*LEARNING CHECK: *Review & Integration for Chapters 1-3.

**How are Z-scores related to Prediction?**

1. Need Zx scores to make prediction. What you predict is a Zy score.

2. Both have to do with single scores-- finding where a single score is in a distribution, or
guessing where a single score is in a distribution, based on correlation of one variable with
another.

**How are Mean and Variance similar?**

1. Both are parameters

2. Both are calculated using formulas that take every score into account

3. Both are averages: the average of the X scores, or the average of the (X-M)^{2} --the squared
deviations of X scores from the mean

**How are they different?**

1. Mean is a measure of central tendency; variance of variability

2. You need to know the mean to calculate the variance; the opposite is not true

**What do a histogram and a scatterplot have in common?**

1. They are both visual representations of distributions

2. They both show two dimensions

**How are they different?**

1. One displays information about one variable; the other displays information about two variables measured on the same objects or persons.

2. One stacks up scores into bars; the other plots scores as points