1917fe23:mr02; Eight days of intense disorder, sometimes called "the February Revolution" [WRR:9-33]

<>1917fe23:Petrograd| International Women's Day expanded into massive "street level" demonstrations of wartime working women [RWR:36-8]

<>1917fe25:Pskov | From his railroad bivouac near the front, Emperor Nicholas II prorogued [discontinued sessions of] the Fourth Duma

<>1917fe27 ("Red Monday", 2:30pm): Petrograd | Fourth State Duma ignored Nicholas II’s effort to prorogue it [GRH:277-8]

<>1917fe27 (7pm):And that evaporation of the Imperial political establishment was only the beginning. In the Taurida Palace, just down the hall from the quarters of the Duma's new Provisional Committee, another new institution appeared, independent of the Provisional Committee and with political ambitions of its own =  The Petrograd Soviet [Council] of Workers and Soldiers Deputies. Summoned earlier, the Soviet now met for the first time and formed its own Executive Committee [GRH:285-93]

<>1917mr02:Pskov, at the front | Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in favor of his brother Michael | [TXT | Russian E-TXT | DIR3:524 | PFM:467-8 | GRH:258-77 & 294-302 | StH:17 | GDR:510-11]

<>1917mr02:Russian tsarist dynasty collapsed under the weight of the catastrophic first mechanized total war, WW1 [ID], in what is called "the Second Russian Revolution" [ID]

<>1917mr02:1917oc25 Eight months of "the Second Russian Revolution", from the February and March disorders that provoked the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II to the Soviet Revolution [aka "The October Revolution" or "The Bolshevik Revolution"]

<>1917fe:1918; Narodno-sotsialisticheskaia (Trudovaia) partiia [NSs] came alive as A. V. Peshekhonov, Venedikt A. Miakotin [ID] and other veterans of the 1905 Revolution were joined by Sergei Mel'gunov, ME Berezin and others

<>1917mr02:1918jy28; USA joined WW1 in its final 18 months . Here is a summary of those 18 mos. =

USA could now join "The Allies" =
England (but wasn't it at the head of a "British Empire"?)
France (still possessing imperial domains)
Italy (ditto), and
newly tsarless Russia
"Central Powers" =
German Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Ottoman Turkish Empire, and

<>1917mr02:The Petrograd Soviet issued "Order No. 1" [E-TXT], its first official act, one that ended the possibility for standard old-regime military discipline
*--At the same time, the Executive Committee of the Soviet agreed to cooperate with the Provisional Government on the basis of Soviet "principles" [McC2:16-19]
*--General Alekseev ordered that all irregular groups mixing with regular troops and fomenting disorder be arrested and court-martialed on the spot, with sentences carried out immediately [GRH:403]
*--Military discipline deteriorated throughout March [GRH:386-94]

<>1917mr03+: Edward Heald letter described Russian revolutionary events observed during his travels there [ASEER#4,16-17 (??):116-57,118-33 |WRH:581-95]
*--Graham R. Taylor described events in Orenburg Province [WRH:604-15]

<>1917mr03:Petrograd| The tsar's brother Grand Prince Michael Aleksandrovich refused the crown [W]

<>1917mr04:Kiev| Central Rada, a legislative and governing body elected by certain Ukrainian public organizations [Wki], assumed leadership of national political movements now that the Romanov autocratic throne in Petersburg fell empty and the Empire seemed falling apart

<>1917mr05:British Ambassador to Russia, George Buchanan, spoke with Pavel Miliukov about Allied support for the new revolutionary government in Russia (the Provisional Government) was dependent on Russia's preparedness "to fight the war out to a finish and to restore discipline in the army" [Buchanan.MISSION,2:90-1]
*--That day Provisional Government Foreign Minister Miliukov noted down his position on this "greatest international and domestic crisis which Russia has known in the course of her history". The new Provisional Government, he affirmed, "will remain mindful of the international engagements entered into by the fallen regime, and will honor Russia's word". Russia will fight with her "glorious Allies". Russia will "devote all its energy to bring the war to a victorious conclusion, and will apply itself to the task of repairing as quickly as possible the errors of the past". The enthusiasm of the domestic political revolution will spill over into a renewed effort on the internaitonal battlefront [GRH:323-4]

<>1917mr06:A few days after the Russian tear Nicholas II abdicated, but still almost 8 mos. before the Bolshevik-led Soviet Revolution, Russian Provisional Government declared its political program (author = A.A. Manuilov) [GRH:308-9 | DPH:364-6 | ORW:177-8 | "Obrashchenie vremennogo pravitel'stva k naseleniiu Rossii"| GRV:278-9]

<>1917mr08:Russian Emperor Nicholas II made final address as tsar [GRH:51-3 | PFM:472-3]

<>1917mr09:12; Russian Provisional Government Naval Minister Aleksandr Guchkov wrote General Alekseev [Chamberlin,1:435-8]

<>1917mr11:Petrograd Soviet announced agreement w/Petrograd Association of Manufacturers re. working conditions [McC2:60-1]

<>1917mr12:Petrograd newspaper of Aleksei Suvorin, Novoe vremia, published "What is a revolution?" [RWR:66]
*--Eyewitness accounts of these days [WRR:68-85]

<>1917mr14:Petrograd Soviet appealed to the people of world, assuring them that a Constituent Assembly will very soon put old Russia on a new and recognizable European path of social/political development. The Allies are now far more nearly one [McC2:24-6 | GRH:325-6]. HOWEVER =

<>1917mr26:All-Russian Congress of Peasants' Deputies, Peasant Union resolution and Chernov speeches [GRH:373-8]

<>1917mr27:Russian revolutionary Provisional Government issued its war aims [McC1:100-101 | Chamberlin,1:440-1 | GRH:329-31]

<>1917ap03:Vladimir Lenin, fresh arrived in Petrograd from European exile and participation in the "Zimmerwald movement", published "April Theses" [E-TXT | DRR:23-6 | McC2:51-4 | DPH:366-8 | WRH:597-9]

<>1917ap05:Petrograd Soviet resolution in support of Provisional Government, underscoring its stand on the urgent need "for universal peace without annexations and indemnities based on the self-determination of nations" [McC2:26-7]

<>1917ap13:Russian Foreign Minister Miliukov memo on exclusion of Russia from international conferences being held among the other Allies

<>1917ap18:Miliukov circulated further assurances to Allies, confirming the war aims statement of 1917mr17, adding this = "Our enemies have been striving of late to sow discord among the Allies, disseminating absurd reports alleging that Russia is ready to conclude a separate peace with the Central Powers" [GRH:333-4]

<>1917ap20:Russian Provisional Government Foreign Minister Pavel Miliukov's note to Allies on the question of war aims caused scandal [GRH:333-4 | Chamberlin,1:444 | McC2:46-7 | DPH:368-70]

<>1917ap24:1917ap29; Petrograd All-Russian Conference of SDs(b) [Social-Democrats (Bolsheviks)]

<>1917ap25:Petrograd Soviet called for an international socialist planning committee to meet in Stockholm to organize a world conference on WW1 to be held at some time in the future in some as-yet unspecified neutral nation

<>1917ap30:Aleksandr Guchkov resigned as Naval Minister in connection with the ap20 scandal [GRH:396-7]

<>1917my:Council of Elders of railroad workers union, appeal to Factory and Mills Committees [Fabrichnye i zavodskie komitety] [DRR:65-8]
*--Russian Orthodox parishioners call for church institutional autonomy from state power [RWR:82]
*--Russian situation described [McC2:28-9]

<>1917my01:First All-Russian Muslim Congress convened, following on a series of Islamic political gatherings in the previous month
*--Congress issued resolutions [RWR:83-6]

<>1917my02 (my15 NS):Petrograd Soviet issued appeal to "Socialists of All Countries", calling for

peace without annexations or indemnities on the basis of the self-determination of peoples is the formula adopted unreservedly by the proletarian mind and heart [...]. The Russian Revolutionary Democracy appeals first to you, Socialists of the Allied countries. You must not permit the voice of the Provisional Government of Russia to remain the only voice in the Entente. You must force your governments to state definitely and clearly that the platform of peace without annexations or indemnities, on the basis of the self-determination of peoples is also their platform [...]. The Russian Revolutionary Democracy appeals to you, Socialists of the Austro-German alliance: You cannot allow the Armies of your Governments to become the executioners of Russian liberty [...]. In order to unite these efforts, the Petrograd Soviet ... has decided to take the initiative in calling for an international conference of all the Socialist parties and factions in every country [GRH:340-3]

<>1917my05:Russia | Provisional Government "First Coalition" organized and issued declaration [Chamberlin,1:447-9 | McC2:27 | GRH:348-58]

<>1917my21:Provisional Government Finance Minister described the mounting food crisis [RWR:76-8]

<>1917my25:All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasant Deputies [GRH:375-8]

<>1917my27:USA President Wilson' Message to Russia
*1917my30:Izvestiia editorial chided Wilson for his "foggy and high-flown words"

<>1917je01:French parliamentary debate on peace (follows year of mutinous unrest among Allied troops on the Western Front)
*--Mayer:206-210 top

1917je02:Petrograd| Elihu Root addressed the Council of Ministers of the Russian Provisional Government [GRH:344-6]

<>1917je03:Factory and Mills Committees [Fabrichnye i zavodskie komitety] conference, resolution re. industrial disorganization [Chamberlin,1:449-51]

<>1917je03:je24; Petrograd | First All-Russian Congress of Soviets

<>1917je07:France | William Pressey described being injured by German gas attack [Eye:473-4]
*1919| John Singer Sargent painted aftermath of gas attack against British troops [lxt]

<>1917je10:PGR: Petrograd Soviet prohibited "comrade soldiers and workers" from obeying the Bolshevik call to revolutionary action

<>1917je10:Ukraine,Kiev| Central Rada issued its First Universal (declaration) [E-TXT | RWR:62-6 (includes Provisional Government reply) | GRH:435-44 | DRR:76-79]
*--Provisional Government reply to the Ukraine declaration [Chamberlin,1:454-5]
*--Taras Hunczak, The Ukraine, 1917-1921: A study in revolution (1977)

<>1917je16:Beginning of "The July Offensive", Russian Provisional Government "First Coalition" Minister Aleksandr Kerenskii supported a plan for renewed WW1 military offensive against Central Powers [McC2:31-2]

<>1917je22(NS jy05):WDC| USA President Wilson received first ambassador from "the new democracy of Russia", Boris A. Bakhmetev [GRH:347}

<>1917je27(NS jy10):German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg resigned
*--H-History contains the Chancellor's statement about his resignation *--Bethmann-Hollweg was rendered ineffective, squeezed between liberal/reactionary, diplomacy/war and civilian/military factions in Reichstag

<>1917je28:Ukraine, Kiev | Russian Provisional Government sent delegation to Central Rada

<>1917jy02:Constitutional Democratic Party [KDs; Kadets] ministers resigned from the Provisional Government

<>1917jy02:Memo from provincial office of the Russian State Bank described a seriously deteriorating situation in the countryside [RRC1,3:510-11] =

<>1917jy03:jy05; Petrograd| July Days abortive uprising [GRH:444-64 | HCV:225-63]

<>1917jy05:jy12; Finnish law of the Sejm on Supreme Power [DRR:79-82]

<>1917jy07:In the aftermath of the "July Days" [ID] Provisional Government " First Coalition" Prime Minister, Prince Georgii L'vov [Wki], resigned, ending a political career spanning more than a decade

<>1917jy08:As the Provisional Government First Coalition disintegrated, Aleksandr Kerenskii became Prime Minister in the "Second Coalition" [GRH:465-81]

<>1917jy16:Ukraine| Central Rada issued 2nd Universal declaration [read down in E-TXT]

<>1917jy18:Kerenskii appointed general Lavr Kornilov commander in chief

<>1917jy26:au03; Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) "6th" party conference

<>1917au09:Russian Fourth Duma ceased to function [GRH:412-13]

<>1917au13:au15; Moscow State Conference [GRH:480-512]
*--Documents relating to public views of the political crisis in late summer and early fall [HCV:303-41]

<>1917au14:Chkheidze declaration of United Democracy [GRH:496-504]

<>1917au15:Russian Orthodox Church Council Opened and continued in session into 1918
*1991fa:SlR:497-511| Catherine Evtuhov, "The Church and the Russian Revolution: Arguments For and Against Restoring the Patriarchate at the Church Council of 1917-1918"

<>1917au21:Riga [Latvia]| German forces occupied this vital Russian Imperial seaport on the Baltic coast  [GRH:584-6]
*--Both international & domestic political turmoil intensified

<>1917au23:1917au30(se05-se12 NS); Stockholm the site of what is called " The Third Zimmerwald Conference" [B&WW1:582ff]

<>1917au25:au30; Russian Provisional Government " Second Coalition" and perhaps the Revolution in general were threatened by military coup d'état in what came to be known as the "Kornilov Affair" [GRH:513-33 | DPH:373-4 | McC2:37-43 | Eyewitness accounts of events from au13:Moscow State Conference to Kornilov Affair [WRR:160-78]

1917au21:Petrograd | Library of the Imperial Winter Palace
Aleksandr Fedorovich Kerenskii,
Photograph by K. Bulla

<>1917au27:Aleksandr Kerenskii sent telegram condemning Kornilov [McC2:37-8]

*1987| J0rgen L. Munck, The Kornilov Revolt: A Critical Examination of Sources and Research

<>1917au28:Simbirsk provincial Commissar [F/] reported [RRC1,3:511-12]

<>1917au31:Petrograd Soviet heard SDs(b) resolution on need to mobilize against Kornilov [Chamberlin,1:462-4]

<>1917se01:Aleksandr Kerenskii organized "Directory" or " Council of Five" [McC2:43-4]  to replace the unraveling Provisional Government " Second Coalition"

<>1917se02:Woodrow Wilson letter to Colonel Edward House called for creation of "American Inquiry" or "Peace Inquiry Bureau"
*--This a group of intellectuals included the young scholar-journalist Walter Lippmann
*--Lippmann played the central role over the next four months in the composition of Wilson's "Fourteen Points" [Mayer:334-9]

<>1917se03:Soviet Central Executive Committee called for Democratic Conference [ID]
*--The Central Committee of the Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) supported

<>1917se03:Kronstadt| On the eve of SOVIET REVOLUTION the para-military Red Guard organized [McC2:132-4 | GRH:580]

<>1917se04:Leon Trotsky, out of prison, quickly turned his attention and energy to the Petrograd Soviet

<>1917se09:Social Democratic Party (mensheviks) & Social Revolutionary Party leaders resigned from Central Committee of Petrograd Soviet [GRH:577-9]

<>1917se11:se14; From hiding in Finland, Lenin called for an uprising back in Petrograd [McC2:113-15 | RWR:106]

<>1917se14:se22; Petrograd| All-Russian Democratic Conference [GRH:542-57]

<>1917se25:Aleksandr Kerenskii formed " Third Coalition" cabinet [GRH:558-63 | McC2:45]
*--Petrograd Soviet Executive Committee elected Leon Trotsky president [GRH:584]
*1917se26:Petrograd Soviet resolution re. All-Russian Democratic Conference [GRH:567 | Chamberlin,1:464]

<>1917se28:Novaia zhizn' [The New Life] reported the reasons why the SDs Menshevik faction [SDs(m)] was falling apart [E-TXT]

<>1917oc01:Lenin urged immediate seizure of power [RWR:107]

<>1917oc02:oc25: Pre-Parliament (All-Russian Democratic Council) opened for 23 days
*--Eyewitness accounts of this ill-fated institution, forcibly closed by Soviet paramilitary [WRR:179-92]

<>1917oc06:Delo naroda [The People's Cause], an SR newspaper, raised complicated issue of relationship between revolutionary and irregular political institutions -- the Soviets -- and the planned and long desired national Constituent Assembly [E-TXT]

<>1917oc09:Petrograd Military HQ seemed to confirm the fear that Russian Imperial officialdom was willing to surrender radical Petrograd to the German enemy when it ordered part of the increasingly politicized Petrograd garrison to the front. Soldiers refused [GRH:587]

<>1917oc12:Congress of Public Men organized, a conservative group alarmed by mounting disorder

<>1917oc13:de05; Baltic Fleet navy diary [VRX:131-88]

<>1917oc13:Within the Petrograd Soviet, soldiers organized a department of Workers' Guard and established a functioning HQ for its operations
*--The Workers' Guard planned a city-wide conference for late October

<>1917oc14:Soviet Central Executive Committee met (Gotz = president) [GRH:591-2]

<>1917oc15:Petrograd newspapers discussed anticipated Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) "move"

<>1917oc16:Petrograd Soviet (Kamenev=president) agreed to send observers to a conference in Pskov called by general Cheremisov, commander in chief of the Russian WW1 northern front
*--Soviet also approved Lazimir's report on creation of the MRC [GRH:589-90]
*--Trotsky spoke on the MRC and other issues [McC2:117-21]
*--1917oc18:The MRC began assembling itself

<>1917oc16:Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) Central Committee met [Jones:64-76]

<>1917oc17:Lenin discussed revolutionary military with Nikolai Podvoiskii & Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko & other MRC activists [DRR:107-110 | Jones:108-128]

<>1917oc18:Petrograd Soviet newspaper Izvestiia published editorial vs. Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) and their planned military revolutionary strike against Provisional Government, Central Executive Committee & Council of the Republic (All-Russian Democratic Conference?) [GRH:605-6]

<>1917oc19:Petrograd Soviet (Leon Trotsky president) [GRH:613]
*--From the front on this day came an appeal from a pro-Soviet Committee of the First Army =

Either provide us with our necessities and we will save the country and the revolution and will lead the land to a peace on democatic principles, or say, "We are not in a position to do this and you had better throw yourself on the mercy of the victory". We realize that you, too, have insurmountable obstacles, but know this! We appeal to you for the last time. We place ourselves at your service. We are ready to means of force to make the rear [IE=government in Petrograd] come to our aid, and to compel the conscious or unconscious foes of the revolution to grant our requests [GRH:402, with minor adjustments by SAC editor]

<>1917no02(NS):English statesman Arthur James Balfour sent public declaration in favor of the Zionist plan for a Jewish National Home [Israel] to head of the great European banking family, Lord Rothschild [E-TXT | BNE:298]
*--England continued to plan independently of other Allies for the future disposition of Ottoman Turkish Empire holdings
*1917no02:USA and Japan exchanged notes, known together as the Lansing-Ishii Agreement [E-TXT], which acknowledged Japan's "special interests" in China, but reaffirmed the Open Door policy in China
*--LOOP on Southern Front


<>1917oc20:oc23; Red Guard conference [Articles of Service:Chamberlin,1:465-7; break w/Petrograd military district:467-8]

<>1917oc22:Nikolai Sukhanov [ID] described how Trotsky aroused the peoples [P20:111]

<>1917oc23:Newspaper of the Petrograd Soviet, News [Izvestiia] discussed the need to transform Soviets into permanent governmental institutions [Reed,2:3]

<>1917oc24:Council of the Republic, Aleksandr Kerenskii speech [StH:77-87]

<>1917oc25:(NS no07) " The Soviet Revolution" , aka " The Bolshevik Revolution" or " The Communist Revolution" or " The October Revolution" or -- throughout the Soviet period of Russian history -- " Great October"

<>1917oc25:Newspaper of the Petrograd Soviet, News [Izvestiia], editorial vs. Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) [GRH:614-16]
*1917oc26:SRs published condemnation of Bolshevik/Soviet seizure of power [W]

<>1917oc26:oc27; Saratov (provincial urban administrative center on the middle-Volga) felt the wave of the Soviet Revolution [RWR:117-20]

<>1917oc27:Anti-Bolshevik print media suppressed, this the original act of Soviet censorship [SGv:18-19 | PS&C:130-1]
*--Related decree [McC2:190]
*--"Committee for the Salvation of the Motherland" appealed against the Soviet Revolution [Chamberlin,1:478-9]
*--Moscow Conference of Businessmen passed resolution [Reed,1:5]
*--Anti-Soviet views appeared with increasing frequency, EG=Writer Aleksei Remizov [ID] published The Lay of the Ruin of the Russian Land [RWR:126 | See his Selected Prose], an updated version of 1230s:Russian folk lament [ID] about Mongol ruination of Kievan Rus'

<>1917oc27:oc31; general Krasnov moved military forces toward Petrograd

<>1917oc28:Bourgeois newspaper reaction to October Revolution [Reed appendix to ch3,#2=TXT] [Reed LOOP]

<>1917oc29:All-Russian Executive Committee of Railroad labor unions sponsored conference of socialist parties (SDs, SRs, etc.)

<>1917oc30:1917no01; Aleksandr Kerenskii military move against Bolsheviks failed [WRR:252-79]

<>1917oc30:Bolsheviks announced new social insurance policy [ID]

<>1917no02:Soviet Decree on the right of the peoples of the old Russia Empire to revolutionary national self-determination (signed: Joseph Stalin & Vladimir Lenin) [McC2:191-3 | CCC2,2:1119-20 | DRR:159-61]

<>1917no02:Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) Central Committee rejected coalition government

<>1917no04:Gori Infantry Regiment #202 issued revolutionary demands [RWR:115-17]

<>1917no04:Soviet of People's Commissars [Sovnarkom] ultimatum to Ukrainian Central Rada [Chamberlin,1:486-8]

<>1917no07:Kiev| Central Rada issued its 3rd Universal declaration, a proclamation of Ukraine as autonomous " Peoples Republic" , though not fully independent of the Russian Republic, indeed standing with it in these hard times [read down in E-TXT | Chamberlin,1:479-82]

<>1917no08:Russian Orthodox Church Patriarchate restored with appointment of Tikhon
*--At the same time the nearly 200-year old bureaucratic office, the Holy Synod, was abolished
*1917:1918; Liudmila Gerasimova urged Orthodox Church Council to recognize the role of women in church administration and restore the office of Deaconess [DRW:283-6]

<>1917no08:Trotsky reported on the international situation [RFP3:96-9]

<>1917no12: Constituent Assembly election

<>1917no14:Soviet Decree "On Workers' Control" (Vladimir Lenin & Shliapnikov) [Bunyan1:4-7 | Chamberlin,1:482-4 | DRR:161-3 | McC2:233-5 | DPH:379-80 | SGv:405-]

<>1917no18:The Left-SRs joined Lenin and SDs(b) on the governing Soviet of People's Commissars[Sovnarkom]
*--Thus, a semblance of coalition government was created

<>1917no19:1917no28; Ten-day conference of new party, Left-SRs

<>1917no22:Provisional armistice on the Eastern Front of WW1, de02:Armistice confirmed

<>1917no28:Soviet decree ordered arrest of Constitutional Democrats [Partiia narodnoi svobody; Kadets or KDs]

<>1917de:Perm Province came under the influence of a Bolshevik " agitator" [RWR:122-4]
*--As 1917 wound down, an anonymous Russian official kept a diary [RWR:127

<>1917de:German prison in Breslau described by radical Social Democrat Rosa Luxemburg who was there because of her WW1 pacifism [Eye:483-4]

<>1917de01:Novaia zhizn' [The New Life] carried an article by ex-Bolshevik V.A. Rudnev, criticizing Lenin and single-party rule [E-TXT]
*--New Life was a Menshevik-Internationalist party publication. Maxim Gorky was the leading figure
*--Maxim Gorky's own harsh evaluations of early Soviet politics were published in Untimely Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture and the Bolsheviks, 1917-1918
*1919se6+:Gorky correspondence with Lenin [RWR:]

<>1917de01:Moscow decree on organization of Supreme Soviet of National Economy [McC2:230-2 | MDF:119]

<>1917de06:[de19 NS]; Soviet announcement of Brest-Litovsk armistice or cease-fire with Germany on the Eastern Front of WW1

<>1917de07:Soviet Decree on revolutionary state police, the "Cheka" [DRR:174-5 | McC2:181 | B&F | MDF:119 | SGv:237]

<>1917de07:Sovnarkom allocated 2M rubles for the needs of the revolutionary international movement [RFP3:104]
*--Bolsheviks felt world revolution was essential to their success since, as they described it, the "semi-Asiatic" Russian mode of production had not developed all the objective conditions necessary for the achievement of socialism or communism

<>1917de14:Decree on Nationalization of Banks [Chamberlin,1:489 | McC2:232 | CCC2,2:1120-1 | MDF:119]

<>1917de16:Soviet decree on organization of Red Army [McC2:140-1 | Chamberlin,1:489-90 | MDF:119]

<>1917de20:Decree on civil marriage & Finnish independence

<>1917de22:Russian-Polish border town Brest-Litovsk, site of German-Russian peace talks. Revolutionary Russia's foreign minister Joffe offered six points re. peace [Mayer:296-304 (-312)]

  1. No forcible annexation of territories seized in the war
  2. Restore national independence where it was terminated during war
  3. National groups independent before the war should be allowed by referendum to decide question of independence
  4. Multi-cultural regions should be administered so as to allow all possible cultural independence and self-regulation of minorities peoples
  5. No indemnities. Personal losses should be compensated out of international fund
  6. Colonial question should be decided according to points 1-4
German Foreign Minister Richard von Kühlmann and Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Count Ottokar Czernin, in all their old-world splendor, were met by leather-coated representatives of revolutionary Soviet power who at first brushed off the Central Power dignitaries, walked past them to the German soldiers who formed the dignitaries' military escort, and distributed incendiary pamphlets to German troops. The Eastern Front looked like it was shifting from international war to revolutionary war
*--Mayer:302 compares Joffe's six points with Lenin's views on Imperialism [ID]
*--Mayer:303-4 highlights Rbt Lansing's fear of revolutionary potential as WW1 ended

<>1917de26:Decree of Sovet narodnykh deputatov [Sovnarkom; Council of People's Deputies] re. Rights & Duties of Soviet [MDF:119]

<>1918:1919; Russian writer Vasilii Rozanov, The Apocalypse of Our Times [cf. Edie,2:286-304]

<>1918:Russian poet Aleksandr Blok, "The Intelligentsia and the Revolution" [Raeff3:364-71]
*--Blok's most brilliant twenty years were at a close

<>1918:Russian feminist revolutionary Aleksandra Kollontai, "The Family & the Communist State" [Wm. Rosenberg,Bolshevik:79-88 | RWR:149-52]

<>1918:German sociologist Max Weber delivered a lecture which treated with a special flare the conflict between scholarly detachment and engagement with everyday life, "Politics as a Vocation" [CCS:361-90 | CCS,1:651-82]

<>1918ja04:USA President Woodrow Wilson's Peace Inquiry Bureau position paper "The War Aims and Peace Terms it Suggests" [Mayer:339-44]. GO ja05:British Prime Minister delivered his views on war aims

<>1918ja04:Ukraine invaded by military forces concentrated in Kursk and loyal to Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (bolsheviks) [ SDs(b) ]
*--Two months of infighting among various Ukrainian political factions, all trying to find just the right relationship to occupying German forces, was about to turn in favor of SDs(b)

<>1918ja05:London Trades Union Congress heard address by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, in which he offered British wage-laborers a comprehensive and progressive statement of British war aims

<>1918ja05:ja06; Russian delegates to the Constituent Assembly, elected almost two months earlier [ID], now met for one long day and declared Russia a republic [RWR:210-23 | Eyewitness accounts = WRR,14]

<>1918ja07:ja14; All-Russian Congress of Workers' Unions [professional'nye soiuzy; Trade Unions] met for first time [Bunyan1:12-15 | RWR:145-8 & 183]

<>1918ja07:Lenin's 21 theses on the need for immediate peace with Central Powers [RFP3:104-111 | Senn,2:38] included the following =

The peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk have made it completely clear ... that in the German government (which completely directs the other governments of the Quadruple Alliance) the military party has taken over, and it has essentially presented Russia with an ultimatum. [...] The ultimatum is such: either more war or an annexationist peace, i.e., a peace on the condition that we yield all land occupied by us, the Germans keep all land occupied by them and impose upon us an indemnity (externally disguised as payment for the maintenance of prisoners) in the neighborhood of three billion rubles, to be paid over several years.

*--Lenin argued that the Soviets should accede and take this bitter pill. Further war would be even more disastrous. The Eastern Front was winding down

<>1918ja08:USA Congress| Woodrow Wilson address outlined "Fourteen Points" [TXT] [Mayer:352 mid-367 | BNE:215-19]

*--Mayer describes Allied views on war aims as of this time [TXT]
*--War aims had become a hot issue late in the course of WW1, largely in the 9-months following Russian revolutionary statement of war aims

<>1918ja09:Kiev| Central Rada 4th Universal declaration acknowledged that the revolution was entering a new and stressful phase [read down in E-TXT]

<>1918ja16:Kiev taken by Bolshevik military units who seemed temporarily to be in charge of Ukraine [McC2:141-2]

<>1918ja19:Tikhon,Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, pastoral letter condemned Bolsheviks [Chamberlin,1:495-7 | McC2:193-5 | Curtis, Russian Revolution:177-9]

<>1918ja23:Decree on relationship of Russian Orthodox Church to the new revolutionary state [Chamberlin,1:497-8]

<>1918ja24:Ukraine| Central Rada signed WW1 treaty w/Germany
*--1918ja26: Central Rada toppled by military forces loyal to the Bolshevik Party
*--Revolutionary Civil War expanded in Ukraine

<>1918ja27:Soviet decree on socialization of agricultural land under its control [McC2:248-51]

<>1918ja28:Moscow Congress of Soviets, Resolution#3 established Soviet style federal government [B&F:396-7 | DPH:427-9]
*--On this day, a decree annulled state debts inherited from the old regime [Chamberlin,1:498-9 | McC2:235]
*--Disavowal of national debts much perturbed international financial interests
*--LOOP on "finance"

<>1918fe01:fe13; There was no 1918:fe01:fe13 in Russian history

<>1918fe18:German-Russian WW1 hostilities resumed after Germany denounced Soviet diplomatic initiatives. Germany abandoned negotiations at Brest-Litovsk

<>1918fe19:Lenin pleaded for acceptance of peace and harsh German demands, but the Party rejected his plea
*--Two more weeks of German/Austrio-Hungarian advance finally convinced everyone that peace was necessary [McC2:142-4] GO mr03

<>1918fe19:Russian Federated Soviet Republic passed "Fundamental Law of Agricultural Land Socialization" [CCC2,2:1121-2]

<>1918fe22:Social Democratic Party (bolsheviks) [SDs(b)] accepted the offer by Western-Front Allies (France, England and USA) to aid them on the Eastern Front
*--All this presumed that the Soviets were going to continue the war effort against Central Powers. However =

<>1918mr03:German-Russian Brest-Litovsk treaty =
*--World War One on the "Eastern Front" was ended with this treaty [W]
*--WW1 on the "Western Front", however, was not ended for another 8+ months
*--WW1 on the "Southern Front" continued active for three more years in a time of Revolutionary Civil War and Allied intervention

<>1918mr06:mr07; Moscow| Communist Party Congress #7, re. peasant affairs and agricultural land policy [Chamberlin,2:478-81]
*--Documents related to events in the countryside [HCV:277-303]
*--Bolshevik Party [SD(b)] changed its name to Communist Party

<>1918mr15:Left-SRs withdrew from the institutions of People's Commissars, though they held onto local positions for the time being

<>1918mr16:Kiev,Ukraine| Central Rada ratified the Constitution of the UNR and elected Hrushevskii president

<>1918mr21:Germany launched last WW1 offensive on Western Front

<>1918ap05:Siberia, Vladivostok| Japan military landing complicated the question of Revolutionary Civil War as outside intervention entered into the equation of domestic struggle

<>1918ap10:Russian consumers' co-operatives [McC2:239-41]

<>1918ap22:Soviet Decree on compulsory military training [McC2:144-7 | Chamberlin,1:502-4]

<>1918ap22:1921mr18; Caucasus| Transcaucasian Federation waxed for nearly 2 years, then over its final year broke into national components (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) and was gathered into the emerging Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR]

<>1918my09:Soviet Congress of the Supreme Council of the Public Economy issued a Decree on food [Chamberlin,1:509-11 | Senn,2:]

<>1918my:Moscow| "Natsional'nyi tsentr" [National Center] organized against Soviet government and in the hope of uniting all anti-Bolshevik forces
*--Old Zemstvo constitutionalist Dmitrii Shipov became first president of the "National Center"
*1918my10:my18; " Don Republic" formed when anti-Soviet Cossacks overthrew the revolutionary " Don Soviet Republic" [MGwrx:2-16 | Wki with map]
*1918my16:1918my19; Saratov | Red Army mutinied, adding an urgent note of revolutionary Bolshevik institutional instability as Revolutionary Civil War loomed

<>1918my16:USA "Espionage Act" amended [W]

<>1918my23:Siberia, Cheliabinsk| Soviet authorities ordered that the mutinous Czech and Slovak legions [ID] be disarmed and broken up [MGwrx:50-51]

<>1918my30:Siberia, Tomsk | Western Siberian Commissariat established to secure Soviet power there

<>1918je09:Decree on Red Army [Chamberlin,2:465]
*--A second round of mobilization decrees now followed the first [ID]
*--Two more decrees followed quickly as Soviets geared up for military struggle against anti-revolutionary forces =

<>1918je11:Decree on Committees of Poor Peasants (Kombedy) [Chamberlin,2:465-8 | McC2:247-51 | SGv:312-2]
*--Kombedy squads combed the countryside in search of grain to be confiscated and used in the most vital governmental, military and industrial centers
*--Food shortages became a major revolutionary war-time problem [MGwrx:19-21]
*--Kombedy grain confiscation described by agent [RWR:157-60]
*--Coherent policy on agricultural land, on rural life in general, was delayed by the Revolutionary Civil War

<>1918je13:Nizhnii Novgorod Province came under Soviet authority [RWR:124-6]

<>1918je28:Soviet Decree on Nationalization of manufacturing, industry, transportation, etc [Chamberlin,2:468-70 | CCC2,2:1122-4 | MDF:119-20 | SGv:34-6]
*--Worker unrest spread through the spring and summer [RWR:223-33]
*--Revolutionary Civil War compelled thoroughgoing state centralization of national economic life in connection with wartime mobilization
*--Industrial economic centralization was an important component of what came to be called "War Communism"
*--Economic centralization was a source of popular discontent. It was a product of the Revolutionary Civil War, and it would stretch on well after
*--In the long run (20 years later) economic centralization contributed to the rise of Stalinism in the Soviet Union

<>1918jy01:Official Communist Party labor union condemned industrial worker strikes
*--Independent trades unions and workers' control of industry were now a thing of the past  [Bunyan1:25-51]
*--The fate of wage-labor was shaped by conditions of Revolutionary Civil War and foreign intervention
*--These conditions were also a frosty hint of future "Stalinism"

<>1918jy02:European Allies worked to coordinate military intervention in the Russian Revolution
*--NB! earlier landings on territories of old Russian empire in Murmansk in the White Sea region [ID] and Vladivostok in the region of the Sea of Japan [ID]

<>1918jy06:USA. Woodrow Wilson decided to send troops to Russia

<>1918jy06:Murmansk, a far northern region of Russia, near Norway and Finland | Invading English interventionist forces reached agreement with local Soviet
*--LOOP on Southern Front

<>1918jy06:1918jy08; Moscow | Left-SRs rebelled against Communist Party rule

<>1918jy06:1918jy23; Yaroslavl [map] gripped in public disorder

<>1918jy10:Soviet All-Russian Conference#5 expelled Left-SRs and declared that the new revolutionary state was named the "Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic" (RSFSR)

<>1918jy16:Russian ex-tsar Nicholas II and his family gunned down in Ekaterinburg captivity [McC2:189 | RWR:130-4]
*--Pavel Medvedev described event [Eye:485-7]

<>1918jy16:jy17;Private letters from a Bolshevik activist [RWR:134-7]

<>1918jy17:USA President Wilson's instructions to his commander in Siberia, General William Graves [RFP2,2:3-6]
*--Graves, America's Siberian Adventure: 1918-1920 (1931, reprint, 1941)

<>1918jy28:USA-Soviet diplomatic break when Ambassador David Francis sailed away from a port on the White Sea near Arkhangel'sk

<>1918au02:1919je07; Arkhangel'sk [map] English proclamations to Russians aimed to enlist domestic forces in the cause of Allied intervention and defeat of Soviet power [VRX:300-18]
*1918au02:Arkhangel'sk | Anti-Soviet Chaikovskii government established under British protection
*--England definitely saw a role for itself in the Revolutionary Civil War

<>1918au02:Vladivostok [map] Japanese forces moved along Trans-Siberian railroad into Siberia
*--Next day: English forces landed at Vladivostok
*--USA was soon involved in Siberian intervention

<>1918au07:Kazan and its gold reserves taken by people's military

<>1918au15:USA formally severed diplomatic relations with revolutionary Russia

<>1918se04:Arkhangel'sk | USA landed military force with other interventionist Ally England
*1918se05:"Red terror" on the rise [McC2:186-9]

<>1918se23:Ufa, a city at the southern tip of the Ural Mts. [map], ruled by "White" government
*--Documents related to various aspects of " White" government rule during the Revolutionary Civil War [MGwrx:16-19]
*--Revolutionary civil war approached its year of greatest crisis

<>1918se30:Bulgaria agreed to the Armistice of Thessalonica, removing itself from WW1 over a month before hostilities ceased on the Western Front [French cavalry officer described the "Allied" victory, Eye.WW1:426-7]
*--France represented the Allies in Thessalonica
*--Russia, in the grips of Revolutionary Civil War, was given no role
*--Bulgarian tsar Ferdinand abdicated

<>1918se:Regional Soviet officials in the middle Volga R. region (with its heavy Islamic population) forbad local party activists from convening a congress of Muslim clergy. Even though the Communist Party wished to show itself to be unlike earlier imperialists, it could not bring Islamic clergy into its midst any more than it could bring Orthodox priests into its midst [RWR:137-8]
*--LOOP on Southern Front

<>1918oc:Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Tikhon placed under house arrest
*--The previous critical sixty years of reform had not prepared the Russian Church to survive the revolutionary era without devastating loss of official stature in the emerging Soviet Union
*1919de:Believers continued to defend their church, demanding to teach the Catechism [RWR:139]
*1920fe:Kostroma citizens denounced closing of their church [RWR:164-6]

<>1918oc01:Damascus fell to Arabic troops led by T.E.Lawrence [Eye.WW1:428-30]

<>1918oc03:Germany, in the waning weeks of WW1 on its Western Front, moved toward creation of a liberal republic when Prince Max of Baden was appointed German Chancellor

<>1918oc18:Russian industrial worker control in factories abolished, ending wage-labor self-management [SGv:406-7]
*--More than a hint of coming Stalinism in the Revolutionary Civil War policies of the new and beleaguered Soviet state

<>1918oc26:German chief of staff Erich Ludendorff dismissed

<>1918oc30:Czechoslovak Republic declared its existence, a new bi-national (Czech and Slovak) Slavic nation-state, carved from the hide of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, just as the several Balkan peoples sought independence from Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Turkish imperialist dominance

<>1918oc31:Soviet Social Security plan enacted [Rimlinger one-paragraph ID]

<>1918no06:Polish Republic was declared under the leadership of Pilsudski [Wki] who set about instantly to wage war in order to restore pre-partition borders [ID]
*--Pilsudski sent troops to the east into the territories of the old Russian Empire, now fragmented and locked in Revolutionary Civil War

<>1918no07:In the days just prior to the cessation of active war-time hostility along the Western Front, England and France issued a joint declaration on "national liberation" in old "Near Eastern" territories of the Ottoman Empire [BNE:298-9]

<>1918no08:Germany, Munich| Political meetings, described by the great German poet Rainer Maria Rilke
*--The great Heidelberg University Professor Max Weber spoke
*--News of the election of Kurt Eisner as president of the Munich Soviet of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Deputies revealed that, here on the first anniversary of the Russian Soviet Revolution, a Bavarian Republic was declared [Eye.WW1:435-6]
*1918no09:Berlin | On the next day, rebellion brought down the decrepit Hohenzollern imperial monarchy and also the incipient liberal regime

<>1918no11:Germany, no longer the Empire [Reich] it was at the start of World War One, now signed Armistice with Allies

<>1918no12:Austrian Habsburg Emperor Charles I abdicated

<>1918no13:Moscow | Congress of Soviets #6 repudiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk [ID], two days after the armistice was signed on the Western Front

<>1918no18:Siberia, Omsk | Just a week after hostilities ceased on the WW1 Western Front, a Coup d'état brought Russian Imperial-naval Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak [W-ID] to power far from the open seas
*--As the Russian Revolutionary Civil War became increasingly complex, Kolchak had been driven back to the vast remoteness of Siberia from his old WW1 Southern Front naval post in Odessa on the Black Sea
*--Kolchak's Siberia soon became an implausible but nonetheless important anti-Soviet rallying point in the Revolutionary Civil War
*--Kolchak's bizarre ascendancy provided a focal point for the many diverse Russian factions, those who hoped that the defeated Russian Empire -- or its brief, ineffective and now overthrown Provisional Government -- might still be given a role in the Paris Peace deliberations. These factions believed Russia should be a part of the impending and daunting task of pulling pre-war Europe back together
John M. Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and the Versailles Peace|>Thompson.VERSAILLES:ch#9(309-314 summarizes the complex issues connected with Revolutionary Russia in the Paris Peace Conference that created and imposed the Versailles Treaty on "defeated" Germany), ch#3 & ch#8 (these two chapters account the miserable efforts to solve the Russian issue over the months leading up to the Versailles Treaty [ID])

<>1918no26:Far southern Ukraine, at the mouth of the Dnestr River (on the old but notably still sparking WW1 Southern Front), that strategic Black Sea harbor city Odessa was occupied by 10,000 WW1 interventionist troops under French command and made up of French, Greek and Polish units

<>1918de14:Ukraine Directory (a legislative institution that evolved out of the old Central Rada [ID] ) cooperated with Ukrainian (ex-Imperial Russian) military leaders to overthrow the pro-German Ukrainian leader Skoropadski
*--Simon Petliura came more nearly to the center of those Ukrainian military leaders who opposed German and Soviet dominance over Ukraine
*--Into the fall of 1919, Petliura and his associates were willing to work closely with the western European interventionists, particularly with France and England, in the hopes they could hold onto power and create a greater and emerging independent Ukrainian nation-state
*1919ja:Ukrainian "National Republic" (UNR, earlier created in the eastern "Ukrainian" territories of the collapsed Austro-Hungarian Empire and in southern territories of the emerging new Polish nation-state) united with the broader UNR (created in largely Ukrainian speaking western territories of the collapsed Russian Empire) [lxt]
*2016oc26: Независимая газета| "В Киеве установят памятник Петлюре" [E-TXT]

<>1918de02:Soviet Committees of Poor Peasants (Kombedy) were liquidated, bringing an end to one of the most unpopular Bolshevik domestic policies in the Revolutionary Civil War period

<>1918de14:English general elections brought strong-man David Lloyd-George, war-time Minister of Defense and Prime Minister, and his Coalition to center

<>1918de18:Batumi on the far eastern shore of the Black Sea [map] was the site of an English interventionist military landing, in a situation not unlike and not altogether independent of the French landing in Odessa [ID]

<>1918de20:Germany | Berlin conference of workers and soldiers deputies demanded nationalization of those industries within which soviets had been created by wage-laborers (especially war veterans -- soldiers mainly being workers temporarily in uniform). These soviets imitated the Russian revolutionary model [ID]
*--LOOP on "finances"

<>1919:Germany, Weimar | Walter Gropius created school of applied art and architecture called "Bauhaus" [CWC:398-413]

<>1919:German (Czech-born) Social Democrat Karl Kautsky criticized Bolshevik politics in Terrorism and Communism
*--Kautsky distinguished his social-democracy from Soviet-style socialism [CCS:921-44 | CCS,2:533-56]
*--Trotsky was quick to respond [excerpts from the full polemic = PWT2:300-4]

<>1919:German (Czech-born) political theorist Joseph Schumpeter published Soziologie des Imperialismus [CCC3,2:1089-1109]

<>1919:Moscow Communist Party renounced all unequal tsarist treaties and denounced Russian imperialism in general

<>1919wi:Soviet political police [Cheka] arrested anti-Soviet Revolutionary Civil War political leader Dmitrii Shipov
*1920:Shipov's death marked the end of a significant but now extinguished 20-year political career

<>1919ja05:ja11; German Spartacist Party [Spartakusbund], a radical spin-off from the main body of German Social Democrats, revolted in Berlin
*--Klara Zetkin, Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht, and Franz Mehring, Spartacist Manifesto [Gruber,1:104-14 | BPE:521-4]
*1919ja15:Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested, On their way to jail, they were murdered by Free Corps police [W]

<>1919ja10:fe04; German city Bremen declared self a Soviet Republic and survived 4 weeks

<>1919ja12:Soviet Republic Foreign Affairs Commissar Chicherin memo to USA State Department about intervention and need for peace talks
*--Chicherin refuted the five leading justifications made in USA for intervention
*--Chicherin affirmed that "we are ready to eliminate everything which may be an obstacle to [...] normal relations" [RFP2,2:27]

<>1919ja18:1920au10; France | Paris Peace Conference [W] met for 18 months and imposed five major treaties on "defeated" Central Powers [ID] unilaterally shaped the long-term future of many other people in the regions of "defeated" Central Powers

  1. 1919je28:Treaty of Versailles was forced on Germany, the first of the major settlements
  2. 1919se10:Treaty of Saint-Germain was settled on Austria, setting free Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Hungary as independent nation-states
  3. 1919no27:Treaty of Neuilly was settled on Bulgaria, the least of the Central Powers, which was forced to relinquish its Aegean Sea territories, to pay excessive reparations to the victorious Allies, and to accept the independence of Yugoslavia
  4. 1920je04:Treaty of Trianon [W] was settled on Hungary, stripping it of huge territories in Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania
  5. 1920au10:Treaty of Sévres [MAP NB! 1920 projection of Armenian and Kurdish territories, and NB! the dark line delimiting the Turkish national boundaries finally settled in 1923, after Turkey rejected the Treaty of Sévres]. The victorious Allies sought unsuccessfully to settle this treaty on what remained of the old Ottoman Turkish Empire (where the Covenant of the League of Nations, ARTICLE 22 on "Mandatories" [ID], was applied with especial vigor =

<>1919ja25:1942; The Versailles Treaty contained the Covenant of the League of Nations [TXT] [Excerpts = BNE:257-60 | CCC2,2:1219-31 | DPH:451-61]

<>1919ja21:Ireland, Dublin | Sinn Fein Congress adopted declaration of independence from England
*1919:1921; Irish war of independence
*--The military wing of the Sinn Fein political party, the Irish Republican Army [IRA], was led by Michael Collins
*--Conclusion of war for independence from England did not bring peace to the Irish
*:|>Fitzpatrick,David G/EREV
*:|>Hart,Peter|_The_I.R.A. and Its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-1923|>Hart.IRA:1-18 + chapters 3 and 11| ((E-TXT))

<>1919ja23:German elections brought socialists to power

<>1919fe06:Ukraine Directory and UNR again fell to Red Army as the Russian Revolutionary Civil War raged on. Then came Denikin and the White-guardist troops
*--Petliura and his forces retreated to the unstable frontier between Ukrainian and Polish power

<>1919fe:Japan suggested racial equality clause in the charter of the League of Nations, supported by China, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, Italy, and Poland
*--Austria was a bitter opponent of the racial equality clause and was supported in this by Canada and USA
*--England held back
*--Defeat of this clause left "Japan with a feeling of resentment that was never entirely assuaged" [Beasley,MHJ:208]
*--LOOP on Southern Front

<>1919fe:USA, Seattle General Strike, growing labor militancy led to first ever "general" strike in USA, in which workers throughout a major city simply ceased to "go to work"

The City of Seattle formed machine-gun units to combat strikers [Seattle Times]

<>1919fe11:German republic was formed even as the ashes of WW1 cooled

<>1919fe13(NS):English Foreign Office [FO] interviews with Russian political refugees painted a grim picture of life under Soviet rule
*--An interventionist mood grew even stronger in FO circles [BNE:233-9]

<>1919fe21:Germany, Munich | Bavarian premier Kurt Eisner assassinated

<>1919fe23:Italian political activist, ex-socialist syndicalist Benito Mussolini founded Fasci del Combattimento
*--He drafted a visionary program that was never carried out, whatever his later successes as founder of European Fascism [DPH:386-7]
*--"Italy and the road to war" [YouTube]
*--GO mr04

<>1919mr04:1943my22; Moscow | Comintern [Communist International or Third International] was organized and lasted 24 years

<>1919mr13:Russian Admiral Kolchak led military campaign vs. Bolsheviks on the Siberian front of the Revolutionary Civil War

<>1919mr16:Austrian Republic appeared as a new post-war nation, born at the center of the defeated Empire, now with Socialist Karl Renner appointed chancellor

<>1919mr18:mr23; Communist Party Congress #8 met and created the Politbiuro [F/]

<>1919mr21:au01; Hungary| Bela Kun formed Soviet government in the eastern half of the old pre-WW1 dual monarchy
*--The emerging Soviet Republic welcomed Bela Kun, and his revolution survived more than four months, in the face of high anxiety among victorious WW1 Allies gathered in Paris
*--Mayer,P&D:521-56, 559-603, 716-50, 827-51 -- 139pp in all

<>1919mr26:Soviet Republic issued a declaration addressed to the Republic of China [RFP2,1:172-5]
*--China in a multi-faceted political struggle between Sun Yat-sen, various war-lord factions, and activist-minded disciples of the Comintern

<>1919ap04:my01; Germany | Bavarian Soviet Republic established and lasted less than one month before it was crushed by troops

<>1919ap06:Odessa [map] occupied by Red Army after French interventionist forces withdrew
*--LOOP on almost 15 years of Odessa revolutionary history

<>1919ap12:Ottoman Turkish trial of those accused of Armenian Genocide [D&A:271-332]

<>1919ap13:India, Amritsar | Unarmed civilian subjects of English imperialist rule were slaughtered by troops under English command
*--Jawaharlal Nehru joined Gandhi in organizing anti-imperialist movement

<>1919my:1919je; Donbas [basin of the Don River in the far eastern Ukraine] General Anton Denikin [W-ID] led a campaign and gave some indication that these anti-Soviet "White-guardists" might have a chance of victory in the Revolutionary Civil War [McC2:173-6]
*1919my26:Allies negotiating in Paris agreed, after a half-year of dithering, to throw support behind the questionable unified opposition under Kolchak

<>1919my06:Kamerun (Cameroon) and German East Africa, both German colonial holdings in east and southwest Africa, taken by England [MAP]
*--Soon Belgian complaints resulted in some of this going to Belgium
*1919my17:my24; British war in Afghanistan saw Royal Air Force bombing of city Dakka, the beginning of expanded use of aerial bombing against rebel villages
*1919my24:RAF Handley Page V.1500 bomber, then the largest airplane in the world, no longer needed for the planned aerial bombing of Berlin, was sent from British India over Kabul's central palatial administrative compound to deliver four 112-lb. and 16 20-lb. bombs, an attack of little military value but the first instance of aerial "shock and awe"
*--In the months ahead, aerial power was widely used in Afghanistan, India, Somalia and, with particular effect, in Iraq, but with noteworthy civilian casualties
*1990:|>Omissi,David E|_Air power and colonial control: The Royal Air Force, 1919-1939|

<>1919je22:Versailles Peace Treaty imposed impossible economic, territorial, and military requirements on "defeated" Germany [W] [DPH:353-9]

<>1919su:Azerbaijan, Baku | English interventionist military withdrew from these oil-rich AfroAsian territories of the fallen Russian Empire
*--LOOP on Southern Front

<>1919jy12:England and France authorized renewed trade relations with devastated Germany

<>1919jy27:jy31; USA | Chicago gripped by four days of race rioting

<>1919jy31:Germany adopted Weimar Constitution [CCC2,2:1125-30 | DPH:406-9]

<>1919au05:Turkey| At a Nationalist Congress, Mustafa Kemal declared Turkey to be an independent nation-state, free from Istanbul & Ottoman authority, and from the authority of the victorious Allies & their narrowly motivated Paris treaties

<>1919se:Chicago | Communist Party of America [CPA], as well as its rival, the Communist Labor Party of America [CLP], were founded

<>1919se12:Italian adventurer Gabriele d'Annunzio led private army in seizure of Fiume, providing an example of the sort of bravado and disregard for Paris Peace Conference settlements that inspired the Italian Fascist movement

<>1919fa:Arkhangel'sk region. Allied interventionist forces withdrew
*--Winston Churchill urged France to ramp up its anti-Bolshevik interventionism down along the Southern Front [RWR:255-7]

<>1919fa:Ukraine under control of Russian White-Guard military commander Anton Denikin [ID]

<>1919no:USA President Wilson vetoed Volstead Prohibition Enforcement Act, butCongress overturned veto

<>1919no14:Siberia, Omsk | Kolchak in retreat

<>1919no27:Paris | Neuilly-sur-Seine Treaty between Allies and Bulgaria [W]
*--Moving MAP illustrates geo-political results of this Southern-front treaty

<>1919de02:Russian Communist Party Conference #8 [McC2:200-7]

<>1919de12:Kiev | Soviet Red Army took Ukraine from "White-Russian" forces who were led by Anton Denikin

<>1919de31:USA, England and Japan signed agreement over Russian territories in Siberia

<>1920:Petrograd writer Evgenyi Zamiatin wrote novel We, the first of the great twentieth-century "anti-utopian" works

<>1920ja15:Kolchak captured by Red Army

<>1920fe25:Germany | National Socialist German Workers' Party [NSDAP or "Nazi Party" for short] adopted first political program [BNE:264-7 | DPH:409-12]

<>1920mr:Communist Party Congress #9

<>1920ap04:Wrangel assumed command over Denikin forces as the spurious unity among contending anti-Bolshevik factions unraveled

<>1920ap05:Communist Party Control of Staffing [SGv:145-6]

<>1920ap25:Polish/Soviet war broke out when Poland invaded Ukraine along Poland's eastern and southern border

<>1920je04:Paris | Trianon Treaty between Allies and Hungary [W]

<>1920je06:Wrangel offensive the last gasp of the White-guardist forces in the Revolutionary Civil War

<>1920jy:Batumi (on the SE shores of the Black Sea) | England withdrew its interventionist forces from this northern base in the territories of the fallen Russian Empire, but its efforts intensified elsewhere in the old WW1 Southern Front

<>1920jy17:1920au07; Moscow | Comintern [Third International] Congress #2 [McC2:223-9 | RFP2,2:154-8 | RFP3:349-55 | RWP1,3:162-72]

<>1920au:Tambov province peasant rebellion against Soviet power [Radkey]

<>1920au10:USA diplomatic note to Italian Ambassador Avezzano tried from distance to influence east European events [RFP2,2:29-34]

<>1920se01:se07; Baku, Azerbaijan| Congress of the Peoples [aka Toilers] of the East [E-TXT minutes of the Congress]

<>1920se27:Soviet Republic declaration addressed to China [RFP2,1:176-7]

<>1920oc12:Soviet-Polish peace treaty signed ending the indecisive six-month-long war

<>1920oc19:USA/Soviet agreement on shipment of food to Russia [W]
*--In this month H.G. Wells [Wki] observed conditions in Petrograd [McC2:276-9] and met with Lenin [RWR:152-6]

<>1920no:Kazan| Appeal to Lenin against local "bourgeoisie" misdeeds in the middle-Volgas region [RWR:140-2]

<>1920no14:Red Army victorious over Wrangel who sailed away from Crimea, into exile

<>1920de27:French political leader Léon Blum (1872-1950) urged his socialist party forward, but spoke against imitating Russian Bolshevism [CWC:251-70]
*--In this same year, 1920:English economist Arthur Cecil Pigou published The Economics of Welfare which laid out formulas that allowed unequal distribution of wealth (economic inequality) to be measured and by which the harm of extreme economic inequality could be assessed

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