<>1796no06:1801; Death of Russian Empress Catherine II followed by brief (5-year) and most curious reign of Paul I

<>1796de:1797wi; Irish uprising, led by "United Irishmen" against British occupation, failed when heavy winter storms prevented French Revolutionary armies, 13,000 strong, from making a sea landing at Bantry Bay to engage the British in support of the armed uprising
*--Ireland was but one of several areas of Europe coming under influence and even direct control of French revolutionary power
*--The rise of Napoleon to high command in France over the following 18 years (until 1814) moved the French Revolution into its distinctly military, expansionist and imperialist phase

<>1797:1804; Haiti, a French colonial possession in The New World, was gripped in wide-spread and eventually successful slave revolt

<>1797ap05:Uchrezhdeniia ob imperatorskoi familii [Institutions of the Imperial Family] Emperor Paul and Empress Maria issued decree on succession to the Imperial Throne [VSB,2:473 | DIR3:137-9]

<>1798:Indonesia, a group of islands stretching over 2000 miles west to east, cluttering the sea routes between the Indian and Pacific oceans, came under Dutch governmental administration when the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie [United East India Company, aka VOC and in English almost always called Dutch East India Company ("Dutch" is the standard English misnomer for the adjectival form of "Nederland; the Netherlands) ]. In this year, VOC was liquidated and its assets "nationalized" by the Netherlands government [W-ID]

<>1798:Etorofu Island, off the eastern shore of Hokkaido at the southern end of the Kuril Islands | Russians landed, planted the Orthodox cross, drove claim stakes with Russian inscriptions, and placed other indications of possession

<>1799:Hokkaido | Takataya Kahei (1769:1827) volunteered as aid to Kondo Juzo, Tokyo's agent there, to explore and survey Etorofu Island and check on Russians

<>1799my08:Siberia | Irkutsk was the first headquarters of the Russian-America Company

<>1799:Russian/Ukrainian statesman, with Cossack military family background, Prince Aleksandr A. Bezborodko composed memo on reform [Raeff2:70-74] "O potrebnostiiakh imperii rossiiskoi" [GRV:115-9]

<>1799no09 (NS; 18 Brumaire according to French Revolutionary calendar): Revolutionary France now ruled by Napoleon as First Consul

<>1800:Scotland, New Lanark | Robert Owen (1771-1858) came from Manchester, England, to Scotland to purchase local cotton mills

<>1801ja18:Caucasus Mountains southern slopes | Georgia [Gruziia] made a protectorate as Russian frontier and imperialist expansion reached ever more boldly southward, without hindering expansion to the east
*--D.M. Lang,. A Modern History of Georgia. London:1962

<>1801:1825; Russian Emperor Alexander I reigned for a quarter of a century

<>1801ap02:Alexander I issued a manifesto abolishing the Secret Chancery [rudimentary secret police created even before Catherine's reign] and transferred its authority to the Senate [VSB,2:481-2]

<>1802jy:USA Delaware | French émigré Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817) and his son constructed the Brandywine powder works

<>1802se:Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin (-1826), "The Book Trade and the Love of Reading in Russia" and other essays [Raeff3:107-16 | KRR:412-14 | DIR3:165-74]

<>1802se08:Russian statute established Ministries and laid out ambitious plan for Senate [VSB,2:483-5 | KRR:256]

<>1803:1808; Martha and Catherine Wilmot give women's view on travel and everyday life in Russia, in their Russian Journals [Excerpts = WRH3:232f]
*--Anna Evdokimovna Labzina, Days of a Russian noblewoman : The memories of Anna Labzina, 1758-1821 [Excerpts = KRR:370-6]
*--More everyday life in the memoirs of F. F. Vigel' [VSB,2:510-13]

<>1803ja26:Alexander I issued preliminary directive on reform of public education [VSB,2:485-6]

<>1803fe20:Russian law created a new social estate, Free Agriculturists, and seemed to promise easing of serfdom, as well as other social reform [VSB,2:486-7 | DIR2:140-1]

<>1803ap30: USA doubled in size as result of "Louisiana Purchase" [W] from France

<>1804:1806; Russian Emperor Alexander I correspondence with Thomas Jefferson [TXT letter #1]

<>1804:Russian thinker Ivan Pnin, "Essay on Enlightenment...." [Raeff3:126-58]. The Enlightenment guttered still against the rising darkness

<>1804oc07:Nagasaki | Rezanov arrived on the ship Nadezhda, captained by Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern [Krusenstern, Adam Johann von]

<>1804de09:Alexander I decree reaffirmed Jewish "Pale of Settlement" created by Catherine II after the annexation of Polish territories [ID]
*--Alexander I now added other measures, some reformist, some not [VSB,2:487-8]

<>1805de02:Austrian town Austerlitz the site of a great Napoleonic military victory over Russia and Austria
*--Coalition of England, Russia and Austria having little success against Napoleon

<>1806:England imposed "Continental Blockade" on Napoleon's Europe and, step by step, all Napoleon's allies
*--Wars were becoming "global" because national economies were becoming global

<>1806:Holy Roman Empire (after 1000 years of stuttered existence) destroyed by Napoleon
*--His next big target would be yet further east in Europe = the Russian Empire [ID]

<>1807je25:Russian Emperor Alexander I and French Emperor Napoleon signed alliance at Tilsit [VSB,2:488-90 | DIR2:142-52 | DIR3:175-83]

<>1808+: French political theorist Charles Fourier (1772-1837) published Théorie des quatre mouvements
This and later works made Fourier one of the most influential radical thinkers of his epoch

<>1808:1832; Weimar Germany| Writer and cultural impresario Johann Wolfgang von Goethe publish his most famous work, Faust [PWT2:115-17]

<>1808:USA and Russia initiated formal diplomatic relations

<>1809mr23:Finland fully absorbed into Imperial Russia [VSB,2:490]
*--Finland was granted its own constitution, suggesting that the Emperor might be open to the thought of constitutional reform in Russia itself
*--Frontier and imperialist expansion was now mainly shaped by Napoleonic contingencies

<>1809oc:Russian minister Mikhail Speranskii issued his bold project for extensive institutional reform [Raeff2:93-109 | VSB,2:490-3 | DIR2:153-7 | DIR3:184-90]

<>1810:USA CA Fort Ross founded by 95 Russian colonists who were expected to help supply the Russian Pacific-rim enterprises of the Russian-America Company
*1812:Russian-America Co. signed an agreement with Spanish officials to lease territory around Bodega Bay, not far north of San Francisco Bay
*--USA-Russian economic relations intensified in the heat of the Napoleon wars [Saul,1:25-27, 111-32]
*--USA vessels carried 20% of all exports out of Saint-Petersburg

<>1811:Nikolai M. Karamzin published Memoir on Ancient and Modern Russia: A Translation and Analysis [Excerpts: RRC2,2#23 | VSB,2:495-7]
*--Russian E-TXT
*--Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789-1790: An Account of a Young Russian Gentleman's Tour through Germany, Switzerland, France and England
*--J. L. Black, Nicholas Karamzin and Russian Society in the 19th Century (1975)

<>1811:1815; Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) occupied by English forces
*--Overseas imperialist corporations reacted to the globalization of European politics in the Napoleonic era
*--Indonesia provides but one of many examples of how Napoleonic wars were not unlike the "world wars" of the 20th century

<>1811mr01:1849au02; Egypt ruled for over 38 years by Albanian-born Islamic warrior, visionary and modernizing leader Muhammad Ali [W ID]

<>1811jy11:Japan, Kunashiri Island | Vasilii Golovnin landed to make amends for 1807:raids

<>1812:German brothers Grimm published Kinder- und Hausmaerchen [Children's and Home Tales]

<>1812jy06:Russian Emperor Alexander I issued proclamation of war with French Emperor Napoleon [DIR2:158-9 | DIR3:191-2 | WRH3:249-56]
*--MAP = Napoleon's central European empire on eve of war with Russia
*--Dominic Lieven, Russia Against Napoleon: The Battle for Europe | This book brackets events between Tilsit [ID] and the Congress of Vienna [ID]. First 59 pages, then pp. 215-41 and 449-528 are recommended for those who seek a "quick read". On Rumiantsev:69-72. On Barclay de Tolly:124-32

<>1812au26:Russians defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Borodino
It looked like Revolutionary French Emperor Napoleon was about to rule and to transform all of Europe, west, east, north and south

<>1813se:Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada during the War of 1812. Tecumseh [W], a brilliant Shawnee Native-American chief, orator, and warrior at the Battle of Tippecanoe, shown below being fatally shot by Colonel Johnson

Death of Tecumseh
[Rotunda Frieze of the US Capitol, Washington DC]

<>1813:Japan | Golovnin released with help of Takataya. Much mutual information exchanged in this tense but salutary confrontation [KEJ,6:341]

<>1813:Azerbaijan, Daghestan and Georgian territories taken from Iran (Persia) and absorbed into the Russian Empire according to the stipulations of the Treaty of Gulistan [MAP#1 | MAP#2]
*--Baku, an important Azery port city on the western shores of the land-locked Caspian Sea, later a world-significant oil depot, came under Russian authority [W]

<>1814mr30 (NS):Paris | Russia led allied European forces into the French capital

<>1814no01:1815je09 (NS); Austria | The Congress of Vienna met for over six months in an attempt to set Europe straight after the disruptions caused by French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic imperialism within Europe itself

<>1814:1825de14; Russian activists, many of them ex-officers in Alexander's armies that occupied Paris, took inspiration from the role of "liberator" that Russia had just played and, on the other side of the ledger, grew increasingly alarmed as Alexander I and his government lost its reforming zeal

<>1815:Nikolai Karamzin, History of the Russian State (12 vols.) began to appear [Raeff3:117-24]
*--Karamzin had been a dominant figure in Russian cultural life for more than a decade, but his influence was being superseded by a more radical form of progressive patriotism as represented by "Decembrists", whose love of Russia insisted on moving "forward" rather than venerating the past
*--Wagar on Karamzin [TXT]

<>1815:Russian Finance Minister Dmitrii Gur'ev, "Ob ustroistve verkhovnykh pravitel'stv v Rossii" [GRV:144-50]

<>1815ja:1817my08; Hawaii, Kauai Island, Waimea River | Russian Fort Elizabeth established

<>1815se14(NS=26):Paris | Austrian Emperor Francis, Prussian King Frederick Wilhelm, and Russian Emperor Alexander I signed agreement creating the "Holy Alliance" [VSB,2:499-500 | DIR2:161-2 | ORW:66-7]

<>1815no15:Poland received constitution from Russia (i.e., those territories of old Poland taken by Russia in the three partitions [ID]) [VSB,2:500-2 | DIR2:164-73 | DIR3:196-9 | ORW:70-1]

<>1816:1821; Russian military leader and loyalist General Aleksei Arakcheev administered "military settlements" [voennye poseleniia] in the Russian countryside

<>1816:English Parliament formed a committee to look into the national scandal of child labor and related social abuses caused by rapid industrialization. An era of English reform opened

<>1817:England | James Mill published The History of British India which gained him a permanent appointment with the India House, the managerial headquarters of the East India Company

<>1817:1832; Alaska | Colonial Russian America: Kyrill T. Khlebnikov's Reports
*--These were the years of increasing hardship for the Russian colonies and the Russian-America Company

<>1817:1819; USA FL | Seminole wars
*--Major documents relating to USA foreign affairs prior to 1898, including many treaties signed between USA and Native Americans peoples [W]

<>1818:1872; Over this critical half century, Pacific deeps were now crossed by USA whalers sailing out of New Bedford CN and Nantucket MA, around the southern tip of the South American continent, and out into the great South Sea

<>1818:English writer Mary Shelley published Frankenstein

<>1818mr15:Warsaw meeting of the Polish Sejm heard Russian Emperor Alexander I suggest that the whole Russian Empire might soon be ruled by constitutional law, perhaps on the model of the constitution he had granted Poland three years earlier [ID]

<>1819:French "public intellectual" Claude Henri, Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) published "First Extract from the 'Organizer'" (a serial publication) | See Social Organization: The science of man and other writings [UO: 00274942]

<>1819:English industrial/commercial urban center Manchester the site of large public demonstrations in support of serious political/institutional reform

<>1819:German Carlsbad Decrees, inspired by a Metternich-style conservative/reactionary outlook, sought to censor all expressions of liberal and nationalistic dissent and to crush all voluntary (spontaneous) social organizations, particularly university student organizations [the Burschenschaften] [SPE2:472-3]
*--German liberal Ernst Moritz Arndt described how the Napoleonic wars in northern Germany set loose a powerful nationalistic and liberal-reformist political movement [PWT2:124-5; more on this era, 125-7]
*--Arndt might just as well have noted the growing militarism among German elites in the post-Napoleonic era [G/Bismarck]
*--LOOP back to beginning on war and French Revolution

<>1820:USA New York State political boss and future President Martin Van Buren (1837-41) created "the Albany Regency", something new in politics

<>1821:Central America | Wide-spread revolt against Spanish imperial power and colonial authority

<>1821:Ezo [Hokkaido] now no longer under direct shogun rule

<>1821:French reactionary political philosopher and advisor to Russian Emperor Alexander I, Joseph de Maistre wrote The Pope
*1810:de Maistre wrote "Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions" [W]
*1822:de Maistre wrote "On the Spanish Inquisition" [W]

<>1821:Moscow meetings of the Union of Welfare [Soiuz blagodenstviia] spawned two new and more politically oriented societies =

  1. Southern Society [Yuzhnoe obshchestvo] formed in Ukrainian regions where the Second Army was quartered
  2. Northern Society [Severnoe obshchestvo] formed in Petersburg

<>1822:Russia introduced elaborate protectionist and tariff regulations that remained in force for nearly a quarter of a century
*--German economist Friedrich List praised this act [TXT], but market economists generally criticized it

<>1822:1831; German philosopher of eventual world influence George W. F. Hegel [W#1] [W#2], Lectures on the Philosophy of History
*1821:Philosophy of Right [TXT#1] [TXT#2]

<>1822jy22:Russian reformist statesman Speranskii, recently maneuvered out of central power positions, was put in charge of Siberia

<>1823:1832; Russia suffered cholera epidemics
*--McGrew, R. E. Russia and the Cholera, 1823-1832. Madison WI:1965

<>1823au16:Alexander I issued secret order concerning succession to the throne [VSB,2:510]

<>1823de02:USA President Monroe sent to Congress a message which declared opposition to any new European colonies in the Americas (the western hemisphere) and warned against any further interference in the affairs of the hemisphere

<>1824:USA PA Beaver Co., Ambridge, north of Pittsburgh in the upper Ohio R. valley | The Harmonists, religious refugees from Germany, finally settled

<>1824:Russian provincial center Penza described in official report [BL&T:23f]

<>1824:Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin wrote one of his most popular verses, "Gypsies" (not published until 1827)
*--He entered now into his mature period of creativity which lasted over the next 13 years, until his death in a duel in 1837
*--Pushkin crowned the Golden Age of Russian high civilization and also pointed the way out of the narrow traditions of aristocratic-servitor culture and toward creation of an authentic modern Russian national literary tradition. EG=
*1880:Moscow | Forty-three years after Pushkin's death, Russian cultural figures saluted him in a great 3-day commemorative celebration [ID]
*--This celebration confirmed that those enduring works of poetry, drama and prose, mainly written over his last 13 years of life, made Pushkin Russia's greatest writer

<>1824:"Decembrist" Southern Society joined with United Slavs. It now planned for a huge Slavic federation, including Russian, Poles, Czechs, Moravians, Serbs, Croats, and Dalmatians. Romanian-speaking but ethnically Slavic Moldavians and Wallachians [Wki-ID of this complex region], as well as Trasylvanians and Hungarians were considered Slavs for this purpose

<>1825:USA NY | Erie Canal completed connecting Hudson R. with Lake Erie

<>1825no:Siberia | Alexander I died unexpectedly, even mysteriously

<>1825de14:Decembrist uprising occasioned by a succession crisis as the dreaded martinet Nicholas I ascended the Russian Imperial throne  [DPH:278-81]

<>1825de:On the eve of the "Decembrist" rebellion, Aleksandr Pushkin finished his "Comedy about Tsar Boris and Grishka Otrepiev" [The Uncensored Boris Godunov: The Case for Pushkin's Original Comedy]

<>1825de14:1855; Russian Emperor Nicholas I reigned for thirty years, an epoch that seemed to some to be reactionary in the extreme, a panicked retreat from the Decembrist uprising and all the progressive implications of the era of European revolution

<>1826:1879; Russian state institutions were supplemented by a set of "His Majesty's Own Chanceries"

<>1826:Kazan University [W] Professor of Mathematics Nikolai Lobachevskii [W] published his path-breaking studies in non-Euclidian geometry. The next twenty years witnessed a provincial cultural and intellectual renaissance in the Russian/Tatar city Kazan, but officials soon removed Lobachevskii from his academic posts

<>1826ap22:Russian censorship statute tightened control over the printed word [VSB,2:533-4]
*1826de12:Admiral A. S. Shishkov sent supportive memo to Nicholas I about censorship [DIR3:235-7]

<>1826my12:au09; Russian manifestos on peasant serf disturbances [VSB,2:541-2 | DIR2:197-8(ap20?)]

<>1827oc:Russian Emperor Nicholas I issued a decree on the education of peasant serfs [BL&T:120]
*1827de12:Educational opportunities for non-privileged sosloviia were restricted [DIR3:237]
*--Nicholas I continued the innovations of earlier autocrats, but the policy of Nicholas I might best be called "frightened absolutism" (rather than enlightened absolutism). His reforms were "reactionary reforms"

<>1827:1829:Caucasus Mountain, northern slopes | Daghestan Muslim independence movement arose against Russian imperial control

<>1828:Armenian river valley of the middle Kura reached by Russian imperial troops, "liberating" an old Christian nation south of the Caucasus, Armenia, from Islamic Iranian (Persian) control

<>1829se02:Ottoman Turks and Russia signed Adrianople Treaty [VSB,2:537-8 | DIR2:199-207 | DIR3:239-43]
*--The treaty acknowledged two developments, both advantageous to Russia, and suggested a third =

  1. Russian imperialist control over the northern 2/3 of the Black Sea coast
  2. Independence for two Orthodox Christian peoples, Serbs (Yugoslavs) and Greeks
  3. A significant easing or amelioration of diplomatic relationships between the Russian and Ottoman Turkish empires, an amiability that did not suit west European imperialist competitors involved in the emerging "Great Game". England especially sought to complicate the Russian/Turkish path toward international reconciliation
  • In these years USA Protestant missionaries appeared in growing numbers in "the Middle East"

  • \\
    *2016fe:The Nation| "Missionaries of the Middle East" [E-TXT]

    <>1830fe04:Caucasus Mountains, northern slope, Chechnya and Daghestan | First significant victory of expanding Muslim holy war against Russian dominion

    Daghestani resistance to Russian rule was led
    in the first half of the 19th century
    by Muslim holy warriors, such as the fabled
    imam Shamil [Shamyl]

    <>1830:USA NY Fayette | Joseph Smith (1805-1844) founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints (most widely known as the Mormon Church)

    <>1830:English inventor George Stephenson inaugurated the first rail line linking two industrializing cities, Manchester and Liverpool (a seaport)
    *--The railroad age was at its dawn [ID], ushered in by a new sort of individually owned industrial company

    <>1830:Europe-wide revolution was felt with special intensity in France. A broad assault was launched on the remains of the old-regime, this in the name of a new "liberal" order

    <>1830:1842; French socialist theorist and originator of "sociology" Auguste Comte published Course of Positive Philosophy
    *--Comte [ID] was an acolyte of Saint-Simon. He systematized that powerful trend of European thought called "Positivism"
    *--Wagar on Positivism [TXT]

    <>1830de20:1832; Polish Revolt declared independence and worked to strengthen independence of Sejm (or Seim; Polish parliament) [VSB,2:534 | DIR3:199]

    <>1831:1833; USA ambassador to Russia was James Buchanan. His papers have been published = James Buchanan's Mission to Russia, 1831-33

    <>1831:Italy | Giuseppe Mazzini founded "Young Italy"

    <>1831:Russia's greatest poet, Aleksandr Pushkin wrote "Boris Godunov" (tragic historical play) and "Evgenyi Onegin" (poetic drama)
    *1827:Orest Kiprenskii portrait of Pushkin in Olga's Gallery [pix]
    *--The Ardis Anthology of Russian Romanticism. Was Pushkin a representative poet of the Romantic era? This has been much debated, with the edge going to those who point out Pushkin's clear debt to neo-classical traditions and his particular "Russian" way of blending the two great esthetic traditions. As the 19th century reached its middle, the long Romantic era was on the wain
    *--In the 1830s Pushkin went to Orenburg to study the Pugachev rebellion
    *--Wagar on the Pushkin era [TXT]

    <>1831:USA Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall delivered his opinion on the legal cases dealing with indigenous Native American peoples, the Cherokee Nation vs. the USA [E-TXT]

    <>1831:USA VA | Nat Turner's rebellion

    <>1831:USA inventor Cyrus McCormick (22 years old) successfully introduced mechanical reaper into the grain production process [pix]
    *--Industrial technology was beginning to transform traditional agricultural economies =
    *1834:John Deere marketed a steel moldboard plow
    *1840:USA ports began use of large steam powered shovels to load and unload grain from large sea-going transports
    *1837:USA average = 148 man-hours/acre to cultivate, plant and harvest grain
    *1890:USA average =   37 man-hours/acre to cultivate, plant and harvest grain
    *--Industrialization allowed the rise of international trade in grain

    <>1831:1864; French-born engineer and entrepreneur Isambard Kingdom Brunel made his career in England after his family fled from the French Revolution [W#1] [W#2]
    *--He designed and built the remarkable Clifton Bridge [pix]

    <>1831fe18:Russian decree limited foreign education for Russian subjects. The reversal of the "progressive" reform spirit of Emperor Alexander I picked up pace [VSB,2:543-4]

    <>1831de06:Nicholas I refined the structure of the Noble Assembly (created originally by Catherine II) in another reactionary reform measure [VSB,2:543-4]

    <>1832 and 1834:USA trapper and explorer Nathaniel Wyeth kept journals of two expeditions to Oregon Territory

    <>1832:England passed its first reform bill which addressed a series of political/institutional problems caused by industrial modernization

    <>1832:German liberal activist Paul Pfizer explored the tension or maybe contradiction in the relationship of liberal civil rights to nationalism. Here are two related samples [MDF:99-100] =

    <>1832:Russian laws gathered and systematically indexed in a Digest of Russia Law [VSB,2:534-5 | WRH3:272-3]

    <>1832:USA and Russia sign first treaty of Navigation and Commerce, in force until 1911
    *--Walther Kirchner, Studies in Russian-American Commerce, 1820-1860 (1975)
    *--Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., America, Russia, Hemp and Napoleon: American Trade with Russia and the Baltic, 1783-1812 (1965)

    <>1832:USA MA | Ralph Waldo Emerson resigned as Unitarian minister and founded Transcendentalist tradition
    *1837au31: Emerson, "The American Scholar" [TXT]
    *1842: Emerson, "The Transcendentalist" [TXT]
    *--Wagar on Transcendentalism [TXT]

    <>1833mr21:Russian Education Minister Sergei Uvarov announced the doctrine of "Official Nationality" [VSB,2:564-6 | BL&T:192]

    <>1833je26:Ottoman Turks and Russia signed Unkiar-Skelessi Treaty, creating an alliance and mutual defense arrangement [VSB,2:538 | DIR2:207-9 | DIR3:243-45]
    *--England and other players in the "Great Game" were disturbed by the implications of growing Russian "friendship" with the Sublime Porte
    *--They feared Russian-Ottoman Turkish reconciliation and cooperation as much as they feared successful Russian imperialist expansion

    <>1833je28(NS):French Minister of Education François Guizot passed law reforming primary education [DPH:230-2]
    *--The democratization of culture required public education
    *--It also fed the growth of journalism and the popular arts
    *--Popular education and popular arts raised in the minds of traditional elites the specter of "low-brow" corruption of high civilization

    <>1833oc03:Berlin Convention granted Russia special responsibility for Poland, Hungary, and the Balkans [VSB,2:535]

    <>1834se19:Caucasus (Daghestan) leader Shamil became imam after death of old imam, and after Shamil killed only competitor for Avar throne

    <>1835:1840; French political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville searched for the roots of USA political life, Democracy in America

    <>1835:1842; USA FL | Seminole wars pitted US army against resolute Native Americans

    <>1835: English economic historian Edward Baines published his explanation for English preeminence in the development of the "factory system", The History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain , with emphasis on the entrepreneurial energies and skills of figures like Richard Cartwright [Excerpts = PWT2:136-42]

    <>1835:1842; Russian railroad construction got under way. USA specialists involved
    *--Nicholas I decree in 1842 [VSB,2:551]
    *--Introduction of the railroad -- the greatest and most advanced industrial technology -- seemed in stark contrast to general Russian agrarian stagnation, caused largely by the continued plight of serfs, and yet it was further evidence that "reform" was possible, even if it seemed to some like "reactionary reform"
    *--Richard Mowbray Haywood, The Beginnings of Railway Development in Russia and the Reign of Nicholas I, 1835-1842. Durham NC:1969
    *--J.N. Westwood, A History of Russian Railways. London:1964

    <>1835jy26:Russian universities came under new restrictive counter-reform regulations [VSB,2:562-4]
    *--In this year, Russian Committee for Investigating Ways and Means of Improving the Condition of Peasants of Various Classification issued memo written by its chairman, I.V. Vasil'chikov
    *--The Committee attacked a widespread idea among serfs that, while they might be property of the gentry, the land belonged to them [VSB,2:544]
    *--Yet plans were being laid in secret for significant rural reform, perhaps not reactionary at all

    <>1836:Russian thinker Petr Chaadaev (-1856) published "Philosophical Letters" [E-TXT | Excerpts = Raeff3:160-73 | KMM:38-46 | Edie,1 | RRC2,2#25 | VSB,2:566]

    <>1836fe04:Ireland | Daniel O'Connell, "Justice for Ireland" [E-TXT#1 | E-TXT#2], attacked English imperialist rule in the name of Irish national independence

    <>1836sp:Texas Republic in military struggle for independence from Mexico, itself only a dozen years free from Spanish imperial dominion [MAP]

    <>1836ap:1836jy:Caucasus, the Chechen region | The Russian Imperial army retreated
    *--Rumors of local resistance leader Shamil's strength spread all along the northern slopes of the Caucasus

    <>1836oc19:Aleksandr Pushkin wrote a letter to Chaadaev about his book Philosophical Letters

    <>1837:Chaadaev,"Apology of a Madman" [KMM:50-7]

    <>1837:Russian historian of peasant serf stock Mikhail Pogodin, "Letter on Russian History" [KMM:60-8]

    <>1837ja28:Petersburg | Aleksandr Pushkin died as a consequence of a duel
    *--Traumatic event inspired Mikhail Lermontov to a brilliant four years of poetic creation, which included his 1839 novella A Hero of Our Time

    <>1837je:Caucasus battles as Russia advanced against Shamil's mountain retreats
    *--Russia struck deeper into his high fastness than ever before, but Shamil eluded capture

    <>1837je03:Nicholas I issued instructions on the functions to be performed by provincial governors, a counter-reform measure [VSB,2:535-6] CF: reform act of Catherine II

    <>1838:England | First Chartist Petition gathered in support of a written constitution

    <>1838:USA MA| Horace Mann, Secretary of the MA State Board of Education, gravitated out of politics into educational advocacy and administration

    <>1838:USA indigenous Cherokee lands, mainly in NC GA TN, seized by US Army, under the command of General Winfield Scott, with the avid support of an associated mob of "settlers"
    *--Native Americans of the Cherokee Nation were then "removed" to OK and western AR
    *--As elders of the tribe gathered for the last time on their ancestral land, they adopted a resolution on Native American land =

    The title of the Cherokee people to their lands is the most ancient, pure and absolute known to man; its date is beyond the reach of human record.... The free consent of the Cherokee people is indispensable to a valid transfer of the Cherokee title. The Cherokee people have neither by themselves or their representatives given such consent. It follows that the original title and ownership of lands still rests in the Cherokee Nation, unimpaired and absolute. The Cherokee people have existed as a distinct national community for a period extending into antiquity beyond the dates and records and memory of man. These atributes have never been relinquished by the Cherokee people and cannot be dissolved by the expulsion of the Nation from its territory by the power of the United States Government. [Collier,Indians:124-5]
    *--The US Army forcibly transported indigenous American farmers to "Indian territory" and confined or concentrated them on what were thought to be wastelands, the sites of the future states Arkansas and Oklahoma
    *--Removal, reconcentration and frontier development have long combined in global histories
    *--"Indian Removal" was the genocidal policy of the 1830s
    *--NB! Clash of two concepts of property: tribal-property and "fee simple" individual ownership

    Artistic rendition of the 1838 "Trail of Tears"
    [source blocked]

    *--More on Native Americans

    <>1839:Alaska | Russian-America Co. agreed on a lease to the Hudsons' Bay Co. that gave the English overseas corporation access to the western sea from inland Canadian territories
    *--The access ran down the Stikhine River along a corridor through Russian new-world territory
    *--In exchange the Russians were promised much needed supplies for Russian posts further north in Alaska. For example =

    <>1839:1842; China took steps to prohibit English importation and sale in China of the debilitating drug opium

    <>1839je05:1839oc22; French aristocrat Astolphe, marquis de Custine, visited Russia seeking inspiration from what he hoped would be a vibrant aristocratic tsarist monarchy

    <>1839au:Caucasus | Another horrible siege finally succeeded against Shamil, but he again fled

    <>1840:French anarchist theorist and political activist, Pierre Proudhon, published What is Property?

    <>1841:1844; German political economist Friedrich List published his National System of Political Economy (NYC: 1904)
    *--See also List's Natural System of Political Economy, 1837 [TXT of chapters 8-10, dealing with Russia, USA and general historical significance of his system]

    <>1841:England, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to use force to terminate the slave trade on the high seas
    *--While 1841 is certainly not the end of slavery in world history, it is time now to shift over to the LOOP on wage-labor =

    <>1842:English Mines and Collieries Act passed, limiting working hours in coal mines and easing the conditions of wage-labor there
    *--Some testimony and illustrations gathered at this time [TXT & pix]
    *--Some illustrations of women coal bearers in these years [TXT & pix]

    <>1842:Hawaiian Islands coveted by England. USA warned England off

    <>1842:Russian writer Nikolai Gogol (1809:1852) [W] published his magnum opus, Dead Souls [TXT], marking the beginning of what Pavel Annenkov called _The_Extraordinary Decade: Literary Memoirs [cf. KRR:414-17]
    *--Gogol earlier (1836) published a famous satirical play "Inspector General" [TXT] which was taken as a sharp critique of Tsarist officialdom and the backwardness of provincial life
    *--Belinskii wrote a harsh and very personal critique of Gogol that shocked Russian culture

    <>1842:Paris became home of Ivan Golovin, the first modern Russian political/cultural émigré fleeing from Russian imperial power
    *--Soon Golovin wrote a scathing expose, _Russia Under the Autocrat Nicholas the First (1846)

    <>1843:1844; Prussian [German] conservative landowner August, Baron von Haxthausen-Abbenburg traveled to Russia

    <>1843:Russian Emperor Nicholas I reacted to English efforts to undermine the 1689:Nerchinsk [ID] and 1727:Kiakhta [ID] treaty privileges of Russia in China

    <>1843au28:Caucasus Mountains | Shamil delivered Russia a solid defeat, temporarily forcing Russia out of Daghestan

    <>1844:USA, Boston to New York City | Margaret Fuller, author of the pioneer feminist essay "Women in the Nineteenth Century", moved from the old northeastern USA cultural center, Boston, to the big city, New York

    <>1845je11:Nicholas I issued manifesto which took the edge off the Petrine Table of Ranks by making it more difficult for commoners to become aristocrats on the basis of successful state service, an example of social counter-reform [VSB,2:5558-9]

    <>1845au15:Russia issued new Criminal Law Code [VSB,2:536-7]
    *--Waves of European unrest also spread to Russia
    *--Just as everywhere else, officials in Russia responded with more vigorous reactionary reform

    <>1846:1848; Mexican-American War [W] brought USA firm title to territories that would become the major SW states

    <>1846:Russia, Ukraine | Cyril-Methodios Society formulated bylaws [DIR2:229-32]

    <>1846:Czechoslovakia | Karel Havlícek "Panslavistic editorial in his newspaper, Prague News [KMM:83-90]

    <>1846:English Corn Laws repealed ["corn" in England means hard cereal grain in general]

    <>1847jy15:Russian journalist, critic and all-round pundit, Vissarion Belinskii, published Letter to Gogol [E-TXT] | Also in Edie,1:312-320 | Excerpts: Raeff3:253-61 | KMM:135-7 | DIR2:221-8 | DIR3:252-61 | RRC2,2#26], a scathing critique of Nikolai Gogol's emotional and religious Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends
    *--Also see Gogol's Selected Letters...
    *--More Belinskii [VSB,2:567-]
    *--More Gogol

    <>1848fe:France felt the first shocks of what quickly became a Europe-wide "1848 Revolution", spreading from Paris, to Berlin, etc [DPH:81-131] (All "1848" events are here dated NS) [DPH:81-131]

    <>1849:Russian political debating society, known as the Petrashevskii circle or "Petrashevtsy", arrested and exiled to Siberia [VSB,2:571-3]

    <>1849:Paris | Fedor Tiutchev, tsarist diplomat and poet, wrote article "La Russie et la Révolution" [KMM:94-103]

    <>1848jy:Caucasus Mountains in grip of Russian counter attack against Shamil

    <>1848:1896: Persia (Iran) ruled for nearly a half century by Naser-e-Din Shah

    <>1848:USA offered to buy Cuba from Spanish Monarchy

    <>1849:1899; The half century in which six dominant transnational or global grain-trade corporations came into their own

    <>1849:Hawaiian Islands coveted by France. USA warned France off

    <>1849my26(NS):Germany |Prussia, Saxony and Hanover signed Erfurt Union Treaty [DPH:133-5]

    <>1850:1864; China | Taiping [great peace] Rebellion carried out by native insurgents who sought to overthrow the Manchu dynasty which was now under the thumb of European imperial powers and rendered feeble

    <>1850:USA | Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter

    <>1850ja31(NS):Germany | Prussian Constitution [DPH:136-9]

    <>1850mr15(NS):French progressive laws on education, passed by Guizot in the years prior to his 1848 fall from power, suffered reactionary setback

    <>1851:London Great Exhibition (first world's fair or exposition) was housed in the stunning Crystal Palace

    <>1851:Saint Petersburg-Moscow Railroad opened

    <>1851: English public activist and "public intellectual" George Holyoake apparently was the first to utter the neologistic word "secularism"

    <>1851:USA | Herman Melville published his "great American novel" Moby Dick, an adventure of the open seas

    <>1851ja23:Russian universities fell under tighter restriction [VSB,2:573-4]
    *--In the Russia of Nicholas I, reaction, pure and simple, came to replace reactionary reform spirit of the previous 26 years
    *--Nicholas I was not the only European leader for whom "reactionary reform" worked = G/51de02 below

    <>1851de02(NS):French National Assembly dissolved by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte's Decree, followed immediately by his Proclamation and Decree on a Plebiscite

    <>1852:Petersburg | Nicholas I got news of USA plan to force Japan out of its official "national seclusion"

    <>1852:Russian Slavophile Ivan Kireevskii (-1856), "On...European Culture..." [Raeff3:175-207 | Excerpt TXT]
    *1856:Kireevskii died, leaving "On the Necessity and Possibility of New Principles in Philosophy" [Edie,1:180-213]
    *--Other writings [VSB,2:576-7 | LDH:79-88]
    Peter Christoff, Introduction

    <>1852:USA and Russia | Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, esp. chs.30 & 31, consider also chs. 1, 4, 14 [TXT]

    <>1852ja14(NS):France given new constitution, prefaced with a long proclamation written by Louis Napoleon defending this action [DPH:162-5]

    <>1852oc09:French Emperor Napoleon III (as Louis Napoleon was now titled) delivered address at Bordeaux [Stearns:553-4]

    <>1852no:1870se; French Republic fashioned into another Napoleonic Empire [DPH:165-6]

    <>1852fa:Caucasus Mountain bands of Shamil forced into guerilla warfare tactics against Russian imperial troops

    <>1853jy08:Tokyo harbor | USA Commodore Matthew Perry anchored and threatened bombardment if Japan did not abandon its "national seclusion"

    <>1853oc20:Crimean War erupted (and dragged on for 2 1/2 years) [Various documents = DIR3:286-93]

    <>1854:1867; Ezo [Hokkaido] under direct shogun rule for the second and last time, for 13 years, in order to protect the large northern island from Russia

    <>1854:USA | Henry David Thoreau, Walden, or Life in the Woods
    *--Wagar on Thoreau [TXT]

    <>1854au10:Japan, Nagasaki then Shimoda on Izu Peninsula | Russian Admiral Putiatin met with Kawaji Toshiakira (1801:1867) and Tsutsui Masanori (1778:1859)

    <>1854se:Japan, Nagasaki |  English Rear-Admiral Stirling had been pursuing Putiatin and his small diplomatic squadron through Japanese waters (fighting the Crimean War [ID] on its natural Pacific front)


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