Statistical Methods in Psychology:

Psych 302, Winter 2002

__________________________________________________________________Winter 2002 CRN 23953

Lecture: MWF 10-10:50, Straub 146, Arrow

Labs (180 Straub): M 12-13:20 (Ivy), 14-15:20 (Graver) CRN 23952/23954

Tu 8-9:20 (Graver) & 12-13:20 (Ivy) CRN 23955/23956

Professor: Dr. Holly Arrow Contact info:, 346-1996
Office: 357 Straub Office Hours: Tu 3-4, Fri 11-12 & by appt. MWF.
Teaching Assistants: Office & Office Hours
Chris Graver, 346-1982 Straub 358, Mon 11-12, Tues 9:30-10:30
Linda Ivy, 346-4947 Straub 398, Thurs 11-1

Office Hour Schedule Summary:

Mon 11-12 (Chris, Str 358) Tues 9:30-10:30 (Chris, Str 358), 3-4 (Holly, Str 357)

Th11-1 (Linda, Str 398), Fri 11-12 (Holly, Str 357)

Blackboard site: PSY302W02, Statistical Meth Psych [Win 02]. Please check Blackboard regularly (at least once a week) for announcements, discussion, and materials such as lecture notes. If this is your first time using Blackboard, your password is initially set to your 9-digit student ID (you may want to change this after you login). Go to This should show up as a course that you are enrolled in.


Course Description: The purpose of this course is to introduce you to descriptive and inferential statistics, teach you fundamental skills in calculating statistics and analyzing data using a computer statistics package, and improve your ability to understand and evaluate the statistical information reported in primary research articles. This is the first of two foundation courses for psych majors.

Course Design: The course is designed to promote active learning -- through discussion, solving problems, and computer exercises. Professor and TAs are guides, cheerleaders, and coaches. The course encourages teamwork among students and between students, professor, and TAs. Group quizzes are completed in collaboration with others, and students are free to work together on homework. One potential problem of team learning is that some students may rely too much on others and not master the material. Thus, to pass the course **you must demonstrate your competency as a statistician by passing the final exam.**

Small Group System: Students will organize themselves into small groups of 3-4 people in the same lab section. Group members should sit together lecture and lab. You will complete group quizzes & work on problems together in lab. If a group member is absent, please pick up handouts for them, pass along announcements, and share notes. If you know you will be absent, let someone in your group know in advance. Group members keep track of attendance for their group, and evaluate each other at the end of class. As soon as groups are formed, exchange e-mails and phone numbers so you can stay in touch.


Overview: You will be graded on participation (in class & on Blackboard), homework (8 sets), quizzes (4), and exams (midterm and final). **Students must pass the final to pass the course.**

1. Participation. Participation includes group work and discussion during class and on Blackboard. At the end of the term, each student will evaluate the contributions of other group members. Participation points are based on peer evaluations, on Blackboard participation, and on TA reports about lab participation. If you don't join in Blackboard discussions, leave messages in the Lurker forum so we can see you were there.

2. Homework. Some problems will be completed "by hand" (includes calculators); some using SPSS; some may be completed either way (your choice). To earn full credit, show and explain all work, and annotate printouts. Late homework earns half credit; quarter credit if more than one week overdue, *unless other arrangements are made in advance with your TA. Missed points on homework may be challenged *only* for homework turned in on time. Challenges are due within a week of when corrected homework is returned.

3. Quizzes. The quizzes focus on understanding concepts. Quizzes are closed book, and are completed both individually and by groups. Calculators okay. Groups may challenge points missed on the group quiz. Challenges are due within a week of when graded group quiz is returned. If the challenge is successful, grades will be adjusted for the group, and also for the individual quiz for group members who answered the same way as the group. An optional individual make up quiz will be given the last day of class, for students who missed an earlier quiz. Don't miss more than one!

4. Exams. Midterm and final are open book, open notes, calculator, etc.. These will be completed individually (no group portions). Final given on Wed, March 21, 10:15-12:15. For the midterm and final, you must fly using your own wings and show us what you've learned. Bring calculators, books, notes, handouts. You can challenge midterm points (use the regular challenge forms), but grading on the final exam is final. All final exams that receive a failing grade (< 60 points) will be double-checked by a second grader.

5. Texts and other resources. The main text is Gravetter & Wallnau, Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 4th edition. The secondary text is Kirkpatrick & Feeney, A Simple Guide to SPSS for Windows. You will also need a hand-held calculator (solar ones are environmentally friendly) that can do single variable statistics. No need for expensive graphic calculators. Read assigned chapters before class and do each Learning Check as you encounter it.. Go back and reread sections if you have trouble with the Learning Check. The second time, you will understand more. Bring Calculator & Text to class and to exams. Bring SPSS guide (SG) to labs.


Learning disabilities & athletes. If you have a learning disability and need adjustments to help you learn and demonstrate your knowledge, or are on a sports team and need adjustments because of travel, please contact Dr. Arrow ASAP. With advance planning, adjustments are relatively easy. Adjustments at the last minute are problematic and sometimes not plausible.

"Repeaters": If you are taking the class for the second (or third) time because you did not get a C- or better in your previous attempt(s), please see Dr. Arrow (during office hours or make an appointment) so we can discuss how to ensure you are successful this time through. Your previous experience will help!

Elements Points Course grades based on percentage of points earned*
Participation: 20 A+ 97-100 C 73-76.9
Homework: 90 A 93-96.9 C- 70-72.9
Quizzes: 64 A- 90-92.9 D+ 67-69.9
Midterm: 26 B+ 87-89.9 D 63-66.9
Final exam* 100 B 83-86.9 D- 60-62.9
B- 80-82.9 N < 70
TOTAL points 300 C+ 77-79.9 P 70

* Important Note: To pass the course, *you must pass the final* to demonstrate adequate understanding of the course material. If you demonstrate competence by passing the final (earning at least 60/100 points) you will earn the grade determined by the listed percentages. If you do especially well, and are close to a cutoff, you may be eligible for "mastery" points that push your course grade over the cutoff. Escape hatch: Students who fail the final but whose average grade on homework, quizzes, & midterm is C- or above (at least 70% correct) may take an incomplete in the course and retake the final later. Deadline for clearing this incomplete is finals week of Spring Term, 2002.

Students are sometimes confused about what is allowed in a collaborative learning class. Here are the rules:

Collaborative Learning: Group portion of quizzes, homework, participation, and studying for exams. Group quiz portion helps everyone understand the material better, because you actively discuss the problems. Discussing homework with other students, with TAs, and comparing your work with others is encouraged. You will often have time to work on homework together in labs. Talking over the problems and reworking them when you discover that others got different answers promotes deeper understanding of concepts and gives you more practice in applying skills. However, each student must submit a separate homework, and you must show your work (no photocopies or word-for-word copying). Many students find that study groups are also useful in preparing for quizzes and exams.

What counts as Cheating in this class:

Your work on the Final Exam, the Midterm, and on Individual Portion of Quizzes must be your own. Copying the work of others on these elements will be considered cheating, and if detected, will earn you an F or N for the course. On exams, you can consult any materials that you have brought to the room, but you may not consult what others are doing. On quizzes (closed book, closed notes), you may not consult anything but your own memory and calculator (or, during group portion, the collective wisdom of your group). Multiple versions of the exams will be created to ensure that copying answers from others will guarantee a poor score, make cheating easy to detect, and thus help protect you against temptation.


1. Passive listening and reading

Write, draw, figure. Think with a pencil to learn. Turn the concepts into something you do. To succeed, you must be able to explain and execute.

2. Spectator overconfidence

Watching someone go through the steps is a starting point only. You have to get in the pool to learn how to swim.

3. Beginner's luck

Doing it right once doesn't mean you can repeat the trick. Get it wrong to understand how the process works. Mistakes help you learn.

4. Trying to cram

You can cram content, but skills, like water, don't compress. Don't fall behind; it's too hard to catch up.

5. Giving up because you get stuck

Everyone gets stuck. Try a new tack. **Ask for help.** Play around. Math is all about getting stuck and unstuck.


1. Keep up and keep trying

Read assigned chapters early and often, come to lecture, start on homework immediately so you will finish on time. If you keep up and keep trying, the concepts will eventually sink in. Turn your homework in on time. Slog through those chapters even if you only understand half of what you read. The fog will clear if you just persist. Ask questions. Ask for help. Try again. Don't give up!

2. Work hard on understanding material in the first half of the course

If you have a pretty good feel for the concepts in the first half, the second half will deepen your understanding. If you don't grasp the concepts in the first half, the second half will make no sense. Seek help *early* if you are feeling lost.

3. Stay in touch, and speak up

Come to office hours. You have an experienced instructor and two dedicated TAs, and we want to help! Ask questions--in class, lab, and on Blackboard. Forming a question helps you discover what you do and do not understand, which is vital to mastering this subject. Feel free to attend extra lab sessions besides your own.



G&W= main text SG= SPSS guide

Week One Topic Reading Homework & Tests

Mon, Jan 7: Orientation, Intro to Statistics G&W Ch1 & App A

SG 1-3, 5-6

Wed, Jan 9: Frequency Distributions G&W Ch2

Fri, Jan 11: Central Tendency & Variability G&W Chs 3&4 Homework 1 due

(skip sect 4.3) *Post on Blackboard *

Week Two

Mon, Jan 14 z-Scores G&W Ch 5

Wed, Jan 16: Probability G&W Ch 6 Homework 2 due

Fri, Jan 18: Review of first 2 weeks QUIZ 1: G&W Chs 1-4

Week Three

Mon, Jan 21 Martin Luther King Day (no class)

Wed, Jan 23: Probability & Samples G&W Ch 7 Homework 3 due

Fri, Jan 25: Intro to Hypothesis Testing G&W Ch 8 *Post on Blackboard! *

Week Four

Mon, Jan 28: Intro to t G&W Ch 9, SG 7

Wed, Jan 30: Independent Samples t G&W Ch 10, SG 8 Homework 4 due

Fri, Feb 1: Independent Samples t G&W Ch 10, SG 8 QUIZ 2: G&W Chs 5-9

Week Five

Mon, Feb 4: Related Samples t G&W Ch 11, SG 9 *Post on Blackboard! *

Wed, Feb 6: Related Samples t G&W Ch 11, SG 9 Homework 5 due

Fri, Feb 8: Estimation G&W Ch 12 [Midterm practice QQ handed out]

Week Six

Mon, Feb 11: Review of Chapters 7-12 *Bring completed Midterm practice QQ*

Wed, Feb 13: Midterm, G&W Chs 1-12 *Midterm*

Fri, Feb 15: ANOVA G&W Ch 13

Week Seven

Mon, Feb 18: ANOVA G&W Ch 13, SG 10-12

Wed, Feb 20: Advanced ANOVA G&W Ch 14 Homework 6 due

Fri, Feb 22: Advanced ANOVA G&W Ch 14 [last day to withdraw]

Week Eight

Mon, Feb 25: Correlation G&W Ch 15, SG 14 *Post on Blackboard! *

Wed, Feb 27: Regression G&W Ch 15 Homework 7 due

Fri, March 1: Chi-Square, Goodness of Fit G&W Ch 16 QUIZ 3: G&W Ch 13-15

Week Nine

Mon, March 4: Chi-Square, GF & Independence G&W Ch 16, SG 17

Wed, March 6: Chi-Square, Independence *** Note: Homework not due till Friday **

Fri, March 8: Which test? Applications Homework 8 due

[Study guide for final handed out] *Post on Blackboard! *

Week Ten

Mon, March 11 More applications, integration QUIZ 4: G&W Ch 16

[Bring completed study guide to labs]

Wed, March 13: Review for final Last call, late Homework

Class & groupmate evaluations

Fri, March 15: Review for final continued *Optional Make UP Quiz*

Finals Week: FINAL EXAM on Wed, March 21, 10:15-12:15. In 146 Straub (our regular room).



Homework Assignments

Except for first week, due Wed, BEGINNING of class

Problems are at the end of each chapter. You will have a chance in labs to work on computer homework.

Turn homework in on time! Late homework earns half credit; quarter credit if more than one week overdue,**unless other arrangements are made in advance with your TA. Missed points on homework may be challenged **only** for homework turned in on time. Challenges due within a week of when corrected homework is returned. NOTE: To earn full credit, show and explain all work. For problems completed by hand, be sure to show all steps. Printouts from SPSS must be *annotated* to receive full credit. Circle the most important numbers and explain (write directly on the printout) what they mean. Assume your audience understands basic statistics but is unfamiliar with SPSS. You must demonstrate that you are able to read and understand what you have produced. The book has answers to odd-numbered problems in the back.

Homework 1: Concepts, Scaling, Frequency Tables and Histograms (8 pts)

G&W Ch 1 (p. 27): problems 5,10, 14 & 18; Ch 2, problem 8. You may do problem 8 either using SPSS or by hand. Do not group. [TIP: if SPSS is "grouping" when you don't want it to, click Bar Graph instead of Histogram.] If you use SPSS for problem 8, be sure to include the printout, clearly identify which parts of the printout go with the homework question, and don't forget part c of the question. Put your name on the printout, too!

Points: Problems 5, 10,14: 1 pt each; problem 18, 2 pts, problem 8, 3 pts.

Homework 2: Central Tendency & Variability (8 pts)

G&W Ch 3, problems 9 & 10. Ch 4, problems 13 [by hand] & 14 [with variations as described below] *Do 14 (by hand, showing all steps) using the definitional formula, then use SPSS to find the mean, sample variance, and standard deviation for the data (step 1). Then (part 2) change the numbers around until you have a data set that has the SAME mean and n, but twice the sample variance as the original data set. Hand in the SPSS printout showing the mean, variance, & sd for both data sets, annotate to clarify which parts of the printout go with parts 1 & 2, and write on the printout the numbers in the data set you created for part 2.

Points: Ch 3, #9&10, 1 pt each & Ch 4, #13, 2 pts: #14: 4 pts.

Homework 3: z-Scores & the Normal Curve (8 pts)

G&W Ch 5, problems 2, 4, 5, 20. For question 20, be sure to explain your answer. G&W Ch 6, problems 7ab, 10ac, 11cd. No SPSS homework this week.

Points: Problem 5 worth 2 pts; Other problems worth 1 pt each.

Homework 4: Distribution of Sample Means, z-test & t-test (8 pts)

Ch 7, problems 10 & 24. Ch 8, problems 6 & 8. Ch 9, problems 3 & 12. Be sure to show all work and explain answers fully. No SPSS homework this week.

Points: Problem 8 worth 3 pts. Other problems worth 1 pt each.

Homework 5: t-Tests with Independent Samples and Related Samples (12 pts)

Ch 10, problems 14ab & 18a. Ch 11, problems 4 & 22. Do Ch 10 problem18a & Ch 11 problem 22 both by hand and on SPSS. On the "by hand" versions, state the research question, follow step-by-step method and number steps, and end with answer to research question. Annotate printout by circling the key elements in the output and explaining what the output shows.

Points: Ch 10 #14 & Ch 11 #4, 1 pt each. Ch 10 #18 & Ch 11 # 22, 5 pts each.

Homework 6: Estimation, ANOVA (17 pts)

Ch. 12, problems 3, 5 & 12. Ch 13, problems 5, 13 & 23. Do the ANOVA for Ch. 13 # 23 both by hand and using SPSS (note: treat the birth variable as a fixed effect). For by hand version, state research question, follow and show all steps given in G&W pp. 334-336, and also create an ANOVA summary table (as shown on p. 336). In SPSS version, do both Scheffé and Tukey post-hoc tests. Annotate output, including explaining results (what did you find?)

Points: Both #5, 1 pt. Ch. 12 #3, 12, 1.5 pt. Ch 13 #13, 2 pts; #23 by hand, #23 SPSS, 5 pts each.

Homework 7: Advanced ANOVA & Correlation (16 pts)

Ch 14, problems 15ab (draw graph for each set), 21 (by hand) & 22 (SPSS). Ch 15, problems 3, 7 (by hand), 12, 18 (using SPSS). Do #22 ANOVA using SPSS (not by hand). Request a plot for help in interpreting the interaction. Annotate output, including an explanation of your results. For problem 18, after finding the correlation for the data in the book, change the correlation substantially by adding an outlier (make up the data for this person). Hand in annotated printouts for both original and modified data sets (identify which is which, and write down the data for the outlier you added). Explain on the modified printout what you learned from the exercise about the possible impact of a single case on correlation.

Points: Ch 14 #15ab & #21, 2 pts each, # 22, 4 pts; Ch 15 #7 & #18, 3 pts each; #3 & 12, 1 pt each.

Homework 8: Regression & Chi-Square (13 pts)

G&W Ch 15, problem 21, by hand. Ch 16, problems 3, 6, & 15. Do all chi-square problems by hand, showing all work and going step by step, and explaining the answer to the research question at the end. In addition, do problem 15 using SPSS (be sure to request EXPECTED as well as OBSERVED counts). Annotate printout.

Points: Ch 15, #21, 2 pts. Ch 16: 3 pts each for 3, 6,15 by hand, 2 pts for #15 SPSS