Group Development

Forsyth mentions the Tuckman stage model:

(Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning)

and mentions

Cyclical models

(EX: cycle between task, socioemotional)

Punctuated equilibrium model

*There are hundreds of theories of G.D.

*Most are stage models

*Most presume internal dynamic only

*Most are based on a few case studies

*Most are not relevant to crews

*Most generalize inappropriately

Some fundamental differences among a broader selection of G. D. models:

Internally vs. Externally driven change

Nature of change:

Gradual or abrupt

Arrow (1997) sorts many existing models into four categories, that differ on these dimensions:


-- Internally Driven Change

-- Homeostatic model

LIFE CYCLE (Tuckman)

-- Internally driven change

-- Fixed progression of gradual


The stage models fit into this category.


-- Externally Driven Change

-- Frictionless Change


(Gould, 1989; Gersick, 1988)

-- Mixture of Internal & External Forces

-- Step Change

-- Discontinuous Change

Worchel (a recurrent cycle model)

Note: Groups need not start at I--the starting point of numbers is somewhat arbitrary. However, he expects groups to cycle in this order (so the sequencing is not arbitrary). The model doesn't specify how long a group might spend in any phase before moving to the next.

I. Discontent: Alienation, withdrawal, helplessness, low participation, passive aggression

II. Precipitating event: Small or large triggering incident gives focus for energy and contact

III. Group identification: Boundaries clearly defined, high conformity and commitment

IV. Group productivity: Goal-oriented leadership, role differentiation, boundaries loosen

V. Individuation: Focus turns from group needs to individual needs. Demand for recognition and disputes over allocation of resources.

VI. Decay: Members increasingly preoccupied with their own

needs; group fragments. Members may leave.