VSB,2:381-8 | DIR2:44-50 | DIR3:57-63] reigned for 21 years

<>1741jy:Russian expedition [lxt], commanded by Vitus Bering, made Alaskan "new world" landing on small island within sight of Mt. St. Elias

Alaska: A shared frontier

1895:Alaska, Sitka | St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Church

<>1742ja02:Russian Senate issued decree appointing missionaries to Kamchatka to convert the Kamchadal people to Orthodox Christianity [DIR3:147-8]
*1742:Siberia, southern piedmont of the Ural Mountains | Orenburg fortress moved to today's location where it quickly became the command center for Russian SE military frontier and imperialist expansion

<>1744:ORN gbx fnd on basis of ORN.xpd. Nepliuev,IvIv (x.ORN.xpd dtr) now 1st gbxor. Main authority over BSH & KZX [KIR] steppe. Nepliuev sought mfg & skz clnists "no pri etom on vstreqal prepyatstviya, gluboko korenivwiyasya v togdawnem obwwestvennom i gosudarstvennom stroe Rossii. Kolonizatsiya rus. okrain vsegda wla pomimo pravitel'stva i daje v razrez s ustanovlennymi im poryadkami....". clnists usually were "gulyawwie lyudi" IE:fugitives, beglye frm srfom txx mlt.srv & rlg. gbxor cldn't condone this. SO 1st sought friendly TTR or Xtx.Kalmyks. KZN TTR~ better bcs of INX in trd. Built water mills, cotton & plant soroqinskoe pweno. cldn't attract RUS (merchant)--too bdn, but also RUS grd.pbl buduqi obyazany otpravlyat' raznye povinnosti i slujby, kotorye oni nesli vsem mirom, vsyaqeski protivilis' vyxodu iz sredy svoei soqlenov, tak kak vyxodom odnix neminuemo uveliqivalis' tyagoty ostal'nyx. ?Parallel w krp in oxo?. gtx more sig., but "eto byli elementy, ves'ma maloprigodnye dlya vneseniya v dikii krai naqal grajdanstvennosti i promywlennosti" [?very best? Australia?] Ttw wanted to welcome fugitives but not allowed to do so; only UKR fugitives allowed but 1742:SPB TSR ElizPetr stopped acceptance of UKR fugitives [BrE, 5:228??]

<>1746ja13:Ukz motivated by Nepliuev=All nepomnyawwix rodstva & gnt allowed gt.ORN to rcv lnd & 3y xmt frm txx & mlt.srv. Nepliuev tried to free grn frm stt, but to prevent monopolies (!?) These bought srf~ to wrk zvd~:
Miasnikov (merchant)
Tveryshev (merchant)
Sivers (merchant)
Shuvalov graf

<>1749:1754; ORN Menovoi dvor & Gostinyi dvor fnd. txx.trf.tUt there for trd w/KZX & CAS

<>1747:French provincial political theorist Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu [W] published his most important political tract, De l'esprit des lois [The Spirit of Laws] [W] [excerpts]

<>1751:TIBET under Chinese imperialist authority
*--Secular government of Tibet abolished in favor of reign of the Dali Llama and his spiritual council.

<>1753oc13:Russian Senate Ukaz supported 1746ja13:Ukaz in support of Nepliuev's effort to protect the Islamic Bashkir indigenous votchina [patrimony] and its native peoples from imposition of Russian military obligations and Orthodox Christianization [PSZ#10141 |  1871:RAr#4-5. Nepliuev zapiski]

<>1755:Moscow University established according to Ivan Shuvalov proposal [VSB,2:388-9; BL&T:112f]
*--In these years "Russian" high culture -- a Russian secular civilization -- was born
*--Raeff4:131-58 summarizes intellectual life, 1682-1825
*--Marc Raeff, Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia: The Eighteenth-Century Nobility (1966)
*--J. L. Black, Citizens for the Fatherland: Education, Educators, and Pedagogical Ideals in Eighteenth Century Russia (East European Monographs no. 53, 1979)
*----------. G. F. Muller and the Imperial Russian Academy (1986)
*--J. L. Black, ed. Essays on Karamzin: Russian Men of Letters, Political Thinkers, Historians, 1766-1826 (1975)
*--Hans Rogger, National Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Cambridge MA:1960

<>1755:Russian scholar Mikhail Lomonosov (-1765), Russian Grammar

<>1755:Saint Petersburg | In the face of increasingly complex budgetary needs of an expanding empire, a new tax structure [Tamozhennyi ustav] introduced, replacing Ordyn-Nashchokin’s 1667:Novotorg.ustav [ID]

<>1756:1763; New World, within English and French colonial holdings (future USA and Canada) along the great northeasterly tending St.Lawrence River and the upper tributaries of the westward tending Ohio River [MAP] | The armies of two west European imperialist monarchies, England and France, fought the "Old War" (often called the French and Indian War). This conflict should be thought of as the New-World front in the broader European Seven Years War

<>1760oc:Russian armies captured Berlin [g] as the Seven Years War intensified

<>1760de13:Russian gentry landlords empowered by decree to exile troublesome serfs to Siberia [VSB,2:391]

<>1762:Swiss-born French-language philosopher, social theorist and musician Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712:1778) published his most mature and influential piece of political analysis, Contrat social [The Social Contract]

<>1762fe07:Peter III began "emancipation" of gentry [pomeshchik noble landowners] from obligatory state service [VSB,2:391-2 | DIR2:55-8 | DIR3:69-72]
*--Manifesto on freedom of nobility [KRR:230-2 | DSD,1:28-35]
*--Twenty years later, Catherine II took bolder and more elaborate steps to address the problems embedded in Russian social/service hierarchies, especially those of the service-shackled nobility

<>1762je28:1796; CATHERINE II "THE GREAT" [Ekaterina Velikaia]

*--John T. Alexander, Catherine the Great: Life and Legend ["ACG" hereafter | DK170.A58]
*--Isabel de Madariaga, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great [DK171.D45]
*--Marc Raeff, ed. Catherine the Great: A Profile (1972) [SUMMIT OSU]
*--Raeff:69-76 compares Peter I's and Catherine II's institutional reforms
*--David Ransel, The politics of Catherinian Russia: the Panin Party [DK169.P3R3]
*--Kazimierz Waliszewski, The Romance of an Empress: Catherine Second of Russia [reprint of famous anti-Russian, misogynist biography | DK171.D45]

<>1762jy03:Catherine's first official act was against the wide-spread peasant presumption that Peter III's emancipation of nobles from state service meant that peasants need no longer serve their landlords

<>1762de28:Russian statesman Count Nikita Panin penned influential memos on imperial governance [Raeff2:54-68]
*--Catherine II waged a struggle against corruption [VSB,2:451-2]

<>1763jy22:Catherine II invited foreigners (largely German-speaking Mennonites) to settle in Russia north of the Black Sea (the Pontic steppes) and along the middle Volga [W#1] [W#2]
*--Volga Germans [W]
*--Mennonites [W] [VSB,2:450-1]
*--Germans from Russia genealogical website [W] Germans from Russia Heritage Society [W] Kansas Historical Society site [W]
*--Sidney Heitman Germans from Russia in Colorado Study Project [W]
*1974:Norman Saul four-part internet article on Mennonites in Kansas [W#1] [W#2] [W#3] [W#4]

<>1764:Catherine II confiscated Russian Orthodox Church lands

<>1764:Fedor Emin published his Moral Fables

<>1764:Russian Empress Catherine II, instructions on functions of Prokurator-General [DSD,1:36-43]
*--In this same year, she purchased a fabulous collection of art and created a museum connected with the recently completed Winter Palace in Petersburg. She named the museum the "Hermitage" [W]

<>1765:English ambassador described Catherine II [WRH]

<>1765:Russian Free Economic Society [VEO] founded
*--VEO sponsored essay contests on questions like serfdom [VSB,2:461-2]. VEO once awarded a prize to an essay which recommended emancipation of serfs
*--Statistics about the Russian rural economy of the 18th century [KRR:268-72]
*--Arcadius Kahan, The Plow, the Hammer, and the Knout: An Economic History of Eighteenth-century Russia (1985) [HC334.K25]

<>1765ja17:Russian decree on exile & hard labor for peasant serfs [VSB,2:453 | DIR2:126 | DIR3:141]
*--This year the Senate gave instructions on potato growing [VSB,2:452-3]

<>1766de14:Russian Empress Catherine II decree established a Legislative Commission [VSB,2:405-6]

<>1767jy19:Catherine II issued her Nakaz [Instructions] to the Legislative Commission [TXT | DSD,2 | Briefer in RRC2,2:252f | VSB,2:403 | DIR2:64-88 | DIR3:79-94]

<>1767:Honda Toshiaki(1744:1821; ) orx'd scl which reflected his interest in sea nvy mth NDR lng, esp.problems of Hokkaido. Went to sea in North, in command of small coastal vessel. pst on shipping, zpd conditions, natural resources. \Keisei Hisaku\(Secret Plan of Government) proposed stt control of mfg, trd, shipping. Also MPR plan, colonization. Opposed JPN closed ekn, favored irx.trd, esp. w/RUS. Supported construction of sea-going merchant marine [Sansom, WWJ:232] A "zpdik" so to speak

<>1767:Russian Orthodox Church’s monastic property nationalized and clergy became civil servants

<>1767au22:Catherine II's Senate issued decree prohibiting complaints by serfs [VSB,2:453-4]
*--In these years Russian serf-owning gentry aristocrats issued instructions on management of everyday life on their estates [VSB,2:441-9 | KRR:292-4 | DSD,1:89-110] =

*--Catherine's au22 decree is sometimes taken to represent the lowest point in the history of serf legislation
*--Robinson,ch1 (Serfdom and peasant wars) & ch2 ("The triumph of the servile system")
*--Blum:442-74 describes the various forms of serf obligation owed officials and gentry elites, including the two main forms =

<>1768:1774; Ottoman Turks and Russia at war

<>1769:1772; Russian publisher Nikolai Novikov wrote satirical pieces for his journals, Truten' [The Drone] and Zhivopisets [The Artist] [VSB,2:462-4]

<>1770:1771; Kamchatka Peninsula | Moritz Alader Benyowsky (various spellings) Hungarian political refugee, fled by sea, put in at Ryukyu Island

<>1771:Moscow urban disorder in connection with the plague [KRR:318-21]

<>1772:England decided that slavery at home was not supported by English law
*--Soon England's 15,000 slaves would be free
*--It was another half century [ID] before England backed away from its own, and took a hostile position against others', lucrative "off shore" slavery
*--William A. Pettigrew|_Freedom's Debt: The Royal AFRICAN company and the Politics of the Atlantic Slave Trade (2013) explores the question of contradiction between English liberalism and the 3-century long English involvement in the global slave trade, concentrating on the early 17th- and 18th-c history of the transnational overseas Royal African Co.
*--LOOP on "Slavery"

<>1772:Paris | Encyclopédie; ou, Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts, et des métiers, [Encyclopedia; or Rational Dictionary of Scholarship, Science, Arts and Crafts], the great publication project of the European Enlightenment came to completion in 28 volumes (soon supplemental volumes and an index were issued), under editor Denis Diderot

<>1772:1775; Poland experienced the first of three partitions at the hands of Prussia, Austria and Russia [DIR2:89-93 | DIR3:100-103]

<>1773mr02:USA Boston | Lamps fueled by whale oil for the first time illuminated streets

<>1773oc05:1774mr23; Siberian frontier fortress Orenburg under siege by rebel army commanded by Russian Old Ritualist Cossack Emeliano Pugachev

<>1773de12:Russian imperial decree against Pugachev [WRH| DIR2:94-6 | DIR3:104-106]

<>1774jy10:Ottoman Turks and Russia signed Kuchuk Kainardji treaty [VSB,2:406-7| DIR2:97-107 | DIR3:107-113]

<>1774jy20:Pugachev issued an "Emancipation Decree" [DIR2:96 | DIR3:106]

<>1774au01:Nizhnii-Novgorod region | Local serf described disturbance [VSB,2:456-7]

<>1774au23:Tambov provincial official report on Pugachev uprising [VSB,2:457-8]

<>1774se05:oc26(NS); Philadelphia | Beginning of American Revolution. Representatives of twelve colonial states (Georgia did not participate) organized nearly two-month long Continental Congress to protest English mistreatment
*--The revolutionary Continental Congress sought from England redress of grievances, but revolutionary war for colonial liberation broke out before the Second Continental Congress could hold its scheduled meeting (below)

<>1774se15: Russian rebel Pugachev was captured. His officers' testimony [VSB,2:458]

<>1774de19:Catherine II issued manifesto "concerning the crimes of the Cossack Pugachev" [VSB,2:458-9]
*--Pugachev was dispatched, but the fear of Pugachev (the pugachevshchina) persisted

<>1775au03:Catherine II abolished the Zaporozhian Sech' [VSB,2:459-60]
*--Russian state cracked down on Cossacks
*--Cossack autonomy was a victim of Pugachev rebellion
*--An exciting 200-years of precarious Cossack independence on the southern Russian Ukraine was at an end

<>1775no07:Russian reform of provincial administration created the "guberniia" [province] system [VSB,2:410-11| KRR:242-4| DSD,1:136-57] Catherine abolished the harsh and corrupt voevody (for three centuries, voevody were largely responsible for military-style government in frontier provinces) in favor of what appeared to be a more rational system of civilian government. It still might be said however that her goal was to place more responsibility for public order on provincial officials, thus to overcome her weak position beyond the capitals, as shown by early successes of Pugachev rebellion
*--Pugachev taught at least this = The closest imperial or frontier domains had to be "governed" as part of the Empire, not just "ruled" as colonial possessions. Russian foreign policy had to become more subtle and complex


<>1776:1871; Era of "European Revolutions" (95 years)

<>1776:Scotland (Great Britain) | Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, [ E-TXT#1 | #2 | #3 | #4 ]

<>1776jy04(NS):1791de15; English New-World colonies | Fifteen most intense years of revolution began with the Declaration of Independence [E-TXT]

<>1777se:Russian publisher Nikolai Novikov wrote editorial in the first issue of his Masonic journal Utrennii svet [Morning Light] & an essay on education [Raeff3:62-86 | More Novikov in BL&T:59,117f]
*--Isabella De Madariaga, Politics and Culture in Eighteenth-century Russia:150-67 on Russian Masonic movement [DK127.D4+1]
*--Florovsky,5:148-56,170-5 critique of Freemasonry

<>1778:1779; English cleric William Coxe traveled in Russia and described his observations of everyday life [VSB,2:423-8]

<>1778:1779; Swiss-born scholar, philosopher and theologian Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) published Stimmen der Völker in Liedern [The Peoples' Voices in Their Songs]

<>1778:Hokkaido, Notkome (Nokkamapu, E of Nemuro) was the point where Russians landed on Hokkaido, met with Matsumae servitor Araida Daihachi, gave gifts, and requested establishment of trade relations

<>1779my:Russian aristocrat, high state servitor, and author Denis Fonvizin [ID], "Ta Hsüeh: Or that Great Learning which Comprises Higher Chinese Philosophy" & other political essays [Raeff3:88-105]

<>1780:Russian Empress Catherine II (the Great) sponsored "League of Armed Neutrality" to mediate the English-French war & protect American Revolution from European powers. Beginnings of a century of amiability between Russia & USA
*--Clarence Manning, Russian Influence on Early America [E183.8.r9m25]
*--N. N. Bolkhovitinov, The Beginnings of Russian-American Relations, 1775-1815 [E183.8.R9B613]

*--LOOP on American Revolution

<>1780s:1840s; For more than a half century, Central Asian territories -- the Caucasus Mountains & Turkestan -- were the goals of Russian imperialist expansion

<>1781:Prussian [German-speaking] university city Königsberg [ID] was the academic home of Professor Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) who in this year published his monumental philosophical work Kritik der reinen Vernunft [Critique of Pure Reason]

<>1782:USA| Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer [TXT]
*--See especially Letter #11 from "A Russian Gentleman"
*--The hearty yeoman farmer was much extolled on these pages in a time of colonial rebellion in the name of independence from mercantilist exploitation

<>1782:1783; Aleutian Island Amchitaka | Daikokuya Kodayu (1751:1828) and crew of 17 thrown off course transporting rice from Ise to Tokyo. They drifted 8 months before being cast ashore and transported by Russians to Siberia

<>1783:Russian law on independent press created the possibility for Nikolai Novikov to become a great publisher and to broaden the outreach of a maturing and brilliant aristocratic-servitor high culture

<>1783ap08:Russian annexation of Crimean Peninsula represented further incursions into territory within the Ottoman Turkish sphere of influence [Big 1200-year LOOP on Crimea]

<>1783my03:Catherine II extended serfdom into Ukrainian territories [VSB,2:460]

<>1784:Alaska, Kodiak Island | Grigorii Shelikhov, great Siberian fur trader, established first Russian new-world colony and trade depot

<>1785:1812; Second phase of the "whale-oil age" [first]

<>1785ap20:Russian Empress Catherine II issued her Charter for the nobility and Charter for the towns. She considered issuing a Charter to state peasants

<>1786:1791; English New-World colonial Revolution moved out of its more famous military phase and through the crucial 5-year civilian political and institutional phase, the actual American Revolution

<>1786au05:Catherine II decreed ambitious educational reform [VSB,2:464-5 | DIR3:118-121, with 1782:1800; Statistics on Russian education]

<>1787:1788; Siberian & Russian travels of John Ledyard, _John Ledyard's Journey…, 1787-1788: The Journal and Selected Letters [DK23.L36]

<>1787:1792; Russian imperialist expansion southward provoked war with Ottoman Turks

<>1787:Mikhail Shcherbatov [ID], "Petition..." and "Pace of Russia's Modernization" [Raeff3:50-60]

<>1787:Russian bride Avdot’ia Bogdanova's dowry expressed qualities of a noble woman's everyday life [KRR:354-6]
*1796:Varvara Bakunina accompanied her husband, a commander in the Persian (Iranian) campaigns, and wrote valuable memoirs of the campaign [DRW:216-20]
*--Description of everyday life of Russian court in these years [VSB,2:418-21]

<>1788ja19:Australia at Botany Bay | First English fleet landed, "transporting" political and civil criminals to "assignment" [forced labor]. Settlement of Australia began

<>1789je08:USA Revolutionary leader James Madison's speech proposed amendment of the Constitution by the addition of a "Bill of Rights" [TXT] [W]


<>1789:English scholar and powerful social theorist Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals & Legislation [TXT]

<>1789:Japan, Ezo [Hokkaido] | Last great Ainu rebellion. Matsumae authority extending over the large island

<>1790:English politician and political theorist Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France [E-TXT], became perhaps the most important and enduring statement of English conservative political ideology

<>1790se04:Russian Empress Catherine II issued decree punishing Russian state servitor and political theorist Aleksandr Radishchev (-1802) for his _Journey from Saint Petersburg to Moscow [HN525.R313| Partial TXT] [Excerpts: RRC2,2:261f | VSB,2:467-8 | DIR2:112-24 | DIR3:122-35]

<>1791de29:Ottoman Turks ceded northern shore of Black Sea to Russia in Jassy Treaty, ending five years of war
*--Prussia and Russia soon teamed up to attack Poland
*--Russian imperialist expansion showing success in the south and west

<>1792:English writer, Mary Wollstonecraft, inspired by the French Revolutionary Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen [ID], published her pioneering assertion of women's rights, Vindication of the Rights of Women [E-TXT]
*--Wollstonecraft later married English radical anarchist William Godwin
*--She was an early representative of the new era's self-supporting writing professionals, and she left a large body of published work

<>1792:Tibetan Dali Llama now appointed by Chinese authorities. Independence of Tibet now and for the next 200+ years compromised by the aggression of several expansive great powers

<>1792fe:European monarchist Old-Regime military intervention into the French Revolution, led at first by Austria and Prussia
*1792ap20:France declared war on Austria and a growing number of allied anti-revolutionary Old-Regime monarchies
*--Into the winter the sloppy war went first one way, then the other
*1792:1798; 6-years of revolutionary "War of the First Coalition"

<>1792ap13:Russian Empress Catherine II ordered police to search the Moscow home and rural estate of publisher and social activist Nikolai Novikov

<>1792se21(NS): Paris| The French Revolution now toppled the divine monarch, King Louis XVI, and put him under arrest
*--Purposeful monarchical "subjects" struck a mighty blow against the European political/institutional Old Regime which had flourished from medieval times and especially over the 150 years since the Thirty Years War [ID]
*--Not just kingly power but the whole Old-Regime social structure was under assault as well
*--Something like this happened 150 years earlier in England [ID]. How much like this? In what ways different? [EG of a most influential answer to these questions]
*--Earlier English war and revolution had more limited Europe-wide implications. Now the French Revolution shook "The West" to its roots
*--LOOP on war and the French Revolution

<>1792su:1793sp; Okhotsk Sea down Kuril Islands to Hokkaido at Nemuro, then to Hakodate by sea, then overland to Matsumae headquarters | Russian explorer and diplomat, Lieutenant Adam Kirillovich Laksman (1766-1796?) led an expedition organized by Laksman's father and supported by Catherine the Great

<>1793:English theorist Jeremy Bentham, Manual of Political Economy [Bentham E-TXTs]

<>1793ja10:Russian Empress Catherine II first learned of execution of French King Louis XVI [Eye:250]
*--Catherine soon issued a decree severing relations with France [VSB,2:422]
*--Old-Regime Europeans characterized the next years as an era of political "terror", and so did the French revolutionists
*--French Revolution moved into to a phase of war and export revolution
*--Andrei Lobanov-Rostovsky, Russia and Europe, 1789-1825 [DK197.L6]
*--LOOP on war and French Revolution

<>1793mr27:Russian decree announced second partition of Poland (cooperatively with Prussia) [VSB,2:422-3]

<>1794:1925; Persia was ruled by the Qajar Dynasty
*1794:1896; The first century of Qajar Dynasty [TXT] preceded the era of Iranian (Persian) modernization [SAC LOOP picks up in early 20th-c Iran]

<>1794:Tokyo. Katsuragawa Hoshu interrogated castaway Daikokuya (793jy:GO). Daikokuya a bright person, praised by FRN navigator Lesseps, uncle of Ferdinand, so had much to say. Wrote Kratkie... (Hokusa)[pdg] [Togawa"Russian and Slavic:4-5]. K=mdx (6th mmb of K fmy appointed mdx to shogun), tgt at Tokugawa mdx.scl Igakukan, & svt of zpd, esp.Hollands [Dutch]. ~~Dejima factory mdx Peter Thunberg & trade commissioner Izaak Titsingh. K interviewed NDR~~ bfr interrogation, so had knowledge. K~~Maeno Ryotaku & Sugita Gempaku, 1st trans. of anatomy kng, Kulmus, Johann Adam a Netherlands version of Anatomische Tabellen, Ontleedkundige Tafelen (1793) = Kaitai shinsho (1774) [KEJ, 4:173. PH&G:265]

<>1794:USA CN New Haven | Eli Whitney and his partner, a plantation manager from GA, began manufacture of the first practical cotton gin, bringing industrial methods to the great international cash crop of the slave south. Look at an animation of the cotton gin at work [W]
*1798:Whitney built a firearms factory nearby. Muskets could now be "mass produced" with standardized and interchangeable parts. Whitney thus helped consolidate the Hamiltonian vision of a strong USA manufacturing economy, linking the industrializing northern states with the agrarian southern states, but independent of other national economies and closely coordinated with, and in defense of, USA national goals
*--It is vital to remember that USA was a nation-state newly liberated from imperialist domination. England was the number-one enemy and threat to USA, and remained so for another century [ID]

<>1794: Russian/Ukrainian spiritual philosopher Grigorii Skovoroda died at 72, leaving fascinating manuscripts [Edie,1:17-62]
The introduction to the several selections in Edie says that Skovoroda

taught an epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical dualism which he nevertheless attempted to unify within a "pantheistic" conception of the invisible and necessary law of Nature which is God. It is clear that, even though he was a profoundly religious thinker whose chief inspiration was the Bible, his philosophy is highly "unorthodox" in the several senses of that word. According to his biographer, V. Ern, he spent his life in "mute, unconscious opposition" to the official Church. Zenkovsky says his thought shows a sympathy for paganism (and for Plato's "erotic" anthropology) which is not found in any other thinker of his day. When Skovoroda puts the "soul's peace" above every other consideration, he means to include the ecclesiastical as well as the secular institutions of his time

<>1794fe05 (NS):Paris | Leader of the French Revolutionary Committee of Public Safety, Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794), delivered a speech explaining and defending its "reign of terror" [E-TXT]

<>1795:Poland suffered third and final partition,, despite vigorous military-revolutionary resistance of Polish forces commanded by General Tadeusz Kosciuszko

<>1795:1834; English "Speenhamland Law" obstructed creation of a free wage-labor market, even as industrialization rushed ahead

<>1796se16:Russia | Nearing the end of her 34-year reign, one of Catherine II's last acts was a decree on censorship [VSB,2:469]
*--Censorship was a major target of Aleksandr Radishchev's critical-reformist book Journey [TXT]


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