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Math Ability/Performance Abstracts

Commentary on women in math B. Bridgeman, C. Wendler, J. R. Levin (editor), Gender Differences in Predictors of College Mathematics Performance and in College Mathematics Course Grades L. Burton, Gender and Mathematics: An International Perspective V. I. Cherian, Gender, socioeconomic status, and mathematics achievement by Xhosa children I. Cherney, A League of Their Own: Do Single-Sex Schools Increase Girls’ Participation in the Physical Sciences S. F. Chipman, D. H. Krantz, and R. Silver, Mathematics anxiety and science careers among able college women J. Ernest, Mathematics and Sex R. B. Felson and L. Trudeau, Gender differences in mathematics performance B. Grevholm and G. Hanna, Gender and Mathematics Education, an ICMI Study in Stiftsgardern, Akersberg, Hoor, Sweden L. Guiso et. al. Culture, Gender, and Math. E. A. Gunderson, G. Ramirez, S. C. Levine, S. L. Beilock, The Role of Parents and Teachers in the Development of Gender-Related Math Attitudes J. Gutbezahl, How negative expectancies and attitudes undermine females' math confidence and performance: a review of the literature P. Huguet and I. Régner, Counter-stereotypic beliefs in math do not protect school girls from stereotype threat J. S. Hyde, E. Fennema, and S. J. Lamon, Gender differences in mathematics performance: a meta-analysis J. S. Hyde, S. M. Lindberg, M. C. Linn, A. B. Ellis, C. C. Williams; Gender similarities characterize math performance J. S. Hyde, E. Fennema, M. Ryan, L. A. Frost, and C. Hopp, Gender comparisons of mathematics attitudes and affect: a meta-analysis J. E. Jacobs, Influence of gender stereotypes on parent and child mathematics attitudes B. Kurtz-Costes, S. Rowley, A. Harris-Britt, T. Woods, Gender Stereotypes about Mathematics and Science and Self-Perceptions of Ability in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence E. Kwiatkowski, R. Dammer, J. K. Mills, and C.-S. Jih, Gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics among undergraduate college students: the role of environmental variables L. Lafortune, Femmes et Mathématique G. Lappan, L. H. Reyes, and G. M. A. Stanic, Gender and race equity in primary and middle school mathematics classrooms S. M. Lindberg, J. S. Hyde, J. L. Petersen, M. Linn, News trends in gender and mathematics performance:A meta-analysis
In this article, the authors use meta-analysis to analyze gender differences in recent studies of mathematics performance. First, they meta-analyzed data from 242 studies published between 1990 and 2007, representing the testing of 1,286,350 people. Overall, d = 0.05, indicating no gender difference, and variance ratio = 1.08, indicating nearly equal male and female variances. Second, they analyzed data from large data sets based on probability sampling of U.S. adolescents over the past 20 years: the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Effect sizes for the gender difference ranged between −0.15 and +0.22. Variance ratios ranged from 0.88 to 1.34. Taken together, these findings support the view that males and females perform similarly in mathematics.
D. Martinot and M. Désert, Awareness of a gender stereotype, personal beliefs and self-perceptions regarding math ability: when boys do not surpass girls M. McCaslin, D. Tuck, A. Wiard, B. Brown, J. LaPage, and J. Pyle, Gender composition and small-group learning in fourth-grade mathematics L. D. Miller, C. E. Mitchell, and M. V. Ausdall, Evaluating achievement in mathematics: exploring the gender biases of timed testing O. Neuschmidt*, J. Barth, and D. Hastedt, Trends in gender differences in mathematics and science (TIMSS 1995 - 2003) P. Noack and M. Steffens, On the leaky math pipeline: Comparing implicit math-gender stereotypes and math withdrawal in female and male children and adolescents P. Olszewski-Kubilius and D. Turner, Gender differences among elementary school-aged gifted students in achievement, perceptions of ability, and subject preference
Previous research suggests that, while gender differences on standardized tests among high school-aged students have diminished, they persist among academically gifted students. This study examined patterns of gender differences for younger, elementary school-aged gifted students. Results showed that, on an off-level achievement test, males outperformed females in mathematics beginning in grade 3, although effect sizes were small. The ratio of males to females achieving very high scores on the mathematics subtest was 2:1, but this difference was only significant among 5th and 6th graders. Both males and females had a preference for mathematics over other subjects. More girls perceived their academic strengths to be in verbal areas, while most boys perceived theirs to be in mathematics and science. Girls' and boys' perceptions of their academic strengths corresponded to their actual performance on the off-level test. Tested abilities also corresponded to students' choice of easiest and most challenging subject.
M. Perry, A. Ryan, C. M. Ganley, L. A. Mingle, K. Ryan, M. Vasilyeva, An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls’ Mathematics Performance
Abstract from the article: “ Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students, we investigated stereotype threat effects during childhood and adolescence. Three activation methods were used, ranging from implicit to explicit. Across studies, we found no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat. In 2 of the studies, there were gender differences on the mathematics assessment regardless of whether stereotype threat was activated. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed, including the possibility that stereotype threat effects only occur in very specific circumstances or that they are in fact occurring all the time. We also address the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias.”
J. F. Rech, A comparison of the mathematics attitudes of black students according to grade level, gender, and academic achievement S. M. Reis and S. Park, Gender differences in high-achieving students in math and science
The research described in this article examined gender differences between high-achieving students in math and science with respect to their achievement, self-concept, locus of control, number of math and science courses taken, and the important people who contributed to their decisions to enroll in advanced courses in high school. The study utilized data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88; National Center for Education Statistics, 1994), with two subsamples selected that represent the highest achieving students in math and in science. The results of this study indicated that there were more males than females in both subsamples of high-achieving students in math and science. The results also suggested that the best predictor for distinguishing between mathematically high-achieving males and females was locus of control. High-achieving males had both higher self-concept and higher standardized math test scores than high-achieving females.
P. Rogers, Thoughts on power and pedagogy E. S. Spelke, Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science: A critical review F. K. Stage and P. Kloosterman, Gender, beliefs, and achievement in remedial college-level mathematics D. J. Stipek and J. H. Gralinski, Gender differences in children's achievement-related beliefs and emotional responses to success and failure in mathematics M. Taal, How do mathematical experiences contribute to the choice of mathematics
This study examined how mathematical experiences influence Dutch pupils' course enrollment in mathematics. Are gender differences in extracurricular, mathematics-related activities related to achievements in or attitudes towards mathematics, and consequently to differences between girls and boys in the selection of mathematics for their final examination curriculum? In total, 213 Dutch secondary education pupils (i.e., 139 females and 74 males) between the ages of 14 and 15 participated in this study. The frequency of their participation in 60 mathematics-related activities, their intelligence and attitudes toward mathematics were registered. In addition, the achievement grades in mathematics were obtained. The results revealed that extracurricular activities were related to achievement grades rather than to attitudes toward mathematics. Intellectual capacities, achievements, and feelings of adequacy in mathematics, rather than mathematics-related activities, discriminated between the pupils who selected or did not select mathematics for their final examination curriculum. No gender differences could be demonstrated in achievement grades for mathematics, nor in attitudes toward mathematics. These findings suggest that for Dutch secondary education students mathematics-related activities were stimulating, but not decisive for their choice of mathematics in their final examination curriculum.
C. Tomasetto, F. R. Alparone, and M. Cadinu, Girls' Math Performance Under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes C. A. Wiles, Investigating gender bias in the evaluation of middle school teachers of mathematics J. Xu and E. Farrell, Mathematics performance of Shanghai high school students: a preliminary look at gender differences in another culture.