*Annotated Steps for Hypothesis Testing*

Research question? __________________________________________________________

1. Restate research question as two hypotheses: H_{A} & H_{0 } (our research hypothesis and our null
hypothesis). *Note: H _{A} is what we are actually hypothesizing. H_{0} is our "dummy" null
hypothesis that states, in effect "H_{A} is not true." *

H_{A} :

H_{0 } :

2. Determine characteristics (mean, standard error) of sampling distribution (the comparison
distribution). *Note: For the sampling distribution, assume the null hypothesis is true. For this
week's purposes, it is the distribution of sample means.* *It is always a distribution of statistics.*

Mean ____

Standard error ____

3. Find critical value (s) on the sampling distribution.* Note: To do this, you need to pick a
significance level (alpha) and decide whether to use a two-tailed or one-tailed test. Then check
the normal curve table. If you are a visual thinker, sketch the curve, mark where critical value(s)
fall, and shade the areas where you can reject the null. If you are a numerical thinker, just write
down the Z-score you have to beat, and be sure you specify +, -, or +/- (two tailed).*

Significance ____

Number tails __*__*

Critical value(s) ____

4. Calculate statistic, then turn it into a Z-score to see where it falls on the sampling distribution.
*Note: For Chs. 5&6, this is the sample mean. Statistics are always calculated using...the sample.
But to get the Z, you use the mean and standard error of ... the sampling distribution. *

Statistic _____

Z-score _____

5. Compare 3 & 4 and make decision about H_{0 }: Reject or retain? What's the answer to your
research question?* Note: if you are a more visual thinker, look to see if your statistic falls in a
shaded region. If you are more numerical, see if the Z-score exceeds the critical value(s). *

Answer to research question? _____________________________________________________