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Renascence Editions

The Arte of Rhetorique

Thomas Wilson

Introduction | Book I | Book II | Book III

Note on the e-text: this Renascence Editions text was transcribed by Judy Boss, Omaha, NE, 1998, from Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique 1560. Ed. G. H. Mair. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909. Content unique to this presentation is copyright © 1998 The University of Oregon and Judy Boss. For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and corrections to the Publisher, rbear at uoregon.edu.

The third Booke
Of apt chusing and framing of words and
sentences together, called Elocution.

AND now we are come to that part of Rhetorique, the which aboue all other is most beautifull, wherby not onely words are aptly vsed, but also sentences are in right order framed. For whereas Inuention helpeth to finde matter, and Disposition serueth to place arguments: Elocution getteth words to set forth inuention, and with such beautie commendeth the matter, that reason semeth to be clad in Purple, walking afore both bare and naked. Therefore Tullie saieth well, to finde out reason and aptly to frame it, is the part of a wiseman, but to commende it by wordes and with gorgious talke to tell our conceipt, that is onely proper to an Oratour. Many are wise, but fewe haue the gift to set forth their wisedome. Many can tel their mind in English, but fewe can vse meete termes and apt order: such as all men should haue, and wisemen will vse: such as needes must bee had when matters should be vtterd. Now then what is he at
Eloquent men
most esteemed.
whom al men wonder, and stand in a mase at the vewe of his wit: whose doings are best esteemed? Whom we doe most reuerence, and compt half a God among men? Euen such a one assuredly that can plainly, distinctly, plentifully and aptly, vtter both words and matter, and his talke can vse such composition, that he may appere to keepe an vniformitie, and (as I might saie) a nomber in the vttering of his sentence. Now an eloquent man being smally learned can much more good in perswading by shift of wordes, and meete placing of matter: then a great learned clarke shalbe able with great store of learning, wanting words to set forth his meaning. Wherefore I much meruaile that so many seke the onely knowledge of things, without any mind to commend or set forth their intendement: seing none can knowe either what thei are, or what they haue without the gift of vtterance. Yea bring them to speak their minde, and enter in talke with such as are said to be learned, and you shal finde in them such lacke of vttrance, that if you iudge them by their tongue, and expressing of their minde: you must needes say they haue no learning. Wherin me thinkes they do like some rich snudges hauing great wealth, goe with their hose out at heeles, their shoes out at toes, and their coates out at both
Barbarous Clarkes, no
better then slouens.
elbowes. For who can tell if such men are woorth a groate, when their apparell is so homely, and all their behauiour so base? I can call them by none other name but slouens, that may haue good geare, and neither can nor yet wil once weare it clenly. What is a good thing to a man, if he neither know the vse of it, nor yet (though he knowe it) is able at all to vse it? If we think it comelinesse and honestie to set forth the bodie with handsome apparel, and thinke them worthy to haue money, that both can and will vse it accordingly: I can not otherwise see but that this part deserueth praise, which standeth wholy in setting foorth matter, by apt wordes and sentences together, and beautifeth the tongue with great chaunge of colours, and varietie of figures.

Fower partes belonging to Elocution.
{i. Plainnesse.
{ii. Aptnesse.
{iii. Composition.
{iiii. Exornation.

what it is.
AMong all other lessons this should first be learned, that wee neuer affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but to speake as is commonly receiued: neither seeking to be ouer fine, nor yet liuing ouer-carelesse vsing our speeche as most men doe, and ordering our wittes as the fewest haue done. Some seeke so far for outlandish English, that they forget altogether their mothers language. And I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were aliue, thei were not able to tell what they say: and yet these fine English clerkes will say, they speake in their mother tongue, if a man should charge them for counterfeiting the Kings English. Some farre iourneyed gentlem[e]n at their returne home, like as they loue to goe in forraine apparell, so thei wil pouder their talke with ouersea language. He that commeth lately out of Fraunce, will talke French English and neuer blush at the matter. An other chops in with English Italienated, and applieth the Italian phrase to our English speaking, the which is, as if an Oratour that professeth to vtter his mind in plaine Latine, would needes speake Poetrie, and farre fetched colours of straunge antiquitie. The Lawyer will store his stomacke with the prating of Pedlers. The Auditor in making his accompt and reckening, cometh in with sise sould, and cater denere, for vi.s. iiii.d. The fine courtier wil talke nothing but Chaucer. The misticall wiseman and Poeticall Clerkes, will speake nothing but quaint Prouerbes, and blinde Allegories, delighting much in their owne darkenesse, especially, when none can tell what they doe say. The vnlearned or foolish phantasticall, that smelles but of learning (such fellowes as haue seen learned men in their daies) wil so Latin their tongues, that the simple can not but wonder at their talke, and thinke surely they speake by some reuelation. I know them that thinke Rhetorique to stande wholie vpon darke wordes, and hee that can catche an ynke horne terme by the taile, him they coumpt to be a fine Englisheman, and a good Rhetorician. And the rather to set out this foly, I will adde such a letter as William Sommer himsefe, could not make a better for that purpose. Some will thinke and sweare it too, that there was neuer any such thing written: well, I will not force any man to beleeue it, but I will say thus much, and abide by it too, the like haue been made heretofore, and praised aboue the Moone.

A letter deuised by a Lincolneshire man, for a voyde benefice, to a gentleman that then waited vpon the Lorde Chauncellour, for the time being.

Pondering, expending, and reuoluting with my selfe, your ingent affabilitie, and ingenious capacity for mundaine affaires: I cannot but celebrate, & extol your magnifical dexteritie aboue all other. For how could you haue adepted
An ynkehorne
such illustrate prerogatiue, and dominicall superioritie, if the fecunditie of your ingenie had not been so fertile and wonderfull pregnant. Now therefore being accersited to such splendente renoume, and dignitie spendidious: I doubt not but you will adiuuate such poore adnichilate orphanes, as whilome ware condisciples with you, and of antique familiaritie in Lincolneshire. Among whom I being a Scholasticall panion, obestate your sublimitie, to extoll mine infirmitie. There is a Sacerdotall dignitie in my natiue Countrey contiguate to me, where I now contemplate: which your worshipfull benignitie could sone impetrate for mee, if it would like you to extend your sedules, and collaude me in them to the right honourable lord Chaunceller, or rather Archgrammacion of Englande. You know my literature, you knowe the pastorall promotion, I obtestate your clemencie, to inuigilate thus much for me, according to my confidence, and as you knowe my condigne merites for such a compendious liuing. But now I relinquish to fatigate your intelligence, with any more friuolous verbositie, and therfore he that rules the climates, be euermore your beautreur, your fortresse, and your bulwarke. Amen.

Dated at my Dome, or rather Mansion place in Lincolneshire, the penulte of the moneth Sextile. Anno Millimo, quillimo, trillimo.       Per me Ioannes Octo.

What wiseman reading this Letter, will not take him for a very Caulf that made it in good earnest, and thought by his inke pot termes to get a good Parsonage. Doeth wit rest in straunge wordes, or els standeth it in wholsome matter, and apt declaring of a mans minde? Doe wee not speake because we would haue other to vnderstande vs, or is not the tongue giuen for this ende, that one might know what an other meaneth? And what vnlearned man can tel, what half this letter signifieth? Therefore, either we must make a difference of English, and say some is learned English and other some is rude English, or the one is court talke, the other is countrey speech, or els we must of necessitie banish all such Rhetorique, and vse altogether one maner of language. When I was in Cambridge, and student in the kings College, there came a man out of the toune with a pint of wine in a pottle pot, to welcome the prouost of that house, that lately came from the court. And because he would bestow his present like a clarke, dwelling among the scholers: he made humblie his three curtesies and sayd in this maner. Cha good euen my good Lord, and well might your Lordship vare, vnderstanding that your Lordshippe was come, and knowing that you are a worshipfull Pilate, and keepes abominable house: I thought it my duetie to come incantiuante, and bring you a pottell of wine, the which I besech your Lordship take in good worth. Here the simple man, being desirous to amend his mothers tongue, shewing himselfe not to bee the wisest man that euer spake with tongue.

An other good fellowe of the countrey, being an Officer and Maior of a toune, and desirous to speake like a fine learned man, hauing iust occasion to rebuke a runnegate fellowe, said after this wise in a great heate. Thou yngrame and vacation knaue, if I take thee any more within the Circumcision of my dampnation: I will so corrupt thee, that all other vacation knaues shall take ilsample by thee.

An other standing in much neede of money, and desirous to haue some helpe, at a gentlemans hande, made his complainte in this wise. I pray you sir be so good vnto me, as forbeare this halfe yeres rent. For so help me God and halidome, we are so taken on with contrary Bishops, with reuiues, and with Southsides to the King, that all our money is cleane gone. These words he spake for Contribution, Releef, and Subsidie. And thus we see that poore simple men are much troubled, and talke oftentimes they knowe not what for lacke of wit, and want of Latine and French, whereof many of our strange wordes full often are deriued. Those therefore that will eschue this folly, and acquaint themselues with the best kind of speech, must seeke from time to time such wordes as are commonly receiued, and such as properly may expresse in plaine maner, the whole conceipt of their minde. And looke what wordes we best vnderstande, and knowe what they meane: the same should soonest be spoken, and first applied to the vtterance of our purpose.

Now whereas wordes be receiued, aswell Greeke as Latine, to set forth our meaning in the English tongue, either for lacke of store, or els because we would enrich the language: it is well doen to vse them, and no man therein can be charged for any affectation, when all other are agreed to followe the same waie. There is no man agreeued when he heareth (Letters Patents) and yet Patentes is Latine, and signifieth open to all men. The Communion is a fellowship, or a comming together, rather Latin then English: the kings prerogatiue declareth his power roiall aboue al other, and yet I know no man greeued for these termes, being vsed in their place, nor yet any one suspected for affectation, when such generall wordes are spoken. The folie is espied, when either we will vse such wordes as fewe men doe vse, or vse them out of place, when an other might serue much better.
Fower things obserued
for choise of wordes.
Therefore to auoide such folly, we may learne of that most excellent Oratour Tullie, who in his third booke, where he speaketh of a perfect Oratour, declareth vnder the name of Crassus, that for the choise of words fower things should chefly be obserued. First that such words as we vse, should be proper vnto the tongue wherein wee speake, againe, that they bee plaine for all men to perceiue: thirdly, that they be apt and meete, most properly to sette out the matter. Fourthly, that words translated from one signification to an other (called of the Grecians Tropes) be vsed to beautifie the sentence, as precious stones are set in a ring to commende the gold.

Aptnesse what it is.
SUch are thought apt wordes, that properly agree vnto that thing which they signifie, and plainly expresse the nature of the same. Therefore they that haue regard of their estimation do warely speake, and with choise vtter woordes most apt for their purpose. In waightie causes graue wordes are thought most needful, that the greatnesse of the matter may the rather appere in the vehemencie of their talke. So likewise of other like order must be taken. Albeit some not onely doe not obserue this kind of aptnesse, but also they doe fal
Vnapt vsing
of apt words.
into much fondnes, by vsing words out of place, and applying them to diuers matters without all discretion. As thus. An ignorant fellowe comming to a gentlemans place, and seeing a great flocke of shepe in his pasture, said to the owner of them, nowe by my trueth sir, here is as goodly an audience of sheepe as euer I saw in my life. Who will not take this fellowe meeter to talke with sheepe, then speake among men?

An other likewise seeing an house faire builded, said to his fellow thus: good lord what a handsome phrase of building is this? Thus are good words euill vsed, when they are not wel applied and spoken to good purpose. Therefore I wish that such vntowarde speaking, may giue vs a good lesson to vse our tongue warely, that our wordes and matter may still agree together.

Of Composition.
WHen wee haue learned vsuall and accustomable words to set forth our meaning, we ought to ioyne them together in apt order, that the Eare maie delite in hearing the harmonie. I knowe some Englishmen that in this point haue such a gift in the English, as fewe Latine hath the like, and therefore delite the wise and learned so much
what it is.
with their pleasaunt composition: that many reioyce when they may heare such, and thinke much learning is got when they may talke with them. Composition therfore is an apt ioyning together of wordes in such order, that neither the eare shall espie any ierre, nor yet any man shalbe dulled with ouerlong drawing out of a sentence, nor yet much confounded with mingling of causes such as are needelesse, being heaped together without reason, and vsed without number. For by such meanes the hearers will be forced to forget full ofte, what was sayd first, before the sentence bee halfe ended: or els be blinded with confounding of many things together.
Faultes in
Some againe will be so short, and in such wise curtall their sentences, that they had neede to make a commentary immediatly of their meaning, or els the most that heare them shalbe forced to keepe counsaill.

Some will speake Oracles, that a man can not tell which way to take them, some will bee so fine and so poeticall withall, that to their seeming there shall not stande one haire a misse, and yet euery body els shall thinke them meeter for a Ladies chamber, then for an earnest matter in any open assemblie.

Some will roue so much and bable so farre without order, that a man would thinke they had a greate loue to heare them selues speake.

Some repeate one worde so often, that if such wordes could be eaten, and chopt in so oft as they are vttered out, they would choke the widest throte in al England. As thus. If a man knew what a mans life were, no man for any mans sake woulde kill any man, but one man would rather helpe an other man, considering man is borne for man to helpe man, and not to hate man. What man would not be choked, if he chopt al these men at once into his mouth, and neuer dronke after it? Some vse ouermuch repetition of some one letter, as pitifull pouertie praieth for a penie, but puffed presumption passeth not a point, pampering his panch with pestilent pleasure, procuring his passeport to poste it to hell pit, there to be punished with paines perpetuall. Some will so set their words, that they must be faine to gape after euery word spoken, ending one word with a vowell, and beginning the next with an other, which vndoubtedly maketh the talke to seeme most vnpleasaunt. As thus. Equitie assuredly euery iniurie auoideth. Some will set the Cart before the horse, as thus. My mother and my father are both at home, as though the good man of the house did weare no breches, or that the graie Mare were the better Horse. And what though it often so happeneth (God wot the more pitty) yet in speaking at the least, let vs keepe a naturall order, and set the man before the woman for maners sake.

An other comming home in haste, after a long iourney, saieth to his man: Come hether sir knaue, helpe me of with my bootes and my spurres. I praie you sir, giue him leaue first to plucke of your spurres, ere he meddle with your bootes, or els your man is like to haue a madde plucking. Who is so foolish as to say, the Counsaile and the King, but rather the King and his Counsaile, the Father and the Sonne, and not contrary. And so likewise in all other, as they are in degree first euermore to set them formost.

The wise therefore talking of diuers worthie men together, will first name the worthiest, and keepe a decent order in reporting of their tale. Some end their sentences all alike, making their talke rather to appeare rimed Meeter, then to seeme plaine speeche, the which as it much deliteth being measurably vsed, so it much offendeth when no meane is regarded. I heard a preacher deliting much in this kind of composition, who vsed so often to ende his sentences with wordes like vnto that which went before, that in my iudgement there was not a dosen sentences in his whole sermon, but they ended all in Rime for the most parte. Some not best disposed, wished the Preacher a Lute, that with his rimed sermon he might vse some pleasant melody, and so the people might take pleasure diuers waies, and dance if they list. Certes there is a meane, and no reason to vse any one thing at al time, seing nothing deliteth (be it neuer so good) that is alwaies vsed.

Quintilian likeneth the colours of Rhetorique to a mans eye sight. And now (quoth he) I would not haue all the bodie to be full of eyes, or nothing but eyes: for then the other partes should wante their due place and proportion. Some ouerthwartly sette their wordes, placing some one a mile from his fellowes, not contented with a plaine and easie composition, but seeke to set wordes they can not tell how, and therefore one not liking to bee called, and by print published Doctour of Phisicke, would needes bee named a Phisicke Doctour, wherein appeared a wonderful composition (as he thought) strange vndoubtedly, but whether wise or no, let the learned sit in iudgement vpon that matter.

An other. As I rose in a Morning (quoth one) I met a Carte full of stones emptie. Belike the man was fasting, when the Cart was full, and yet wee see that through straunge composition, his sentence appeareth darke.

Some will tell one thing twentie times, nowe in, nowe out, and when a man would thinke they had almost ended, they are ready to beginne againe as fresh as euer they were. Such vaine repetitions declare both want of witte, and lacke of learning. Some are so homely in all their doings, and so grosse for their inuention, that they vse altogether one maner of trade, and seeke no varietie to eschue tediousnesse.

Some burden their talke with needlesse copie, and will seeme plentifull when they should be short. An other is so curious and so fine of his tongue, that he can not tell in all the world what to speake. Euery sentence seemeth common, and euery worde generally vsed, is thought to be foolish in his wise iudgement. Some vse so many interpositions, both in their talke and in their writing, that they make their sayings as darke as hell. Thus when faltes be knowne they may bee auoyded: and vertue the sooner may take place, when vice is foreseen and eschued as euill.

Of Exornation.
WHen wee haue learned apte wordes, and vsuall phrases to set foorth our meaning, and can orderly place them without offence to the Eare, wee may boldely commende and beautifie our talke with diuers goodly colours, and delitefull translations, that our speech may seeme as bright and precious, as a rich stone is faire and orient.

Three maner of stiles
or enditings.
Exornation, is a gorgious beautifying of the tongue with borowed wordes, and change of sentence or speech with much varietie. First therefore (as Tullie saith) an oration is made to seme right excellent by the kind selfe, by the colour and iuice of speech. There are three maner of stiles or inditings, the great or mightie kinde, when we vse great wordes, or vehement figures.

The small kinde, when wee moderate our heate by meaner wordes, and vse not the most stirring sentences.

The lawe kinde, when we vse no Metaphores nor translated words, nor yet vse any amplifications, but goe plainly to worke, and speake altogether in common wordes. Now in al these three kindes, the Oration is much commended, and appereth notable when wee keepe vs still to that stile which we first professed, and vse such wordes as seeme for that kinde of writing most conuenient. Yea, if we minde to encrease or diminish: to be in a heate, or to vse moderation. To speake pleasauntly or grauely: To be sharpe or soft: to talke lordly, or to speake finely: to waxe auncient or familiare (which are all comprehended vnder one of the other three: we must euer make our wordes apt and agreeable to that kinde of stile which we first began to vse. For as Frenche hoodes doe not become Lords: so Parliament robes are vnfitting for Ladies. Comelinesse therefore must euer be vsed, and all things obserued, that are most meete for euery cause, if we looke by attemptes to haue our desire.

Exornation by colours
of Rhetorique.
There is an other kind of Exornation, that is not egally sparpled throughout the whole Oration, but is so disseuered and parted as starres stande in the Firmament, or flowers in a garden, or pretie deuised antiques in a cloth of Arras.

What a figure is.
A Figure is a certaine kinde, either of sentence, Oration, or worde, vsed after some newe or straunge wise, much vnlike to that which men commonly vse to speake.
The deuision of figures.
THere are three kindes of figures, the one is, when the nature of wordes is chaunged from one signification to an other, called a Trope, of the Grecians: The other serueth for words when they are not chaunged by nature, but only altered by speaking, called of the Grecians Scheme. The third is, when by diuersitie of inuention, a sentence is many wayes spoken, and also matters are amplified by heaping examples, by dilating arguments, by comparing of things together, by similitudes, by contraries, and by diuers other like, called by Tullie Exornation of sentences, or colours of Rhetorike.

By all which figures euery Oration may be much beautified, and without the same, not one can attaine to be coumpted an Oratour, though his learning otherwise be neuer so great.

Of the first vse of Tropes.
WHen learned and wisemen gan first to inlarge their tongue, and sought with great vtterance of speech to commende causes: They founde full oft much want of words to set out their meaning. And therfore remembring thinges
Tropes how they were
first founded.
of like nature vnto those whereof they speake: they vsed such wordes to expresse their mynde, as were most like vnto other. As for example. If I should speake against some notable Pharisey. I might vse translation of wordes in this wise: Yonder man is of a crooked iudgement, his wittes are cloudie, he liueth in deepe darknesse dusked altogether with blinde ignorance, and drowned in the raging sea of bottomlesse Superstition. Thus is the ignorant set out by calling him crooked, cloudie, darke, blinde, and drounde in Superstition. All which wordes are not proper vnto ignorance, but borowed of other things that are of like nature vnto ignorance. For the vnskilfull man hath his witte set out of order, as a mans bodie is set out of ioynt, and thereupon it may be sayd to be crooked. Likewise hee may bee called Cloudie, for as the Cloudes keepe the Sonne shining from vs, so doth his ignoraunce keepe him blindfolde from the true understanding of thinges. And as when the eyes are out, no man can see any thing: So when parfite iudgement is wanting, the troth can not be knowne. And so likewise of all other. Thus as necessitie hath forced vs to borowe wordes translated: So hath time and practize made them to seeme most pleasaunt, and therefore they are much the rather vsed. Yea when a thing full ofte can not bee exprest by an apt and meete worde, wee doe perceiue (when it is spoken by a worde translated) that the likenesse of that thing, which appeareth in an other word much lighteneth that, which we would most gladly haue perceiued.

And not onely doe men vse translation of words (called Tropes) for neede sake, when they can not finde other: but also when they may haue most apt words at hand, yet will they of a purpose vse translated wordes. And the reason is this. Men coumpt it a point of witte, to passe ouer such words as are at hand, and to vse such as are farre fetcht and translated: or els it is because the hearer is ledde by cogitation vppon rehearsall of a Metaphore, and thinketh more by remembraunce of a worde translated, then is there expressely spoken: or els because the whole matter seemeth by a similitude to be opened: or laste of all, because euery translation is commonly, and for the most part referred to the senses of the bodie, and especially to the sense of seeing, which is the sharpest and quickest aboue all other. For when I shall say that an angrie man fometh at the mouth, I am brought in remembrance by this translation to remember a Bore, that in fighting vseth much foming, the which is a foule and lothly sight. And I cause other to thinke that he brake pacience wonderfully, when I set out his rage comparable to a bores foming.

An other being offended with checkes giuen will say, I maruaile sir what you meane to be euer snarling at mee, wherein is declared a brutishnesse, considering he speaketh byting wordes, and much without reason, and as vncomly as a dog doth, when he snarreth, the which wee see is nothing seemely. There is nothing in all the worlde, but the same may haue the name of some other worde, the which by some similitude is like vnto it. Notwithstanding, there ought much warenesse to be vsed in chosing of words translated, that the same be not vnlike that thing whervnto it is applied, nor yet that the translation bee vncomely, or such as may giue occasion of any vncleane meaning.

A Trope.
Trope what it is.
A Trope is an alteration of a worde or sentence, from the proper signification, to that which is not proper.
The deuision of Tropes.
Diuision of Tropes.
TRopes are either of a worde, or a long continued speeche or sentence.
Tropes of a worde are these.
{A Metaphore or translation of wordes.
{A word making.
{Transmutation of a worde.
{Chaunge of name.
Tropes of a long continued speeche or sentences, are these.
{An Allegorie, or inuersion of wordes.
{Resembling of things.
What is a Metaphore?
A Metaphore is an alteration of a worde, from the proper and naturall meaning, to that which is not proper, and yet agreeth thereunto by some likenesse, that appereth to be in it.

An Oration is wounderfully enriched, when apte Metaphors are got, and applied to the matter. Neither can any one perswade effectuously, and winne men by weight of his Oration, without the helpe of wordes altered and translated.

The diuersitie of translations.
FIrst we alter a word from that which is in the mind, to that which is in the bodie. As when wee perceiue one that hath begiled vs, we vse to say. Ah sirrha, I am gladde I haue smelled you out. Beeing greeued with a matter, wee say commonly wee cannot digest it. The lawier receiuing money more then needeth oftentimes, will say to his Client without any translation: I feele you wel, when the poore man thinketh that he doeth well vnderstande his cause, and will helpe hym to some good ende. For so commonly we say when we knowe a mans minde in any thing. This kinde of mutation is much vsed, when we talke earnestly of any matter.
From the creature without reason, to
that which hath reason.
THe second kinde of translation is, when we goe from the creature without reason, to that which hath reason, or contrary from that which hath reason, to that which hath no reason. As if I should saie, such an vnreasonable brauler did nothing els but barke like a dog, or like a Fox. Women are said to chatter, churles to grunt, boyes to whine, & yongmen to yel. Contrariwise we call a foxe false, a Lion proude, and a dog flattryng.
From the liuing, to that which hath no life.
FRom the liuing to the not liuing, wee vse many translations. As thus. You shall pray for all men, dispersed throughout the face of the earth. The arme of a Tree. The side of a bancke. The land crieth for vengeaunce. From the liuing to the not liuing. Hatred buddeth among malicious men, his wordes flow out of his mouth. I haue a whole world of businesse.

In obseruing the worke of Nature in all seuerall substances wee may finde translations at will, then the which nothing is more profitable for any one, that mindeth by his vtteraunce to stirre the hartes of men, either one waie or other.

Wordes making.
A woorde making called of the Grecians Onomatapoia, is when wee make wordes of our owne minde, such as bee deriued from the nature of things. As to call one Patche or Coulson, whom we see to doe a thing foolishly, because these two in their tyme were notable fooles. Or when one is lustie, to say Taratauntara, declaring thereby that he is as lustie, as a Trumpette is delitefull and stirring: or when one would seme galant, to crie hoigh, whereby also is declared courage. Boyes being greeued will say some one to another: sir, I will cap you, if you vse mee thus, and withhold that from me which is mine owne: meaning that he will take his cap from him. Again, when we see one gaie and gallaunt, we vse to say, he courtes it. Quoth one that reasoneth in Diuinitie with his fellowe, I like well to reason, but I cannot chappe these textes in Scripture, if I should dye for it: meaning that he could not tell in what Chapter thinges were conteined, although he knewe full well, that there were such sayinges.

INtellection, called of the Grecians, Synedoche, is a Trope, when we gather or iudge the whole by the part, or part by the whole. As thus: The King is come to London, meaning therby that other also be come with him. The French man is good to keepe a Fort, or to skirmish on Horsbacke, whereby we declare the French men generally. By the whole, the part thus. All Cambridge sorrowed for the death of Bucer, meaning the most part. All England reioyceth that Pilgrimage is banished, and Idolatrie for euer abolished: and yet all England is not glad but the most part.

The like phrases are in the Scripture, as when the Magians came to Hierusalem, and asked where hee was that was borne King of the Jewes. Herode start vp being greatly troubled, and all the Citie of Hierusalem with him, and yet all the Citie was not troubled, but the most part. By the signe wee vnderstand the thing signified: as by an Iuie garland, we iudge there is wine to sel. By the signe of a Beare, Bull, Lyon, or any such, we take any house to be an Inne. By eating bread at the Communion, we remember Christes death, and by faith receiue him spiritually.

ABusion, called of the Grecians Catechresis, is when for a certaine proper worde, we vse that which is most nigh vnto it: as in calling some water, a Fish Pond, though there be no Fish in it at all. Or els when wee say, there is long talke, and small matter. Which are spoken vnproperly, for wee cannot measure, either talke, or matter by length, or breadth.
Transmutation of a worde.
TRansmutation helpeth much for varietie, the which is, when a word hath a proper signification of the owne, and being referred to an other thing, hath an other meaning: the Grecians call it Metonymia, the which is diuers waies vsed. When we vse the author of a thing, for the thing self. As
thus: Put vpon you the Lord Jesus Christ, that is to say, be in liuing such a one as he was. The Pope is banished England, that is to say, all his Superstition and Hipocrisie, either is or should bee gone to the Deuill, by the Kings expresse will and commaundement. Againe, when that which doth conteine, is vsed for that which is conteined. As thus. I haue dronke an Hoggeshead this weeke: Heauen may reioyce, and Hell may lament, when olde men are not couetous.
Contrariwise, when the thing conteined, is vsed for the thing conteyning. As thus. I pray you come to me, that is to say, come to my house. Fowerthly, when by the efficient cause, the effect is streight gathered therevpon. As thus. The Sunne
is vp, that is to say, it is day. This fellowe is good with a long Bowe, that is to say, he shooteth well.
TRansumption is, when by degrees wee goe to that, which is to be shewed. As thus. Such a one lieth in a dark Dungeon: now in speaking of darkenesse, we vnderstand closenesse, by closenesse, we gather blacknesse, & by blacknesse, we iudge deepenesse.
Chaunge of name.
CHaunge of name, is when for the proper name, some name of an Office, or other calling is vsed. As thus: The Prophet of God saith: Blessed are they, whose sinnes bee not imputed vnto them, meaning Dauid. The Poet saieth: It is a vertue to eschue vice: wherein I vnderstand Horace.
CIrcumlocution is a large description, either to set forth a thing more gorgiously, or els to hide it, if the eares can not beare the open speaking: or when with fewe words, we cannot open our meaning to speake it more largely. Of the first thus. The valiaunt courage of mightie Scipio, subdued the force of Carthage and Numantia. Henry the fifth, the most puissaunt King of England, with seuen thousand men, tooke the French King prisoner with al the flower of nobilitie in Fraunce. Of the second. When Saule was easing himself vpon the ground, Dauid tooke a peece of his garment, tooke his weapon that lay by him, and might haue slaine him. Such a one defiled his bodie with such an euill woman. For the third part, the large Commentaries written, and the Paraphrasis of Erasmus Englished: are sufficient to shewe the vse thereof.
What is an Allegorie.
AN Allegorie is none other thing, but a Metaphore, vsed throughout a whole sentence, or Oration. As in speaking against a wicked offendour, I might say thus. Oh Lord, his nature was so euill, and his witte so wickedly bent, that he meant to bouge the ship, where he himselfe failed: meaning that he purposed the destruction of his owne Countrey. It is euill putting strong Wine into weake vesselles, that is to say, it is euill trusting some women with weightie matters. The English Prouerbes gathered by Iohn Heywood, helpe well in this behalfe, the which commonly are nothing els but Allegories, and darke deuised sentences. Now for the other fower figures, because I minde hereafter to speake more largely of them, and Quintilian thinketh them more meete to be placed among the figures of Exornation, I will not trouble the Reader with double inculcation, and twise telling of one tale.
Of Schemes, called otherwise sentences
of a worde and sentence.
Scheme what
it is.
I Might tary long time, in declaring the nature of diuers Schemes, which are wordes or sentences altered, either by speaking, or writing, contrarie to the vulgare custome of our speech, without chaunging their nature at al: but because I knowe the vse of the figures in worde, is not so great in this our tongue, I will runne them ouer, with as much hast as I can.
The deuision of Schemes.
STraunge vsing of any worde or sentence, contrary to our daiely wont, is either when we adde or take away a sillable, or a worde, or encrease a sentence by chaunge of speech, contrary to the common maner of speaking.
Figures of a worde.
THose be called figures of a word, when we change a word and speake it contrary to our vulgare, and dayly speech. Of the which sort, there are sixe in number.
{i. Addition at the first.
{ii. Abstraction from the first.
{iii. Interlacing in the middest.
{iiii. Cutting from the middest.
{v. Adding at the ende.
{vi. Cutting from the ende.

OF Addition. As thus: He did all to berattle him. Wherin appeareth that a sillable is added to this word (rattle). Here is good nale to sell, for good ale.

Of Abstraction from the first, thus. As I romed all alone, I gan to thinke of matters great. In which sentence (gan) is vsed, for began.

Interlacing in the middest. As Relligion, for Religion.

Cutting from the middest. Idolatrie, for Idololatrie.

Adding at the end. Hasten your businesse, for Hast your businesse.

Cutting from the ende. A faire maie, for maide.

Thus these figures are shortly set out, and as for the other Schemes, which are vttered in whole sentences, and expressed by varietie of speech: I will set them forth at large among the colours and ornaments of Elocution, that followe.

Of colours and ornaments, to commende
and set forth an Oration.
NOW, when we are able to frame a sentence handsomely together, obseruing number, and keeping composition, such as shall like best the eare, and doe knowe the vse of Tropes, and can apply them to our purpose: then the ornaments are necessarie in an Oration, and sentences would bee
Colours of
furnished with most beautifull figures. Therefore, to the end that they may be knowne, such as most commende and beautifie an Oration: I will set them forth here in such wise, as I shall best be able, following the order which Tullie hath vsed in his Booke, made of a perfect Oratour.
Resting vpon a poinct.
WHen wee are earnest in a matter, and feele the weight of our cause, we rest vpon some reason, which serueth best for our purpose. Wherein this figure appeareth most, and helpeth much to set forth our matter. For if we stil kepe vs to our strongest hold, and make ofter recourse thither, though we be driuen through bytalke to goe from it now and then: we shall force them at length, either to auoyd our strong defence, or els to yeeld into our hands.
An euident, or plaine setting forth of a thing,
as though it were presently done.
Illustriu explanatio.
THis figure is called a discription, or an euident declaration of a thing, as though we saw it euen now done. An example: If our enemies shall inuade, and by treason winne the victorie, we shal all dye euery mothers sonne of vs, and our Citie shalbe destroyed sticke and stone. I see our children made slaues, our daughters rauished, our wiues caried away, the father forced to kil his owne sonne, the mother her
Description of
courage, after
a battaile.
daughter, the sonne his father, the sucking child slaine in the mothers bosome, one standing to the knees in an others bloud, Churches spoyled, houses pluckt downe, and al set in fire round about vs, euery one cursing the day of their birth, children crying, women wayling, and olde men passing for very thought, and euery one thinking himselfe most happie that is rid out of this world, such will the crueltie bee of our enemies, and with such horrible hatred will they seeke to dispatch vs. Thus, where I might haue said we shall all be destroyed, and say no more, I haue by description set the euill foorth at large. It much auayleth to vse this figure in diuers matters, the which whosoeuer can doe, with any excellent gift, vndoubtedly he shal much delite the hearers. The circumstaunces well considered in euery cause, giue much matter, for the plaine opening of the thing. Also similitudes, examples, comparisons, from one thing to an other, apt translations, and heaping of Allegories, and all such figures as serue for amplifying, doe much commend the liuely setting forth of any matter. The miseries of the Courtiers life, might well bee described by this kind of figure. The commoditie of learning, the pleasure of Plowmen, and the care that a King hath. And not onely are matters set out by description, but men
Diuersitie of
are painted out in their colours, yea, buildings are set foorth, Kingdomes and Realmes are portured, places and times are described. The Englishman for feeding and chaunging for apparell. The Dutchman for drinking. The Frenchman for pride and inconstance. The Spanyard for nimblenes of body, and much disdaine: the Italian for great wit and policie: the Scots for boldnesse, and the Boeme for stubbornesse.

Many people are described by their degree, as a man of good yeares, is coumpted sober, wise, and circumspect: a young man wilde and carelesse: a woman babling, inconstaunt, and readie to beleeue all that is tolde her.

By vocation of life, a Souldier is coumpted a great bragger, and a vaunter of himself: A Scholer simple: A Russet coate, sad, and sometimes craftie: a Courtier, flattering: a Citizen, gentle.

of persons.
In describing of persons, there ought alwaies a comelinesse to bee vsed, so that nothing be spoken, which may bee thought is not in them. As if one shall describe Henry the sixth, he might cal him gentle, milde of Nature, led by perswasion, and readie to forgiue, carelesse for wealth, suspecting none, mercifull to all, fearefull in aduersitie, and without forecast to espie his misfortune. Againe, for Richard the third, I might bring him in, cruel of heart, ambicious by nature, enuious of mind, a deepe dissembler, a close man for weightie matters, hardie to reuenge, and fearfull to lose his high estate, trustie to none, liberall for a purpose, casting still the worst, and hoping euer the best. By this figure also wee imagine a talke, for some one to speake, and according to his person, we frame the Oration. As if one should bring in noble Henrie the eight, of most famous memorie to enueigh against Rebelles, thus he might order his Oration. What if Henry the eight were a liue, and sawe such Rebellion in this Realme, would not he say thus, and thus? Yea, me thinkes I heare him speake euen now. And so set forth such wordes, as we would haue him to say.

Sometimes it is good to make GOD, the Countrey, or some one Towne to speake, and looke what we would say in our owne person, to frame the whole tale to them. Such varietie doth much good to auoyde tediousnesse, for he that speaketh
The vse of figures.
all in one sort, though he speake thinges neuer so wittely, shall sone wearie his hearers. Figures therefore were inuented, to auoyd sacietie, and cause delight: to refresh with pleasure, and quicken with grace the dulnesse of mans braine. Who will looke on a white wall an hower together, where no workmanship is at all? Or who will eate still one kinde of meate, and neuer desire chaunge? Certes as the mouth is daintie: so the witte is tickle, and will sone loth an vnsauery thing.

A stop, or halfe telling of the tale.
A Stop is when we breake off our tale, before we haue told it. As thus. Thou that art a young man of such towarnesse, hauing such friendes, to play me such a part, well I will say no more, GOD amende all that is amisse. Or thus. Doth it become thee to bee, shall I tell all: Nay, I will not for very shame.
A close vnderstanding.
Significatio plus ad
intelligendum quam dixeris.
A close vnderstanding is, when more may bee gathered, then is openly expressed. A naughtie fellowe that vsed much robberie, founde himselfe grieued, that the great Oratour Demosthenes spent so much Oyle, whereby he watched from time to time, in compassing matters for the Commonweale:
In deede (quoth Demosthenes) darke nights are best for thy purpose: Meaning that he was a great Robber in the night.

One also being set in a heate, because an other had contraried him for the choise of meates, was much more greued when he gaue him this taunt. You may boldly (quoth he) speake for fish eating, for my maister your father, hath many a time and oft, wipte his nose vpon his sleeue: meaning that his father was a Fishmonger.

Short sentences.
Distincte concisa breuitas.
THen short clauses or sentences are vsed, when wee speake at a word part of our mind, and next after speake as briefly againe, vsing to make almost euery worde a perfect sentence. As thus. The man is sore wounded, I feare me he will dye. The Phisitions mistrust him: the partie is fled, none pursueth: God sende vs good lucke.
Abating, or lessening of a thing.
WE make our doinges appeare lesse, when with wordes we extenuate and lessen the same. As when one had giuen his fellowe a sound blowe, being rebuked for the same, said he scant touched him. Likewise, when two haue fought together, to say, that the one had his legge prickt with a sworde, when perchance he had a great wounde.
Wittie iesting.
MAny pleasaunt Gentlemen, are well practised in merie conceipted iests, & haue both such grace and delite therein, that they are wonderfull to behold, and better were it to be sharply chid of diuers other, then pleasauntly taunted by any of them. When a Gentleman of great Lands and small wit, had talked largely at a supper, and spake words scant worth the hearing, an other being much grieued with his folly, said to him: Sir, I haue taken you for a plaine meaning Gentleman, but I knowe now, there is not a more deceiptfull body in all England: with that, other being grieued with the yong Gentlemans folly, boldly began to excuse him for deceipt, and therefore said he was to blame to charge him with that fault, considering his nature was simple, and fewe can say that euer he was craftie. Well (quoth the other) I must needes say he is deciptful, for I took him heretofore for a sober wittie yong man, but now I perciue he is a foolish babling fellow, and therefore I am sure he hath deceiued me, like a false crafty child as he is: with that they al laughed, and the Gentleman was much abashed. But as touching sharpe taunts, I haue largely declared them in place, wher I treated of laughter.
Digression, or swaruing from the matter.
Digressio ab re
non longa.
WE swarue sometimes from the matter, vpon iust considerations, making the same to serue for our purpose, as well as if we had kept the matter still. As in making an inuectiue against Rebelles, and largely setting out the filth of their offences, I might declare by the way of digression, what a noble countrey England is, how great commodities it hath, what traffique here is vsed, and how much more neede other Realmes haue of vs, then we haue neede of them. Or when I shall giue euidence, or rather declame against an hainous murtherer, I may digresse from the offence done, and enter in praise of the dead man, declaring his vertues in most ample wise, that the offence done may be thought so much the greater, the more honest he was, that hath thus bene slaine. Notwithstanding, this would bee learned, that (when we make any such digression) the same may well agree to the purpose, and bee so set out that it confounde not the cause, or darken the sence of the matter deuised.
Propositio quid
sit dicturus.
PRoposition is a short rehearsall of that, whereof wee minde to speake. I will tell you (quoth one) there is none hath a worse name then this fellow, none hath bene so often in trouble, he may be faultlesse, but I can hardly beleue it, there are enow that will testifie of his naughtinesse, and auouch his euill demeanour to be such that the like hath not bene heard heretofore.
An ouer passage to an other matter.
Seiunctio ab eo
quod dictum est.
WHen we goe from one matter to an other, we vse this kind of phrase. I haue tolde you the cause of all this euill, now I will tell you a remedie for the same. You haue heard of iustification by faith only, now you shal heare of the dignitie of works, and how necessary they are for euery Christian body.
Of comming againe to the matter.
Redditus ad
WHen we haue made a digression, wee may declare our returne, and shew that whereas we haue roued a litle, wee will now keepe vs within our boundes. In this kinde of digression, it is wisedome not to wander ouer farre, for feare we shall wearie the hearers, before we come to the matter againe. I knewe a Preacher that was a whole hower out of his matter, and at length remembring himself, saied well, now to the purpose, as though all that which he had spoken before, had beene little to the purpose, whereat many laughed, and some for starke wearinesse were faine to goe away.
Iterating and repeating things saied before.
WHen a man hath largely spoken his minde, he may repeate in fewe wordes the somme of his saying. As if one should bee charged with Felonie, that is a man of wealth and honestie, he might thus gather his minde together after a long tale told. First, I will proue there is no cause that I should steale. Againe, that I could not possible at such a time steale, and last, that I stole not at all.
The conclusion or lapping vp of matter.
Rationis apta
THE conclusion, is an apt knitting together of that, which we haue saied before. As thus. If reason can perswade, if examples may mooue, if necessitie may helpe, if pitie may prouoke, if daungers foreseene may stirre vs to be wise: I doubt not but you will rather vse sharpe lawes to represse offendours, then with dissolute negligence suffer all to perish.
Mounting aboue the trueth.
Veritatis superlatio,
atque traiectio.
MOunting aboue the trueth, is when wee doe set foorth things exceedingly and aboue all mens expectation, meaning onely that they are very great. As thus. God promised to Abraham, that he would make his posteritie equal with the sandes of the earth. Now it was not so saied, that there should be so many in deede, but that the number should bee infinite. For whether shall wee vnderstande those to bee the children of Abraham, that came of his stocke in flesh, or els take them for the children of Abraham, that haue the faith of Abraham: we shall neuer proue the number of men to be equal with the sands of the Sea, though we could recken all that haue beene, from the beginning of the world. Therefore in this speech, we must vnderstand there is a mounting, called of the Grecians Hyperbole: wee vse this figure much in English. As thus. He is as swift as a Swallowe, he hath a belly as bigge as a Barrell, he is a Gyaunt in making: the whole Themes is little enough to serue him, for washing his hands. In all which speeches we mount euermore a great deale, and not meane so as the wordes are spoken.
Asking other, and aunswering our selfe.
BY asking other, and aunswering to the question our self, we much commend the matter, and make it appeare very pleasaunt. If I would rebuke one that hath committed a Robberie, I might say thus. I wonder what you meant to commit such Felonie. Haue you not Lands? I knowe you haue. Are not your friends worshipfull? Yes assuredly. Were you not beloued of them? No doubt you were. Could you haue wanted any thing that they had? If you would haue eaten golde, you might haue had it. Did not they alwaies bid you seeke to them, and to none other? I knowe they did. What euill hap had you then to offend in such sort, not going to your friendes, which would not see you want, but seeking for that which you should not haue, endaungering your self by vntrue dealing, to feele the power and strength of a lawe, when otherwise you might haue liued in sauegarde?

The like kinde of writing is also vsed, when wee make an other bodie to speake, and yet not aske them any question at all. As when Doctor Haddon had comforted the Duches of Suffolkes Grace for her children, and had saied they were happely gone, because they might haue falne hereafter, and lost that worthie name, which at their death they had: at last hee bringeth in the mother, speaking motherlike in her childrens behalfe of this sorte, and aunswereth still to her sayinges. But all these euilles whereof you speake (quoth he) had not chaunced: yet such things doe chaunce. Yet not alwaies: Yet full oft. Yet not to all: Yet to a great many. Yet they had not chaunced to mine: Yet we know not. Yet I might haue hoped: Yet better it had beene to haue feared.

Snappish asking.
WE doe aske oftentimes, because we would knowe: we doe aske also because we would chide, and set forth our griefe with more vehemencie, the one is called Interrogatio, the other is called Percontatio. Tullie enueighing against Catiline that Romaine Rebell, beginneth his Oration chidingly, questioning with Catiline of this sorte. How long (Catiline) wilt thou abuse our sufferaunce? How long will this rage and madnesse of thine goe about to deceiue vs.
Dissembling or close iesting.
Dissimulatio alia
dicentis ac
WHen we iest closely, & with dissembling meanes grig our fellowe, when in words we speake one thing, and meane in heart an other thing, declaring either by our countenaunce, or by vtteraunce, or by some other way, what our whole meaning is. As when wee see one boasting himselfe, and vaine glorious, to holde him vp with ye and nay, and euer to add more to that which he saieth. As I knowe one that saied himselfe to be in his owne iudgement, one of the best in all England, for trying of mettalles, & that the Counsaill hath often called for his helpe, and cannot want him for nothing. In deede (quoth an other) England had a sore losse, if God should call you. They are al bungelers in comparison of you, & I think the best of them may thank you for all that he hath: but yet sir your cunning was such that you brought a shilling to nine pence, nay to sixe pence, and a groat to two pence, and so gaue him a frumpe euen to his face, because he sawe him so foolish.

A glorious gentleman that had two seruaunts, and belike would be knowne not onely to haue them, but also to haue moe, saied in the presence of a worshipful man, I maruaile much where al my seruaunts are? Mary sir (quoth one) that thought to hit him home: they were here al two euen now. Thus he closly mockt him, and worthely. For the number is not great, that standeth vpon two, and (all) is to much, when we speake of so fewe.

DOubtfulnesse is then vsed, when we make the hearers beleeue that the weight of our matter causeth vs to doubt what were best to speake. As when a King findeth his people vnfaithful, he may speak in this wise. Before I begin, I doubt what to name ye. Shall I cal you subiects? You deserue it not. My friends ye are not. To cal you enemies were ouer little, because your offence is so great. Rebelles you are, and yet that name doth not fully vtter your folly. Traytors I may call you, & yet you are worse then Traytors, for you seeke his death who hath giuen you life. The offence is so great, that no man can comprehend it. Therefore I doubt what to call you, except I should cal you by the name of them al. An other: whether shall I speake or holde my peace? If I speake, you will not heare, if I hold my peace, my conscience condemned my silence.
DIstribution, is when we applie to euery bodie, such things as are due vnto them, declaring what euery one is in his vocation. It is the duetie of a King, to haue an especiall care ouer his whole Realme. It is the office of his Nobles, to cause the Kings will to be fulfilled, and with all diligence to further his Lawes, and to see Iustice done euery where. It is the parte of a Subiect, faithfully to doe his Princes commaundement, and with a willing heart to serue him at all needes. It is the office of a Bishop to set forth Gods worde, and with all diligence to exhort men to all Godlinesse. It is an Husbands duetie to loue his wife, and with gentle meanes to rule her. It is the wiues office humbly to submit her self to her husbands will. Seruaunts should bee faithfull to their Maisters, not onely for feare of a lawe, but also for conscience sake. Maisters should vse their seruants accordingly, paying them that which is due vnto them. A father should bring vp his children in the feare of God. Children should reuerence their fathers with al submission. It is also called a distribution, when we deuide the whole into seueral parts and say wee haue fower points, whereof wee purpose to speake, comprehending our whole talke within compasse of the same.
COrrection, is when we alter a word or sentence, otherwise then we haue spoken before, purposing thereby to augment the matter, and to make it appeare more vehement. Tullie against Verres, giueth a good example. We haue brought before you my Lords, into this place of iudgement, not a theefe, but an extortioner and violent robber, not an
Tully against
Aduouterer, but a rauisher of Maides: not a stealer of Church goodes, but an errant traytour, both to God and all Godlinesse: not a common Ruffine, but a most cruell cutthrote, such as if a man should rake hell for one, he could not finde the like. Againe, if one would enueigh against backbiters after this sort. Thou hast not robbed him of his money, but thou hast taken away his good name, which passeth all worldly goodes: neither hast thou slaundered thine enemie, but thine owne brother and freend that meant thee wel, and hast done thee pleasures: Nay, thou hast not slaundered him, but thou hast slaine him. For a man is halfe hanged, that hath lost his good name. Neither hast thou killed him with the sword, but poisoned him with thy tongue: so that I may call it rather an enchaunting, then a murther. Neither hast thou killed one man a lone, but so many as thou hast brought out of charitie, with thy most venemous backbyting. Yea, and last of al, thou hast not slaine a man, but thou hast slaine Christ in his members, so much as lay in thee to doe. But of this figure I haue spoken heretofore, where I wrote of amplification.
REiection is then vsed, when wee lay such faultes from vs, as our enemies would charge vs withall: saying it is folly to thinke any such thing, much more to speake it: or els to say, such a mans worde is no slaunder, or it needeth not to talke of such toyes. Or thus. Who would thinke that I would doe such a deede? Or is it like that I would doe such a deede. Antony charged Tullie, that he was the occasion of ciuill battaile. Nay (quoth Tullie) it is thou, it is thou man and none other that sets Cæsar on worke, to seeke the slaughter of his Countrey.
A Buttresse.
A Butteresse is a fence made for that, which we purpose to holde vp, or goe about to compasse. As thus. I hope my Lordes, both to perswade this man by reason, and to haue your iudgement in this matter. For whereas it is a sore thing to be iustly accused for breaking freendship, then assuredly if one be wrongfully slaundered, a man had neede to looke about him.
A familiar talke, or communication
COmmunication is then vsed, when we debate with other, and aske questions as though we looked for an aunswer, and so go through with our matter, leauing the iudgement thereof to their discretion. As thus. What thinke you in this matter? Is there any other better meanes to dispatch the thing? What would you haue done, if you were in the same case? Here I appeale to your owne conscience, whether you would suffer this vnpunished, if a man should doe you the like displeasure.
Description of a mans nature or maners.
WE describe the maners of men, when we set them forth in their kinde what they are. As in speaking against a couetous man, thus. There is no such pinch peney on liue as this good fellowe is. He will not lose the paring of his nailes. His haire is neuer rounded for sparing of money, one paire of shone serueth him a twelue moneth, he is shod with nailes like a Horse. He hath bene knowne by his coate this thirtie Winter. He spent once a groate at good ale, being forced through companie, and taken short at his worde, whereupon he hath taken such conceipt since that time, that it hath almost cost him his life. Tullie describeth Piso for his naughtinesse of life, wonderfully to heare, yea, worse then haue set forth this couetous man. Reade the Oration against Piso, such as he learned.
ERror is, when we thinke much otherwise then the trueth is. As when wee haue conceiued a good opinion of some one man, and are often deceiued, to say, who would haue thought, that he euer would haue done so. Now of all men vpon earth, I would haue least suspected him. But such is the world. Or thus. You thinke such a man a worthie personage, and of much honestie, but I wil proue that he is much otherwise: a man would not thinke it, but if I doe not proue it, I will giue you my head.
Mirth making.
In hilaritatem impulsio.
I Haue heretofore largely declared, the waies of mirth making, and therefore I little neede to renue them here in this place.
Amplification or Preuention.
Ante occupatio.
ANticipation is, when we preuent those wordes, tha[t] an other would say, and disproue them as vntrue, or at least wise aunswere vnto them. A Godly Preacher enueighed earnestly against those, that would not haue the Byble to bee in English, and after earnest probation of his cause, saied thus: but me thinkes I heare one say. Sir, you make much a doe, about a little matter, what were we the worse if we had no Scripture at all? To whom he aunswered: the Scripture is left vnto vs by Gods owne wil, that the rather we might knowe his commaundements, and liue thereafter all the daies of our life. Sometimes this figure is vsed when wee say, wee wil not speake this or that, and yet doe notwithstanding. As thus. Such a one is an officer, I will not say a briber. Right is hindered through might, I will not say ouerwhelmed. Thus in saying we will not speake, we speake our minde after a sort notwithstanding.
A Similitude.
A Similitude is a likenesse when two thinges, or moe then two, are so compared and resembled together, that they both in some one propertie seeme like. Oftentimes brute Beastes, and thinges that haue no life, minister great matter in this behalfe. Therefore, those that delite to proue thinges by Similitudes, must learne to knowe the nature of diuers beastes, of mettalles, of stones, and al such as haue any vertue in them, and be applied to mans life. Sometimes in a worde appeareth a similitude, which being dilated helpeth well for amplification. As thus. You striue against the streame, better bowe then breake. It is euill running against a stone wall. A man may loue his house well, & yet not ride vpon the ridge. By al which, any one may gather a similitude, and enlarge it at pleasure. The Prouerbes of Hewood helpe wonderfull well for this purpose. In comparing a thing from the lesse to the greater. Similitudes help well to set out the matter. That if we purpose to dilate our cause hereby with poses & sentences, wee may with ease talke at large. This
shall serue for an example. The more precious a thing is, the more diligently should it bee kept, and better heede taken to it. Therefore time (considering, nothing is more precious) would warely be vsed, and good care taken, that no time bee lost, without some profite gotten. For if they are to bee punished that spende their money, and waist their Landes, what follie is it, not to thinke them worthie much more blame, that spende their time (which is the chiefest treasure that GOD giueth) either idely, or els vngodly? For what other thing doth man lose, when he loseth his time, but his life? And what can bee more deare to man then his life? If wee lose a little money, or a Ring of golde with a stone in it, we coumpt that great losse. And I pray you, when wee lose a whole day, which is a good portion of a mans life, shall we not compt that a losse, considering though our money bee gone, wee may recouer the same againe, but time lost can neuer be called backe againe. Againe, when we lose our money, some bodie getteth good by it, but the losse of time turneth to no mans auaile. There is no man that loseth in any other thing, but some bodie gaineth by it, sauing onely in the losse of time: yea, it hath saued the life of some to lose al that they had. For riches bee the occasion sometimes of much mischiefe in this life, so that it were better sometimes wastefully to spende, then warely to keepe: by the losse of time, no man hath profited him selfe any thing at all. Besides this, the better and more precious a thing is, the more shame to spend it fondly. Though men keepe their goodes neuer so close, and locke them vp neuer so fast, yet oftentimes, either by some mischaunce of fire, or other thing, they are lost, or els desperate Dickes borowes now and then against the owners will al that euer he hath. And now though the owner be vndone, yet is he not therefore dishonest, considering honestie standeth not in wealth, nor heapes of money: but the losse of time, seeing it happeneth through our owne foly, not only doth it make vs wretches, but also causeth men to thinke that we are past all grace. A wonderfull kinde of infamie, when the whole blame shall rest vpon none other mans necke, but vpon his onely that suffereth all the harme. With money a man may buy lande, but none can get honestie of that price: and yet with well vsing of time, a man not onely might get him much worshippe, but also might purchase himsefe a name for euer. Yea, in a small tyme a man might get great fame, and liue in much estimation. By losing of money we lose little els: but losing of time we lose all the goodnesse and giftes of God, which by labor might be had. Thus similitudes might be enlarged by heaping good sentences, when one thing is compared with an other, and conclusion made thereupon. Among the learned men of the Church, no one vseth this figure more then Chrisostome, whose writings the rather seeme more pleasaunt and sweete. For similitudes are not onely vsed to amplifie a matter, but also to beautifie the same, to delite the hearers, to make the matter plaine, and to shewe a certain maiestie with the report of such resembled things, but because I haue spoken of similitudes heretofore in the booke of Logique, I will surcease to talk any further of this matter.
HE that mindeth to perswade, must needes be well stored with examples. And therefore much are they to be commended, which searche Chronicles of all ages, and compare the state of our Elders with this present time. The Historie of Gods booke to the Christian is infallible, and therefore the rehearsall of such good things as are therein conteined, moue the faithfull to all vpright doing, and amendment of their life. The Ethnicke Authours stirre the hearers, being well applied to the purpose. For when it shalbe reported that thei which had no knowledge of God, liued in a brotherly loue one towards an other, detested aduoutry, banished periuries, hanged the vnthankful, kept the idle without meate till they laboured for their liuing: suffered none extortion, exempted bribes from bearing rule in the Commonweale, the Christians must needes bee ashamed of their euill behauiour, and studie much to passe those which are in calling much vnder them, and not suffer that the ignorant and Pagans life, shall counteruaile the taught children of God, and passe them in good learning. Unegall examples commend much the matter. I call them vnegall when the weaker is brought in against the stronger, as if children be faithfull, much more ought men to be faithfull. If women be chast and vndefiled: men should much more be cleane and without fault. If an vnlearned man wil do no wrong, a learned man and a Preacher, must much more be vpright and liue without blame. If an Housholder will deale iustly with his seruants: a King must much the rather deale iustly with his subiects. Examples gathered out of histories, and vsed in this sorte, helpe much towards perswasion. Yea, brute beastes minister greate occasion of right good matter, considering many of them haue shewed vnto vs, the paterns and Images of diuers vertues.

Doues seing an Hauke gather all together, teaching vs none other thing, but in aduersitie to stick one to an other. Craines in the night haue their watch, warning vs neuer to be carelesse, for if their watch faile them, they al neuer leaue till they haue killed that one Craine, teaching vs that no traitors are worthy to liue vpon earth. The watch for his safegard, and because he would not slepe, holdeth a stone in his foote, the
how euill it is.
which falleth from him, when he beginneth to waxe heauie, and so keepeth himselfe stil waking. Whereby we may learne that all men in their vocation, should be right ware and watchfull. The Hen clocketh her Chickens, feedeth them, and keepeth them from the Kite. Women must clocke their Children, bring them vp well, and keepe them from euill happ. Now I might in speaking of some odious vice, largely set out some example belonging to the same, and compare it with other by heaping of Chronicles, and matching of things together. The vnthankfull in this age (whereof there is no small nomber) can not haue enough saide against them. And therefore I am minded to say somewhat against them, to the vtter abhorring of all such vnkind dealing. For he that is vnthankfull, for hartie loue sheweth cankard hatered: wanteth all other vertues that are required to be in man. The chief perfection and the absolute fulfilling of the law, standeth in the loue which man oweth first to GOD, and next to his neighbour. Let a man haue faith, that he may be able to translate mountaines (as S. Paul saith:) yea, let him haue neuer so good qualities, or bee he neuer so politique a man for the safegard of his Countrie, be he neuer so wise, so ware, and so watchful: yet if he want loue he is nothing els but as a sounding Brasse, or a tinckling Cimball.
punished by the Persians
with death.
Now hee that is churlish and vnthankfull, must needes want loue, and therefore wanteth he all other goodnesse. The Persians therefore seeing the greatenesse of this offence, and that where it rested, all vices for euer were banished: Prouided by a Lawe that such should suffer death as felons, which were found faultie with vnthankfulnesse. And yet I can not see but they deserue rather an exquisite kinde of death (such as fewe haue seen, or few haue felt) then to suffer like death with other, that haue not like offended with them. But now because this offence is an euill most odious and the principall cause of all other mischiefe: I will set foorth three notable examples, the one of a Dragon, the second of a dog, and the third of a Lion (which all three in thankfulnesse, if that be true which is reported of them, wonderfully exceeded) and the rather I seeke to set them out, that the wicked hereby may well knowe, what they themselues are, when brute beasts shall set them all to schoole.

There was a man (as Plinie writeth) which fostered vp a young Dragon, who seeing the same beast to waxe wonderfull greate, feared to keepe this Dragon any longer within his house, and therefore he put him out into a wilde Forest. It
of a Dragon.
happeneth afterwarde, that the same man trauayling on his iourney through the Forrest, was beset with Theeues. And nowe beeing in this distresse, and looking for none other ende but death, made (as lothe to departe) a great shoute and outcrie: straight vpon whose noyse, and at the knowledge of his voyce, the Dragon came to him in all the haste possible. Whereupon the Theeues beeing greatly afraied, ranne cleane away to saue themselues harmelesse. Thus through the thankfulnesse of a Dragon, this mans life was saued.

The Dog of the Romaine Fuluius is more wonderfull. This Fuluius trauailing by the way was slaine with slaues, that laie in waite for him. His Dogge seeing his master dead, laie by him for the space of two daies. Whereupon when the man
of a Dog.
was missing, and search made for him: They founde him dead with his Dog lying by him. Some marueiling to see the Dog lye there by his dead Master, stroke him and would haue driuen him from the dead corse, and could not: some seeing such kindenesse in the dog, and pitying him that he should lye there without meate two or three daies before: cast him a peece of flesh: whereupon the Dog straight caried the meate to his maisters mouth, and would not eate any whit himselfe, though he had forborne meate so long before. And last of all when the dead body should be cast into the Riuer (according to the maner of the Romaines) the dog lept in after, and holding vp his maister so long as he could, did chuse rather to dye with him, then to liue without him.

The Lion (whereof Appian the Grammarian doeth speake) is also strange for his kindnesse, and almost incredible. A seruant that had run awaie from his master, and hid him selfe for feare in a Caue within a great wood, tooke a thorne out of a Lions foote, which then came to him for succour as he laie there. Now when he had done, the Lion to requite his
of a Lion.
good turne, brought such meat to the Caue as he could kill in the Wood. The which meate the seruant rosting against the Sunne (being in the most hot Countrey of all Affrica) did eate from tyme to time. At length yet being wearie of such a lothsome life, hee left the caue and came abroad, by meanes whereof he was taken again, and being a slaue to his maister (who had power of life and death ouer him) he was condemned to be cast to wilde beasts at Rome, there to be deuoured of a Lyon. The poore caitife stoode pitifully in the sight of thousands, euer looking when he should be deuoured. It happened at the same time when this fellow was thus adiudged to die: that the same Lion was taken, whose foote he healed in the wood. When the Lion was put to him, he came first very terrible towards the fellowe, and immediatly knowing what he was, stood still, and at length fauned gently vpon him. This fellowe at first being amased, began to take harte vnto him afterwardes, as half knowing him likewise, and thus they began both to take acquaintance the one of the other, and plaied together a good space without all daunger, whereupon the people being amased, much wondered at the straungenesse of this thing. And standing thus astonied, they sent to know of the slaue what this matter should meane. Unto whom this poore wretch opened the whole thing altogether euen as it happened. When the people heard this, they not onely reioyced much at the sight thereof, but also they made earnest request to his maister for his life. His maister marueiling asmuch as any of them at such an vnwonted kindnesse: gaue him not onely his life, but also his freedome. And now to the ende he might haue somewhat whereupon to liue, the people gaue him a fee for terme of his life. The felowe by and by gat him a line and a coler, and caried the Lion vp and doune the Citie in such sort, as Huntesmen cary a Greihound or a Spanell, the people still wondering and saying euer as he came by: beholde a man that hath cured a Lion: beholde a Lion that hath saued a man. The which example the more straunge it is, the more ashamed may they be, that are vnnaturall, and may learne kindnesse of a brute beast. For such men being ouercome with kindnesse by beastes, are worse then beastes, and more meete rather to bee tormented with Deuilles, then to liue with men.

Of enlarging examples by copy.
ANd now because examples enriched by copie, helpe much for amplification: I will giue a taste howe these and such like histories may bee encreased. And for the better handling of them, needfull it is to marke well the circumstances: that being well obserued and compared together on both partes, they may the rather bee enlarged. As thus. That which brute
Examples enlarged.
beastes haue done, shalt thou being a man, seeme not to haue done? They shewed themselues naturall, and wilt thou appeare vnnaturall? Naie, they ouercame Nature, and wilt thou be ouercome of them? They became of beastes in bodie, men in Nature, and wilt thou become of a man in bodie, a beast in Nature? They beeing without reason, declared the propertie of reasonable creatures, and wilt thou, being a man endued with reason, appere in thy doings altogether vnreasonable? Shall Dogges be thankfull: and man, yea, Christen men want such a vertue? shall wormes shewe such kindnesse: and men appeare gracelesse? It had bene no matter if they had bene vnthankful: but man can neuer escape blame, seing God hath commaunded, and Nature hath graffed this in al men: that they should do to other, as they would be done vnto. Againe, they for meate onely shewed them selues so kind: and shall man for so many benefites receiued, and for such goodnesse shewed, requite for good will euill deedes: for hartie loue deadly hatred: for vertue vice: and for life giuen to him, yeeld death to other? Nature hath parted man and beast: and shall man in Nature bee no man? Shamed be that wretch that goeth against Nature, that onely hath the shape of a man, and in Nature is worse then a beast. Yea, worthy are all such rather to be torne with deuilles, then to liue with men. Thus an example might most copiously be augmented, but thus much for this time is sufficient.

Poetical narrations
The saying of Poetes and all their fables are not to be forgotten, for by them we may talke at large, and win men by perswasion, if we declare before hand that these tales were not fained of such wisemen without cause, neither yet continued vntill this time, and kept in memorie without good consideration, and therupon declare the true meaning of all such writing. For vndoubtedly there is no one tale among all the Poetes, but vnder the same is comprehended some thing that parteineth, either to the amendment of maners, to the knowledge of the trueth, to the setting forth of Natures work, or els the vnderstanding of some notable
Poetes vnder colours,
shew much wisedome.
thing done. For what other is the painfull trauaile of Vlisses, described so largely by Homer, but a liuely picture of mans miserie in this life. And as Plutarch saieth: and likewise Basilius Magnus: in the Iliades are described strength, and valiantnesse of the bodie: In Odissea is set forth a liuely paterne of the minde. The Poetes were wisemen, and wished in hart the redresse of things, the which when for feare, they durst not openly rebuke, they did in colours paint them out, and tolde men by shadowes what they should doe in good sooth, or els because the wicked were vnworthie to heare the trueth, they spake so that none might vnderstande but those vnto whom they please to vtter their meaning, and knewe them to be men of honest conuersation.

We read of Danae the faire damosell, whom Iupiter tempted full oft, and could neuer haue his pleasure, till at length he made it raigne golde, and so as she sat in her Chimney, a great deale fell vpon her lappe, the which she tooke gladly and kept it there, within the which golde, Iupiter himselfe was comprehended, whereby is none other thing els signified, but that women haue bene, and will be ouercome with money.

Likewise Iupiter fansying the faire maide Isis, could not haue his will, till he turned himself into a faire white Bull, which signified that beautie may ouercome the best.

If a man could speake against couetous caitiues, can he better shew what they are, then by setting forth the straunge plague of Tantalus, who is reported to be in Hell, hauing Water comming still to his chin, and yet neuer able to drinke: And an Apple hanging before his mouth, and yet neuer able to eate?

Icarus would needes haue winges, and flie contrarie to Nature, whereupon when he had set them together with Waxe, and ioyned to his side, and mounted vp into the Ayre: But so sone as the Sunne had somewhat heated him, and his Waxe beganne to melt, he fell downe into a greate Riuer, and was drowned out of hand, the which water was euer after called by his name. Nowe what other thing doeth this tale shewe vs, but that euery man should not meddle with things aboue his compasse.

Midas desired that whatsoeuer he touched, the same might be gold: whereupon when Iupiter had graunted him his bound: his meate, drinke, and all other things turned into golde, and he choked with his own desire, as all couetous men lightly shalbe, that can neuer be content when they haue enough.

Hercules labours, what
they signified.
S. Christopher, what
he signified.
What other thing are the wonderfull labours of Hercules, but that reason should withstand affection, and the spirit for euer should fight against the flesh? Wee Christians had like Fables heretofore of ioyly felowes, the Images whereof were set vp (in Gods name) euen in our Churches. But is any man so madde to think that euer there was such a one as Saint Christopher was painted vnto vs? Mary God forbid. Assuredly when he liued vpon earth there were other houses builded for him, then wee haue at this time, and I thinke Tailers were much troubled to take measure of him for making his garments. He might be of kinne to Garganteo if he were as bigge as he is set forth in Antwerp. But this was the meaning of our elders (and the name self doth signifie none other) that euery man should beare Christ vpon his backe, that is to say, he should loue his brother, as Christ loued vs, and gaue his bodie for vs: he should trauaile through hunger, cold, sorowe, sicknesse, death, and all daungers, with al sufferance that might be. And whether should he trauaile? to the euerliuing God. But how? In darknesse? No forsooth by the light of his worde. And therfore S. Christopher beeing in the Sea, and not wel able to get out (that is to say) being almost drowned in sinne, (and not knowing which waie best to escape) an Eromite appeared vnto him with a Lanterne and a light therein, the which doth signifie none other thing to the Christian, but the true worde of God, which lighteneth the hearts of men, and giueth vnderstanding to the younglings (as the Prophet doth say.) Againe, S. George he is set
S. George on
on Horsebacke and killeth a Dragon with his speare, which Dragon would haue deuoured a Virgine, whereby is none other thing meant, but that a King and euery man, vnto whom the execution of Iustice is committed, should defende the innocent against the vngodly attempts of the wicked, and rather kill such deuilles by Marciall lawe, then suffer the innocentes to take any wrong. But who gaue our Cleargie any such authoritie that those Monsters should be in Churches, as lay mens bookes? God forbad by expresse worde, to make any grauen Image, and shall wee bee so bold to breake Gods will for a good intent, and call these Idolles laie mens bookes? I could talk largely of examples, and heape a number here together, aswell of Ethnik Authours, as of other here at home; but for feare I should be tedious, these for this time shall suffice.

Of Fables.
THe feined Fables, such as are attributed vnto brute beastes, would not be forgotten at any hande. For not onely they delite the rude and ignorant, but also they helpe much for perswasion. And because such as speake in open audience, haue euer mo fooles to heare them, then wisemen to giue iudgement: I would thinke it not amisse to speake much, according to the nature and phansie of the ignorant, that the rather they might be won through Fables, to learne more weightie and graue matters, for all men can not brooke sage causes, and auncient collations: but will like earnest matters the rather, if some thing be spoken there among agreeing to their natures. The multitude (as Horace doth say) is a beast, or rather a monster that hath many heddes, and therefore like vnto the diuersitie of natures, varietie of inuention
Fables how needfull
they are to teache
the ignorant.
must alwaies be vsed. Talke altogether of most graue matters, or deepely search out the ground of things or vse the quiddities of Dunce, to set forth Gods misteries: and you shal see the ignorant (I warrant you) either fall a sleepe, or els bid you farewell. The multitude must needes be made merie: & the more foolish your talke is, the more wise will they compt it to be. And yet it is no foolishnesse, but rather wisedome to win men, by telling of Fables to heare of Gods goodnesse. Undoubtedly fables well set forth, haue done much good at diuers times, and in diuers Commonweales. The Romaine Menenius Agrippa, alledging vpon a time, a Fable of the conflict made betwixt the parts of a mans bodie, and his bellie: quieted a marueilous stirre that was like to ensue, and pacified the vprore of sedicious Rebelles, which els thought for euer to destroy their Countrey. Themistocles perswaded the Athenians not to change their officers, by rehearsing the fable of a scabbed Foxe. For (quoth he) when many flies stoode feeding vppon his rawe flesh, and had well fed themselues, he was contented at an others perswasion, to haue them slapt awaie: whereupon there ensued such hungrie flies afterwards, that the sorie Foxe being all alone, was eaten vp almost to the hard bone, and therefore cursed the time, that euer he greed to any such euil counsaile. In like maner (quoth Themistocles) if you will chaunge officers, the hungrie flies will eate you vp one after another, whereas now you liue being but onely bitten, and like to haue no farthar harme, but rather much wealth and quietnesse hereafter, because thei are filled and haue enough, that heretofore suckt so much of your bloud.

Now likewise, as I gaue a lesson how to enlarge an example, so may fables also in like sort be set out, and augmented at large by Amplification. Thus much for the vse of Fables. Again, sometimes feined narrations, and wittie inuented matters (as though they were true in deede) help wel to set forward a cause, and haue great grace in them, being aptly vsed and well inuented. Luciane passeth in this point: and Sir Thomas More for his Eutopia, can soner be remembred of me, then worthely praised of any, according as the excellencie of his inuention in that behalfe doth most iustly require.

DIgestion is an orderly placing of things, parting euery matter seuerally. Tullie hath an example hereof in his Oration which he made for Sextus Roscius Amarinus. There are three things (quoth Tullie) which hinder Sextus Roscius at this time, the accusation of his aduersaries, the boldnesse of them, and the power that they bare. Eruscus his accusar hath taken vpon him to forge false matter, the Roscians kinsfolke haue boldly aduentured, and will face out their doings, and Chrisogonus here that most can doe, will presse vs with his power.
A whisht or warning to speake no more.
A Whisht is when we bid them holde their peace, that haue least cause to speake, and can doe little good with their talking. Diogenes being vpon the Sea among a number of naughtie packes, in a great storme of weather, when diuers of these wicked fellowes cried out for feare of drowning, some with feined praier to Iupiter, some to Neptune, and euery one as they best fantasied the Gods aboue: whisht (quoth Diogenes) for by Gods mother, if God himselfe knewe you to be here,
you were like to be drowned euery mothers sonne of you. Meaning that they were so naught, and so fainedly made their praier to false Gods, without mind to amend their naughtie life, that the liuing GOD would not leaue them vnpunished, though they cried out neuer so fast. We vse this figure likewise in speaking of any man: we say whisht, the Woulfe is at hand, when the same man cometh in the meane season, of whom we spake before.
COntrarietie, is when our talke standeth by contrary wordes or sentences together. As thus. Wee might dispraise some one man, he is of a straunge nature as euer I saw, for to his frend he is churlish, to his foe he is gentle: giue him faire wordes and you offend him: checke him sharply, and you winne him. Let him haue his will, and he will flie in thy face: keepe him short and you shall haue him at commaundement.
Freenesse of speeche.
Libera vox.
FReenesse of speech, is when we speake boldly and without feare, euen to the proudest of them, whatsoeuer we please or haue list to speake. Diogenes, herein did excell, and feared no man when he sawe iust cause to say his minde. This worlde wanteth such as hee was, and hath ouer many such as neuer honest man was, that is to saie, flatterers, fauners, and soothers of mens sayings.
Stomacke greefe.
STomacke griefe, is when we will take the matter as hot as a toste. We need no examples for this matter, hot men haue too many, of whom they may be bold and spare not that find themselues a cold. Sometimes we entreate earnestly, and make meanes by praier to winne fauour. Sometimes we seeke fauour by speaking well of the companie present. As thus. Through your help my Lords, this good deede hath bin done. Sometimes we speake to hurt our aduersaries, by setting forth their euil behauior. Somtimes we excuse a fault, & accuse the reporters. Sometimes wee wish vnto God for redresse of euill. Sometimes wee curse the extreme wickednesse of some past good Roisters. In all which I thinke neither examples neede, nor yet any rehearsall had bin greatly necessary, considering al these come without any great learning, sauing, that for apt bestowing, iudgement is right needfull.
Of figures in sentences called Schemes.
WHen any sentence vpon the placing or setting of wordes, is sayd to be a figure: the said is alwaies called a Scheme, the which words being altered or displaced, the figure straight doth lose his name, and is called no more a Scheme. Of this sort there is diuers, such as hereafter followe.
DOublettes is when we rehearse one and the same worde twise together. Ah wretche, wretche, that I am. Tullie against Catiline, enueighing sore against his traterous attempts, saieth after a long rehearsed matter, and yet notwithstanding al this notorious wickednesse: The man liueth still, liueth? Naie Marie, he cometh into the counsaile house, which is more. An other. Darest thou shew thy face, thou wretched theefe, thou theef, I say to thine owne father, darest thou looke abroade? Thus the oft repeating of one worde, doth much stirre the hearer, and makes the worde seeme greater, as though a sworde were oft digged and thrust twise, or thrise in one place of the body.
Altering part of a worde.
Paulum in
mutatum verbum.
ALtering parte of a worde, is when we take a letter or sillable from some worde, or els adde a letter, or sillable to a worde. As thus. William Somer seeing much adoe for accomptes making, and that the Kinges Maiestie of most worthie memorie Henrie the eight wanted money, such as was due vnto him: and please your grace (quoth he) you haue so many Frauditours, so many Conueighers, and so many Deceiuers to get vp your money, that they get all to themselues. Whether he sayd true or no, let God iudge that, it was vnhappely spoken of a foole, and I thinke he had some Schoolemaster: He should haue saide Auditours, Surueighours, and Receiuers.
à primo.
REpetition, is when we beginne diuers sentences, one after an other: with one and the same worde. As thus: When thou shalt appeare at the terrible day of iudgement, before the Maiestie of God, where is then thy riches? Where is then thy daintie fare? Where is then thy great band of men? Where are then thy faire houses? Where are then thy Landes, Pastures, Parkes, and Forests? I might say thus of our soueraigne Lorde the Kings Maiestie, that now is: King Edward hath ouerthrowen Idolatrie, King Edward hath banished superstition: King Edward by Gods help, hath brought vs to the true knowledge of our creation: King Edward hath quieted our consciences, and laboured that all his people should seeke health, by the death and passion of Christ alone.
Conuersio eiusdem
in extremum.
COnuersion, is an oft repeating of the last worde, and is contrary to that which went before. When iust dealing is not vsed: wealth goeth awaie, frendship goeth awaie, trueth goeth awaie, all goodnesse (to speake at a worde) goeth awaie. Where affections beare rule, there reason is subdued, honestie is subdued, good will is subdued, and all things els that withstand euill, for euer are subdued.
Conuersio in eadem.
COmprehension, is when both the aboue rehearsed figures, are in one kind of speaking vsed, so that both one first word must oft bee rehearsed, and likewise all one last worde. What winneth the hartes of men? liberalitie? What causeth men to aduenture their liues, and die willingly in defence of their
Silence becommeth
a woman.
maisters? liberalitie. What continueth the state of a king? liberalitie. What becometh a woman best, and first of all? silence. What second? silence. What third? silence. What fourth? silence. Yea, if a man should aske me till Domes daie, I would still crie silence, silence: without the which no woman hath any good gift, but hauing the same, no doubt she must haue many other notable gifts, as the which of necessitie, doe euer followe such a vertue.
PRogression standeth vpon contrary sentences, which aunswere one another. If we would rebuke a naughtie boy, we might with commending a good boye, say thus. What a boy art thou in comparison of this fellow here. Thou sleepes: he wakes: thou plaies: he studies: thou art euer abroade: he is euer at home: thou neuer waites: he still doth his attendance: thou carest for no bodie: he doeth his duetie to all men: thou doest what thou canst to hurt all, and please none: he doeth what he can to hurte none, and please all.
Like ending, and like falling.
Similiter desinens,
similiter cadens.
THen the sentences are said to end like, when those wordes doe ende in like sillables which do lacke cases. Thou liues wickedly, thou speakest naughtely. The rebels of Northfolke (quoth a most worthie man that made an inuectiue against them) through slauerie, shewe nobilitie: in deede miserably, in fashion cruelly, in cause deuillishly. Sentences also are said to fall like when diuers wordes in one sentence ende in like cases, and that in rime. By greate trauaile is gotten much auaile, by earnest affection men learne discretion.

These two kindes of Exornation are then most delitefull, when contrary things are repeated together: when that once againe is vttered which before was spoken: when sentences are turned and letters are altered. Of the first this may be an example: where learning is loued, there labour is esteemed: but when slothe is thought solace, there rudenesse taketh place. A King is honoured that is a King in deede: will you drinke or you go, or will you go or you drinke. There is a difference betwixt an Horsmilne, and a Milne horse. He is a meeter man to driue the cart, then to serue the court: through labor cometh honor, through idle liuing foloweth hanging. Diuers in this our time delite much in this kinde of writing, which beeing measurably vsed, deliteth much the hearers, otherwise
it offendeth, and wearieth mens eares with sacietie. S. Augustine had a goodly gift in this behalfe, and yet some thinkes he forgot measure, and vsed ouermuch this kind of figure. Notwithstanding, the people were such where he liued, that they tooke much delite in rimed sentences, and in Orations made ballade wise. Yea, thei were so nice and so waiward to please,
that except the Preacher from time to time could rime out his sermon, they would not long abide the hearing. Tacitus also sheweth that in his time, the Iudges and Seriantes at the lawe, were driuen to vse this kinde of phrase, both in their writing, and also in their speaking. Yea, great Lordes would thinke themselues contemned, if learned men (when they speake before
Rimed sentences, vsed
without measure.
them) sought not to speake in this sort. So that for the flowing stile and full sentence, crept in Minstrels elocution, talking matters altogether in rime, and for waightinesse and grauitie of wordes, succeding nothing els but wantonnesse of inuention. Tullie was forsaken, with Liuie, Cæsar, and other: Apuleius, Ausonius, with such Minstrell makers were altogether followed. And I thinke the Popes heretofore (seeing the peoples folie to bee such) made all our Himnes and Anthemes in rime, that with the singing of men, playing of Orgaines, ringing of Belles, and
Rimes made to mocke
the simple.
riming of Himnes and Sequences, the poore ignorant might think the harmonie to be heauenly, and verely beleue that the Angels of God made not a better noyce in heauen. I speake thus much of these ii. figures, not that I thinke folie to vse them (for they are pleasant and praise worthy) but my talke is to this ende, that they should neither onely nor chiefly be vsed, as I know some in this our time, do ouermuch vse them in their writings. And ouermuch (as all men knowe) was neuer good yet. Yea a man may haue ouermuch of his mothers blessing if she will neuer leaue blessing. Therefore a measure is best, yea, euen in the best thinges. And thus farre for these two figures.

Egall members.
Paria paribus
EGall members are such, when the one halfe of the sentence answereth to the other, with iust proportion of number, not that the Sillables of necessitie should bee of iust number, but that the eare might iudge them to be so egall, that there may appeare small difference. As thus. Law without mercie, is extreme power, yet men through foly deserue such Iustice. Learning is daungerous, if an euill man haue it. The more noble a man is, the more gentle he should bee. Isocrates passeth in this behalfe, who is thought to write altogether in nomber, keeping iust proportion in framing of his sentence.
Like among themselues.
Similia inter se.
SEntences are called like when contraries are set together, and the first taketh asmuch as the other following: and the other following taketh asmuch awaie, as that did which went before. As thus. Lust hath ouercome shamefastnesse, impudence hath ouercome feare, and madnesse hath ouercome reason. Or els sentences are said to be like among themselues, when euery part of one sentence is egall, and of like waight one with an other. As thus. Is it knowne, tried, proued, euident, open, and assured that I did such a deede? An other. Such riot, Dicing, Carding, picking, stealing, fighting, Ruffians, Queanes and Harlottes must needes bring him to naught.
GRadation, is when we rehearse the word that goeth next before, and bring an other word thereupon that encreaseth the matter, as though one should goe vp a paire of stayres and not leaue till he come at the top. Or thus. Gradation is when a sentence is disseuered by degrees, so that the word which endeth the sentence going before doeth begin the next. Labour getteth learning, learning getteth fame, fame getteth honour, honour getteth blisse for euer. An other. Of sloth cometh pleasure, of pleasure cometh spending, of spending cometh whoring, of whoring cometh lack, of lacke cometh theft, of theft cometh hanging, and there an end for this worlde.
THat is called regression, when we repeate a worde eftsone that hath bin spoken and rehersed before, whether the same be in the beginning, in the middest, or in the latter ende of a sentence. In the beginning, thus. Thou art ordeined to rule other, and not other to rule thee. In the middest, thus. He that hath money hath not giuen it, and he that hath giuen money, hath not his money still: and he that hath giuen thankes, hath thanks still, and he that hath them stil, hath giuen them notwithstanding. In the latter ende, thus. Man must not liue to eate, but eate to liue. Man is not made for the sabboth, but the sabboth is made for man. If man do any filthy thing, and take pleasure therin: the pleasure goeth away, but the shame tarieth stil. If man do any good thing with paine, the paines goe awaie, but the honestie abideth still.
Wordes loose.
WOrdes loose are such, which as are vttered without any addition of coniunctions, such as knitte words and sentences together. As thus. Obeye the King, feare his lawes, keepe thy vocation, doe right, seeke rest, like well a little, vse all men, as thou wouldest they should vse thee.
OUt crying, is when with voyce we make an exclamation. Oh Lord, O God, O worlde, O life, O maners of men? O Death, where is thy sting? O Hell, where is thy victorie?
Oft vsing of one word in diuers places.
CAn he haue any mans harte in him, or deserueth hee the name of a man, that cruelly killeth a poore innocent man, who neuer thought him harme.
A cause giuen to a sentence vttered.
I Feare not mine aduersarie, because I am not guiltie. I mistrust not the Iudges, because they are iust, the Quest will not cast me, the matter is so plaine.
A cause giuen to things contrary.
BEtter it were to rule, then to serue. For, he that ruleth, liueth: because he is free. But he that serueth, cannot be saide to liue. For where bondage is, there is no life properly.
TAke your pleasure for a time, and doe what you list, a time will come when accoumpt shall be made. When thinges cannot be that we would haue, we should will that, which we can haue. Pacience is a remedie for euery disease.
A doubting.
SHall I call him foole, or shall I call him varlet, or both? An other. What made him to commit such a Robberie? Lacke of money, or lacke of wit, or lacke of honestie? I doubt whether to call him a foolish knaue, or a knauish foole. When much matter was here in England, for calling the Pope supreme
A Spanyards doubt.
head of the Church (quoth a Spanyard, that whilome was of the Popes Court in Rome) you doubt much here in England, whether the Pope be head of the Church or no, and great variaunce there is amongst you, at the which folly of yours I do much maruaile, for wee doubt much at Rome whether hee bee a member of the Church at all or no.
REckening is when many thinges are numbred together. There is no streate, no house, no man, no childe, no shoppe, no lodging in al this Towne, but he hath bene in it. There is no Stone, no Diamond, no Saphire, no Rubie, no Christall: no Turcasse, no Emerode, but he knoweth them perfectly. By this figure wee may enlarge that, by rehearsing of the partes, which was spoken generally, and in fewe wordes.
Sentence amplified
by seuerall rehearsing
of things.
This may bee an example. Such a Gentleman being an vnthrift, hath spent all that euer he had. Thus the sentence may be amplified, if wee shew particularly what he had, and tell seuerally how he spent it. Looke what enheritance came to him (which was no smal thing) by the death of his owne kinne, and his wiues kinsfolke: What dower soeuer he had by mariage of his wife, which by report was a very great thing: Whatsoeuer he got by Executorship: Whatsoeuer the Kinges Maiestie gaue him. What booties soeuer he got in Warrefare: looke what money he had, what Plate, what Apparell, what Houshold stuffe, what Land and Lordships, what Sheepe, Goods, Parkes, and Medowes, yea, whatsoeuer he had moueable, or vnmoueable, his house, and all that euer he had: he hath so spent in fewe daies, so waisted it, and made such hauocke of all together, among the beastly companie of filthie Queanes, among abhominable Harlottes, with banquetting from day to day, with sumptuous rare suppers, with drinking in the night, with dainties and delicates, and all such sweete delites, with Dicing, Carding, and all maner of gameing: that he hath now left neither crosse nor crucifixe, no not a dodkin in all the worlde to blesse himselfe with all. Thus these wordes (he hath spent al his goodes in riot) are dilated and set forth at large, by rehearsing seuerally euery thing one after an other.
Reasoning a matter with our selues.
THen we reason the matter with our selues, when we aske questions of our selues, and aunswere therunto. As thus. How came this, good fellowe by all that he hath? Did his father leaue him any Lande? Not a foote. Did his friends giue him any thing? Not a groate. Hath he serued in any vocation, to heape vp so much wealth? None hath liued more idely. Doth he not leane to some Noble man? Yea, but he neuer receiued more then fower marke wages. How then commeth he by al that euer he hath, liuing without labour, hauing no friendes to help him, hauing so little to take vnto by all outward apparance, and spending so liberally, and owing no man a groate in all the worlde? Assuredly, it cannot be otherwise, but that he commeth naughtly by most of that which he hath. An other. Seing thou art so basely borne, so poore in state, so smally learned, so hard fauoured, and hast no witte at al, what meanest thou to vaunt thy selfe so much, and to make such bragges as thou doest. What doth make thee to waxe so proude? Thy stocke whereof thou didest come? Why man they are very base folke. Thine owne wealth? Tush, thou art as poore as Iob. Thy learning? Marie thou neuer camst yet where any learning did growe. Thy beautie? Now in good soth, a worse fauoured man can there not be vpon earth againe. Thy witte? Now God he knoweth, it is as blunt as many bee. What other thing then is all this thy bragging, but plaine madnesse.
Resembling of things.
REsembling of thinges, is a comparing or liking of looke, with looke, shape, with shape, and one thing with an other. As when I see one in a great heate, and fiercely set vpon his enemie, I might say, he let flee at him like a Dragon. Or thus. He lookes like a Tiger, a man would think he would eate one, his countenance is so ougle. He speakes not, but he barkes like a Dog: he whets his teeth like a Bore, he beates the ground with his foote like a great Horse: he is as ramping as a Lyon. By this figure called in Latine Imago, that is to say an Image, we might compare one man with an other, as Salust compareth Cæsar and Cato together, or wee might heape many men together, and proue by large rehearsall any thing that wee would, the which of the Logicians is called induction.
Answering to our selfe.
Sibi ipsi
WE are saied to answere our self, when we seeme to tell our self what we will doe, Phedria in Terence beeing much troubled and out of quiet, because hee was not receiued of his woman, but shut out of doores, when he was most willing to see her, made as though he would not come to her afterwards, nor yet see her at all, when she did most gently sende for him. And therefore beeing in his anger, thus he saied: Well, what shall I do? Shall I not goe, not euen now when she sends for me of her owne accorde? Or shall I bee of such a nature, that I cannot abide the despitefulnesse of Harlottes? She hath shut me out, she calles me againe. Shall I goe to her? Nay I wil not though she entreate me neuer so faire.
ORder is of two sorts, the one is when the worthier is preferred and set before. As a man is set before a woman. The second is, when in amplification, the weightiest words are set last, and in diminishing the same are set formost. With what looke, with what face, with what heart dare thou doe such a deede?
Briefe describing, or circumscription.
CIrcumscription is a briefe declaring of a thing. As thus, He is free that is subiect to no euill. It is a vertue to eschewe vice.

There are diuers other colours of Rhetorique, to commende and set forth a sentence, by chaunge of wordes and much varietie of speech, but I had rather offende in speaking to little, then deserue rebuke in saying to much. For asmuch as close silence may soner be pardoned, then immoderate babling can want iust blame, and therefore thus an ende.

Of Memorie.
AS I haue laboured to set out the other parts of Rhetorique, in such ample wise as I thought most needfull, so it standeth me in hande, not to slacken mine endeuour, now that I am come to speake of memorie. For, though man haue vnderstanding and iudgement, which is one part of wisedome: yet wanting a remembraunce to apply things aptly, when time and place shal best require: he shall doe but small good with all his vnderstanding. And therefore it is saied not without reason, that the same is memorie to the mind, that life is to the bodie. Now then what els must they doe that esteeme reason and loue knowledge, but cherish the memorie from time to time, as an especiall and soueraine preseruatiue, against the infection of cankard obliuion. The Faulkners say, it is the first point of hauking to holde fast. And yet I cannot thinke otherwise, but that in all good learning also, it is best & most expedient euermore to holde fast. For what auaile good thinges if wee cannot keepe them, if we receiue them in at one eare, and let them out as fast againe at the other eare? A good thriftie man will gather his goodes together in time of plentie, and lay them out againe in time of need: and shal not an Oratour haue in store good matter, in the chest of his memorie, to vse and bestow in time of necessitie? I doubt not, but all men desire to haue a good remembraunce of thinges, the which what it is, how it is deuided, and how it may be preserued, I will shewe in as fewe wordes as I can.
What is memorie.
what it is.
MEmorie is the power retentiue of minde, to keepe those thinges, which by mans wit are conceiued, or thus. Memorie is the power of the minde that conteineth things receiued, that calleth to minde things past, and renueth of fresh, things forgotten.
The places of Memorie.
THE Phisitions declare, that in the former part of the head lieth the common sence, the which is therefore so called, because it giueth iudgement, of al the fiue outward sences, onely when they are presently occupied about any thing. As when I heare a thing, or see a thing, my common sence iudgeth, that then I doe heare, or see the same. But the memorie called the Threasure of the minde, lieth in the hinder part, the which is made most perfect by temperatnesse, and moderation of qualities in the braine. For where humours exceede or
Children and old men
have but euill memories.
want, there must needes ensue much weakenesse of remembraunce. Children therefore being ouer moyst, and old men ouer drie, haue neuer good memories. Againe, where ouer much colde is, and extreme moysture, there is euer much forgetfulnesse. Therefore it auaileth greatly, what bodies we haue, and of what constitution they bee compact together. For such as be hot and moist, do sone conceiue matters, but
Hot & moyst bodies sone
conceiue. Cold and drie
keepe thinges sure.
they keepe not long. Again, they that be colde and drie, doe hardly conceiue, but they keepe it surely when they once haue it. And the reason is this, heate beeing chiefe qualitie, doth drawe thinges vnto it (as we may see by the Sunne) the which notwithstanding are soner after dissipated and resolued. Againe, who hath seene a print made in water of any earthly thing? Then -- though heate and moysture together drawe things vnto them, yet, (wee see plainly) they cannot long hold them. But when the braine is cold and drie, things are therfore the faster holden, because it is the propertie of colde and drought, to thicken all things, and to harden them fast together, as we see the water through coldnesse is congeled, and soft things are frosen oftentimes: almost as hard as a stone. So that moysture through heate being chiefe qualitie, doth drawe: and drought through coldnesse, which is chiefe contrary to heate, doth harden and make thinges fast together. But now how doe wee knowe, that the memorie resteth in the latter part of the head?
Memorie in the
latter parte of
the head.
No doubt experience hath proued, and confirmed this to bee most true. For there hath beene some, that beeing hurt in that part, haue vtterly forgot their owne name. I doe remember one man, that (beeing hurt in that place, at the insurrection of the Lincolneshire men, fifteene yeres past) could not deuise the making of some Letters in his Crosse rowe, when he took penne and inke to write to his friend, whereas before that time, he wrote both fast and faire, and was well learned in the Latine. And therefore when he wrote, he would stand musing a great while, before he could cal to remembraunce, how he vsed to make a P. a. G. or such an other Letter: wherevpon diuers much maruailed what he would haue, or what he ment at the first time. For being grieued and willing to aske helpe, he could not vtter his meaning, for lacke of remembrance, and yet his tongue serued him well otherwise, to vtter whatsoeuer came in his head.
The deuision of Memorie.
Memorie deuided.
MEmorie is partly naturall, and partly artificiall. Naturall memorie, is when without any precepts or lessons, by the onely aptnesse of nature, we beare away such thinges as we heare. Wherein some heretofore did much excell, and greatly passe al other. As Themistocles, who had so good a
memorie, that when one proffered to teach him the art of Memorie: nay by Sainct Marie (quoth he) teach me rather the arte of forgetting. Declaring thereby that his memorie was passing good, and that it was more plaine for him, to forget such thinges as he would not kepe, then hard to remember such things as he would knowe.

Mithridates also had such an excellent memorie, that whereas he was Lorde and Ruler ouer xxii straunge Countries, that speake diuers speeches from one an other: he was able to talke with euery one of them in their owne countrey language.

Likewise Cyrus King of the Persians, hauing a great armie of men, knewe the names of all his Souldiers.

Cyneas Ambassadour for King Pyrrhus, called euery one by his name, that was in the Parliament house at Rome, the second day after he came thether, the number of them being foure times as many as they bee, that belong vnto the Parliament here in England.

Iulius Cæsar.
Julius Cæsar is reported that he could reade, heare, and tell one what he should write, so fast as his penne could runne, and endite Letters himselfe altogether at one time.

Thus we see that naturally men haue had wonderfull memories, as contrariwise there haue bene heard of as straunge forgetful wittes. Some hath not knowne his right hand from his
Forgetfull wittes.
left. An other hath forgot his owne name. An other hath caried his knife in his mouth: and hath runne rounde about the house seeking for it. An other hath told a tale halfe an houre together, and immediatly after hath forgot what he spake all that while.

Cicero telleth of one Curio, that where as he would make a deuision of three parts, he would either forget the third, or make vp a fourth, contrary to his first purpose and entent.

Belike this man had
the art of forgetting.
This I remember beeing a boye, that where as a Preacher had taken vpon him to set forth the twelue Articles of our belief, he could not in all the worlde finde out past nine: so that he was faine to say, he was assured there was twelue, wheresoeuer the other three were become, and he doubted not but the hearers knew them better then he did, and therefore he would for his part say no more, but commit them al to God, and those nine (thought he) were enough for him at that time, to set foorth and expounde for their vnderstanding.

of memorie.
Now the best meane both to amende an euill memorie, and to preserue a good, is first to keepe a diet, and eschewe surfites, to sleepe moderatly, to accompanie with women rarely, and last of all to exercise the witte with cunning, of many thinges without booke, and euer to be occupied with one thing or other. For euen as by labour the witte is whetted, so by lithernesse the witte is blounted.

But now concerning the other kinde of memorie called artificiall, I had need to make a long discourse, considering the strangenesse of the thing to the Englishe eare, and the hardnesse of the matter, to the ignorant and vnlearned. But first I wil shew from whence it hath beginning, and vpon what occasion it was first inuented, before I aduenture to declare the precepts that belong vnto the same.

The first founder of the art of Remembraunce.
Simonides first
Authour of the
arte of remembrance.
THE inuention of this Arte, is fathered vpon Simonides, for when the same man (as the Fable recordeth) had made in behalfe of a triumphant Champion called Scopas, for a certaine somme of money a Ballade, such as was then wont to be made for Conquerours: he was denied a peece of his reward, because he made a digression in his song (which in those daies was customably vsed) to the praise and commendation of Castor & Pollux (who were then thought being Twinnes, & got by Iupiter to be Gods) of whom the Champion willed him to aske a portion, because he had so largely set forth their worthy doings. Now it chaunced, that where as there was made a great feast, to the honour of the same Victorie, and Simonides had beene placed there as a guest, he was sodainly called from the Table, and told that there was two yong men at the doore, and both on horsback, which desired most earnestly to speak with him out of hand. But when he came out of the doores, he saw none at all: notwithstanding, he was not so sone out, and his foote on the Thresholde, but the Parlour fell downe immediatly vpon them all that were there, and so crushed their bodies together, and in such sort, that the kinsfolke of those that were dead, comming in, and desirous to burie them euery one according to their calling, not onely could they not perceiue them by their faces, but also they could not discerne them by any other marke of any part in all their bodies. Then Simonides well remembring in what place euery one of them did sit, tolde them what euery one was, and gaue them their kinsfolkes carcases, so many as were there. Thus the arte was first inuented. And yet (though this be but a Fable) reason might beate thus much into our heades, that if the like thing had bene done, the like remembrance might haue bene vsed. For who is he that seeth a dosen sit at a table, whom he knoweth very wel, cannot tell after they are all risen, where euery one of them did sit before? And therefore, be it that some man inuented this tale: the matter serueth well our purpose, and what neede wee any more?
What things are requisite to get the art of Memorie.
THey that will remember many thinges, and rehearse them together out of hand: must learne to haue places, and digest Images in them accordingly.
A place what it is.
A place is called any roume, apt to receiue thinges.
An Image what it is.
Places how they
must be.
An Image is any Picture or shape, to declare some certaine thing therby. And euen as in waxe we make a print with a seale, so we haue places where liuely pictures must be set. The places must be great, of small distaunce, not one like an other, and euermore the first place must bee made notable aboue the rest, hauing alwaies some seuerall note from the other, as some Antique, or a hand pointing, or such like, that the rather
Images how they
must be.
hauing a great number of places, wee might the better knowe where wee are, by the remembraunce of such notable and straunge places. And thus hauing them well appointed, we must keepe them fresh in our memorie, and neuer chaunge them but vse them still, whatsoeuer we haue to say. But the Images we may chaunge, as the matter shal giue iust cause, vsing such as shal serue best for the knowledge of thinges. The which Images must bee set foorth, as though they were stirring, yea, they must be sometimes made ramping, & last of al, they must be made of things notable, such as may cause earnest impression of things in our minde. As a notable euill fauoured man, or a monstrous Horse, such as Sainct Georges Horse was wont to be, or any such like helpe well for remembraunce.
{i The places of Memorie are resembled
{       vnto Waxe and Paper.
{ii Images are compted like vnto Letters
{       or a Seale.
{iii The placing of these Images, is like
{       vnto wordes written.
{iiii The vtterance and vsing of them, is
{       like vnto reading.

ANd therefore, as we doe reserue Paper, and yet chaunge our writing, putting out wordes as occasion shall serue, and setting other in their roume: so may we doe for the Images inuented, chaunge our Picture oft, and reserue the Papers stil. Some gather their places & Images out of the Crosse rowe, beginning euery Letter with the name of some Beast, and so goe through the whole, making in euery beast fiue seueral places, where the impression of things shall bee made, that is to say, in the Head, the Bellie, in the Taile, in the former parte of the legges, & also in the hinder part. So that by this meanes there shall be gathered, an hundred and fifteene places. Some againe will set their places in his head or bodie, with whom they speake. As to make the nose, the eyes, the forhead, the haire, the eares, and other partes to serue for places. And for making places in any house, Church, or other roume, this lesson is also giuen, that we enter our first places alwaies vpon the right hande, neuer returning backe: but going on still as I might say in a Circuite, till we come to that place where wee first began. But first before the Images bee inuented, the places must bee learned perfectly, and therefore one giueth counsaile that we should goe into some solitarie place where no companie is, and there make our places, walking vp and doune fower or fiue times, and calling stil to our remembrance what, and where the places are. And not only to doe this once or twise, but to labour in it two or three daies at seueral times vntil we shalbe able to tel our places vpon our fingers ends.

And now to make this hard matter somewhat plaine, I will vse an example. My friend (whom I tooke euer to bee an honest man) is accused of theft, of adulterie, of ryot, of manslaughter, and of treason: if I would keepe these wordes in my remembrance, and rehearse them in order as they were spoken, I must appoint fiue places, the which I had neede to haue so perfectly in my memorie, as could be possible. As for example, I will make these in my Chamber. A doore, a window, a presse, a bedstead, and a chimney. Now in the doore, I wil set Cacus the theefe, or some such notable verlet. In the windowe I will place Venus. In the Presse I will put Apitius that famous Glutton. In the Bedstead I will set Richard the third King of England, or some notable murtherer. In the Chimney I will place the blacke Smith, or some other notable Traitour. That if one repete these places, and these Images twise or thrise together, no doubt though he haue but a meane memorie, he shall carie away the wordes rehearsed with ease. And like as he may doe with these fiue words, so may he doe with fiue score, if he haue places fresh in his remembraunce, and doe but vse himselfe to this trade one fortnight together.

Therefore though it seeme straunge and foolish to them that knowe it not, yet the learned haue taken this way, and doubt not but maruailes may bee done, if one haue places readie made for the purpose, and haue them fresh in his remembraunce. For what other thing els do they that appoint Images in certaine places made for that purpose, but write (as a man would say) vpon Paper, that which is spoken vnto them? What maketh the old man (that for lacke of natural heate and moysture, scant knoweth his right hand from his left) remember in the morning where he laid his purse all night, but the beds head which lightly is the appointed place for all mens purses, especially such as bee wayfairers, and haue but little store. Shal some Gentleman play blindfold at the Chesse, and cannot a learned man be able to rehearse vp a score or two of straunge names together. A Neteheard hauing the charge and keeping of twentie score head of Beastes in a wilde Fenne, that belong to diuers men, will not only tell who be the owners of al such cattel, but also he will shew a man twise a weeke where any one is feeding, and if he want one among the whole, he will tell immediatly what it is, and whose it is that is wanting. Then fonde are they that coumpt the Arte of memorie so hard, seeing they will neither proue the hardnesse of it, nor yet blush at the matter, when they see poore Neteheards goe so farre beyond them. How many thinges doth memorie containe marueilous to beholde, and much more would, if we were not altogether slouthfull, and as carelesse to keepe, as wee are to get, good things I meane, not goodes of this world. Euery Artificer hath through exercise and labour, an artificiall memorie, sauing the learned man onely, who hath most neede of it aboue all other.

When we come to a place where we haue not bene many a day before, wee remember not onely the place it selfe, but by the place, wee call to remembraunce many thinges done there. Yea somtimes a window maketh some remember, that they haue stolne in their daies some thing out of it. Somtimes a chimney telleth them of many late drinkinges and sitting vp by the fire. Sometimes a Bedstead putteth them in remembraunce of many good morowes: sometimes a doore, & somtimes a parler. Thus we see places euen without Images, helpe oft the memorie, much more then shall we remember, if we haue both places and Images.

But now, because I haue halfe wearied the Reader with a tedious matter, I will harten him againe with a mery tale. At the time of rebellion in Northfolke, there was a Priest
God graunt all
Rebelles like
among all other, adiudged to die vpon a Gibet in a greene place, a little from the high way side. This Priest seeing the place at his last ende, stood a while musing with himselfe, and said to the companie there. Now Lorde God what a thing is this. It comes to my remembraunce now, that about fowerteene yeares past, I was merrie here vpon this bancke, with an other Priest, and wallowing me downe vpon the grasse, I saied these words: Hæc requies mea in -- sæculum sæculi, hic habitabo quoniam elegi eam. The which Sentence being a Psalme of Dauid, is nothing els in English: But this is my resting place for euer and euer, here shall be my dwelling, because I haue chosen it. And now (quoth he) I finde it to bee ouer true, so that I thinke it bee Gods will I should die, and therfore I take it in good worth, and thus I desire you al to pray for me. Thus we see that the place brought him in remembrance of a sentence, spoken fowerteene yeares before.

Therefore, this knowledge is not to bee neglected, no though wee doe contemne it, yet we haue the vse of it. For if we be fully disposed to remember a thing, wee doe call vp the memorie, and stirre it to minde thinges there vnto. As if one bee called Wingfeelde, and I feare to forget this name, I might remember the wing of a birde, and a greene feelde to walke in.
by things like.
Sometimes we remember the whole, by keeping in minde some parte of a word. As when one is called Crowcroft, I might by remembring of a Crowe, the rather minde his name. Notwithstanding there bee some (among whom is Erasmus) which like not this Art of Memorie, but say it rather hindereth then helpeth a mans wit. And yet Tullie the greatest Orator among the Romaines, did well allowe it, and proued it good by a natural reason. For where as we knowe some things (saieth he) onely by vnderstanding, and some by the sence of seeing, those wee keepe best in our mindes, which we know by sight, and haue marked with our eyes. As for example. When I see a Lyon, the Image thereof abideth faster in my minde, then if I should heare some report made of a Lyon. Among all the sences, the eye sight is most quicke, and conteineth the impression of things more assuredly, then any of the other sences doe. And the rather when a man both heareth and seeth a thing (as by artificiall memorie, he doth almost see thinges liuely[)], hee doth remember it much the beter. The sight printeth thinges in a mans memorie, as a Seale doth print a mans name in Waxe. And therefore, heretofore Images were set vp for remembrance of Saincts, to be Lay mens bookes, that the rather by seing the Pictures of such men, they might be stirred to follow their good liuing. The which surely had beene well done, if G O D had not forbidden it. But seeing thinges must be done, not of a good entent, but euen as G O D hath commaunded, it is well done that such Idolles are cleane taken out of the Church. Mary for this purpose whereof wee now write, they would haue serued gaiely well. Thus the art is sone tolde, but the practise of it is all. And therefore, if one desire to excell herein, let him take paines to gather his places together, and keepe them well in remembraunce, prouing by halfe a score, how he shalbe able to vse a hundred. And no doubt, but time and exercise shall make him perfect. For the best art of memorie that can be, is to heare much, to speak much, to reade much, and to write much. And exercise it is that doth al, when we haue saied all that euer we can.

Of Pronunciation.
what it is.
PRonunciation is an apt ordering, both of the voyce, countenaunce, and al the whole bodie according to the worthinesse of such wordes and matter, as by speech are declared. The vse hereof is such, for any that liketh to haue praise, for telling his tale in open assembly, that hauing a good tongue, and a comely countenaunce, he shall be thought to passe all other, that haue the like utteraunce: though they haue much better learning. The tongue giueth a certaine grace to euery matter, and beautifieth the cause in like maner, as a sweete sounding Lute, much setteth forth a meane deuised Ballad. Or as the sounde of a good instrument stirreth the hearers, and mooueth much delite, so a cleare sounding voyce, comforteth much our deintie eares, with much sweete melodie, and causeth vs to allow the matter, rather for the reporters sake, then the
Demosthenes saying
of pronunciation.
reporter for the matters sake: Demosthenes therefore, that famous Oratour, beeing asked what was the chiefest point in all Oratorie, gaue the chiefe and onely praise to Pronunciation, being demaunded, what was the second, and the third, he stil made aunswere Pronunciation, and would make no other aunswere till they left asking, declaring hereby, that arte without vtteraunce can doe nothing, vtteraunce without art can doe right much. And no doubt, that man is in outwarde apparance, half a good Clarke that hath a cleane tongue, and a
comely iesture of his bodie. Æschines likewise, beeing banished his Countrey through Demosthenes, when he red to the Rodians his owne Oration, and Demosthenes aunswere therevnto, by force whereof he was banished, and all they marueiled much at the excellencie of the same: then (quoth Æschines) you would haue marueiled much more, if you had heard himselfe speake it. Thus beeing cast in miserie and banished for euer, he could not but giue such great report of his most deadly and mortall enemie.
The parts of Pronunciation.
PRonunciation standeth partly in fashioning the tongue, and partly in framing the iesture.

The tongue or voyce is praise worthie, if the vtteraunce be audible, strong, and easie, and apt to order as wee list. Therefore, they that minde to get praise in telling their minde in open audience, must at the first beginning, speake some what softly, vse meete pausing, and being somewhat heated, rise with their voyce, as time and cause shall best require. They that haue no good voyces by nature, or cannot well vtter their wordes, must seeke for helpe els where. Exercise of the bodie, fasting, moderation in meate and drinke, gaping wide, or singing plaine Song, and counterfeyting those that doe speake distinctly, helpe much to haue a good deliueraunce. Demosthenes beeing not able to pronounce the first letter of that Arte which he professed, but would say, for, Rhetorike, Letolike, vsed to put little stones vnder his tongue, and so pronounced, whereby he speake at length so plainly, as any man in the world could doe. Musicians in England haue vsed to put gagges in childrens mouthes, that they might pronounce distinctly, but now with the losse and lacke of Musick, the loue also is gone of bringing vp children to speake plainly. Some there bee that either naturally, or through folly haue such euill voyces,
Faultes in
and such lacke of vtteraunce, and such euill iesture, that it much defaceth all their doinges. One pipes out his wordes so small, through default of his winde pipe, that ye would thinke he whistled. An other is hource in his throte, that a man would thinke, he came lately from scouring of Harnesse. An other speakes, as though he had Plummes in his mouth. An other speakes in his throte, as though a good Ale crumme stucke fast. An other rattles his wordes. An other choppes his wordes. An other speakes, as though his wordes had neede to bee heaued out with leauers. An other speakes, as though his words should bee weighed in a Ballaunce. An other gapes to fetch winde at euery third worde. This man barkes out his English Northren-like, with I say, and thou lad. And other speakes so finely, as though he were brought vp in a Ladies Chamber. As I knewe a Priest that was as nice as a Nunnes Henne, when hee would say Masse, he would neuer say Dominus vobiscum, but Dominus vobicum. In like maner, as some now will say the Commaundements of GOD. Blacke Uellet, for Commaundements, and blacke Uellet. Some blowe at their nostrilles. Some sighes out their wordes. Some signes their sentences. Some laughes altogether, when they speake to any bodie. Some grunts like a Hogge. Some cackles like a Henne, or a Iacke Dawe. Some speakes as though they should tell in their sleeue. Some cries out so loude, that they would make a mans eares ake to heare them. Some coughes at euery worde. Some hems it out. Some spittes fire, they talke so hotly. Some makes a wrie mouth, and so they wrest out their wordes. Some whines like a Pigge. Some suppes their wordes vp, as a poore man doth his Porrage. Some noddes their head at euery sentence. An other winkes with one eye, & some with both. This man frouneth alwaies when he speakes. And other lookes euer as though hee were mad. Some cannot speake but they must goe vp and downe, or at the least be stirring their feete, as though they stood in a cockering Boate. An other will play with his cappe in his hand, and so tell his tale. Some when they speake in a great companie, will looke all one way, as I knewe a Reader in my daies, who looked in like sorte, when hee read to Scholers, whom one thought to disapoint of such his constaunt lookes: and therefore against the next day, he painted the Deuill with hornes vpon his head, in the self same place, where the Reader was wont alwaies to looke, the which straunge Monster, when the Reader sawe, he was half abashed, and turned his face an other way. Some pores vpon the ground as though they sought for pinnes. Tullie telles of one Theophrastus Tauriscus, who is saied to declaime arsee versee. Some swelles in the face, and filles their cheekes full of winde, as though they would blowe out their wordes. Some sets forth their lippes, two inches good beyond their teeth. Some talkes as though their tongue went of pattines. Some shewes all their teeth. Some speakes in their teeth altogether. Some lets their wordes fall in their lippes, scant opening them when they speake. There are a thousand such faultes among men, both for their speech, and also for their iesture, the which if in their young yeares they bee not remedied, they will hardly bee forgot when they come to mans state. But the rather that these faultes may be redressed: I haue partly declared heretofore, the right vse of vtteraunce. And now I minde by Gods helpe to shewe the right vse of iesture.

What is iesture.
what it is.
IEsture is a certaine comely moderation of the countenance, and al other parts of mans bodie, aptly agreeing to those things which are spoken. That if we shal speake in a pleasaunt matter, it is meete that the looke also should bee cherefull, and all the iesture stirring thereafter. The head to bee holden vpright, the forehead without frowning, the browes without bending, the nose without blowing, the eyes quicke and pleasant, the lippes not laied out, the teeth without grenning, the armes not much cast abroade, but comely set out, as time and cause shall best require: the handes sometimes opened, and sometimes holden together, the fingers pointing, the breast laied out, and the whole bodie stirring altogether, with a seemely moderation. By the which behauiour of our bodie after such a sorte, we shall not onely delite men with the sight, but perswade them the rather the trueth of our cause.

Q. Hortensius had such delite to vse comely gesture, and had such grace in that behalfe: that I doubt whether men had a greater desire to see him, then they had to heare him. His countenaunce so well agreed with his wordes, and his words were so meete for his countenance: that not onely hee did please the iudgement of his hearers, and contented their minde: but also he pleased their eyes, and delited their eares, so much as could be wished.

Tullie saieth well: The gesture of man[] is the speech of his bodie, and therefore reason it is, that like as the speeche must agree to the mater, so must also the gesture agree to the minde, for the eyes are not giuen to man onely to see, but also to shewe and set forth the meaning of his minde, euen as vnto a Bore, are giuen briselles: To a Lion, the taile: To a Horse, his eares: whereby their inclinations and sodaine affections

are sone espied. When wee see a man looke redde
in the eyes, his browes bent, his teeth byting his
vpper lippe, we iudge that he is out of pacience.
Therefore as we ought to haue good regard,
for the vtterance of our words, so wee
ought to take heede that our gesture
be comely, the which
both being well obserued,
shall encrease fame,
and get estimation
But here an ende. And now as my will hath bene earnest, to
doe my best: so I wish that my paines may be taken
thereafter. And yet what needes wishing, seeing
the good will not speake euill: and the
wicked can not speake euill: and the
wicked can not speake wel. Therefore
being staied vpon the good, and
assured of their gentle bearing
with mee: I feare none,
because I stand
vpon a saufe

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