Statistical Methods in Psychology:
Psych 302, Fall 2001
____________________________________________________________________Fall 2001 CRN 14096
Lecture: MWF 10-10:50, Straub 146, Arrow
Labs: M 12-13:20 (Allard), 13:30-14:50* (Allard) CRN 14097/14098
Tu 11-12:20 (Graver) & 12:30-13:50 (Graver) CRN 14099/14100
All labs meet in 180 Straub (computer lab)
Professor: Dr. Holly Arrow | Contact info: harrow@darkwing.uoregon.edu, 346-1996 |
Office: 357 Straub | Office Hours: Mon & Th 11-12 & by appt. MWF. |
Teaching Assistants: Office & Office Hours | ||
Chris Graver | cgraver@darkwing.uoregon.edu 346-1982 | Straub 358, Tues 10-11, Fri 11-12 |
Carolyn Allard | callard@darkwing.uoregon.edu, 346-4990 | Straub 320, Mon 3-4, Wed 9-10 |
Office Hour Schedule Summary:
Mon 11-12 (HA, Str 357), 3-4 (CA, Str 320) Tues 10-11 (CG, Str 358) Wed 9-10 (CA, Str 320)
Th11-12 (HA, Str 357) Fri 11-12 (CG, Str 358)
Blackboard site: PSY302F01, Statistical Meth Psych [Fall 01]. Note: If you don't already have an account on Blackboard, go to http://blackboard.uoregon.edu/ Click on "Create account" and follow the directions. Once you have an account, this course should show up as one that you are enrolled in.
OVERVIEW OF COURSE STRUCTURE
Course Description: The purpose of this course is to introduce you to descriptive and inferential statistics, teach you fundamental skills in calculating statistics and analyzing data using a computer statistics package, and improve your ability to understand and evaluate the statistical information reported in primary research articles. This is the first of two foundation courses for students who intend to major in psychology.
Course Design: The course is designed to promote active learning -- through discussion, solving problems, and computer exercises. I want students to speak up, to question and challenge. I see myself and the TAs as guides, cheerleaders, and coaches. The course encourages teamwork among students and between students, professor, and TAs. Group quizzes are completed in collaboration with others, and students are free to work together on homework. One potential problem of team learning, is that some students may rely too much on others and never master the material. To protect against this problem, **every student must demonstrate satisfactory core competencies by the end of the course by passing the final exam.**
Small Group System: Students will organize themselves into small groups of 3-4 people who are in the same lab section. Group members should sit together in both lecture and lab. You will complete group quizzes work through problems together in lab. If a group member is absent, please pick up handouts for them, pass along announcements, and share notes. If you know you will be absent, let someone in your group know in advance. Group members will keep track of attendance for their group. As soon as groups are formed, it's wise to exchange e-mail addresses and phone numbers so you can stay in touch.
COURSE REQUIREMENTS
Overview: You will be graded on participation (in class & on Blackboard), homework (8 sets), quizzes (best 4 out of 5), and exams (midterm and final). **Students must pass the final to pass the course.**
1. Participation. Participation includes group work and discussion during class and also on Blackboard. At the end of the term, each student will evaluate the contributions of other group members. Participation points are based on these peer evaluations, Blackboard participation, and TA reports about lab participation.
2. Homework. Some problems will be completed "by hand" (includes calculators); others will be completed using SPSS; some may be completed either way (your choice). To earn full credit, show and explain all work, and annotate your printouts. Turn homework in on time! Late homework earns half credit; quarter credit if more than one week overdue, **unless other arrangements are made in advance with your TA. Missed points on homework may be challenged **only** for homework turned in on time. Challenges due within a week of when corrected homework is returned.
3. Quizzes. The five quizzes focus on understanding concepts. The best four out of five quizzes (total score) will count. So don't miss more than one! Quizzes are closed book, and are completed both individually and by groups. Calculators okay. Groups may challenge points missed on the group quiz. Challenges are due within a week of when graded group quiz is returned. If the challenge is successful, grades will be adjusted for the group, and also for the individual quiz for group members who answered the same way as the group.
4. Exams. Midterm and final are open book, open notes, calculator, etc.. These will be completed individually (no group portions). Final given on Tues, Dec 4, 10:15-12:15. For the midterm and final, you must fly using your own wings and show us what you've learned. Bring calculators, books, notes, handouts. Midterm grading may be challenged (using the regular challenge forms), but grading on the final exam is final. All final exams that receive a failing grade will be double-checked by a second grader.
5. Texts and other resources. The main text is Gravetter & Wallnau, Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 4^{th} edition. The secondary text is Kirkpatrick & Feeney, A Simple Guide to SPSS for Windows. You will also need a hand-held calculator (solar ones are environmentally friendly and also practical). Any calculator that can do single variable statistics is fine-no need for fancy expensive graphic calculators. Read assigned chapters before class and do each Learning Check as you encounter it. That way you will discover right away what you understand and what you don't. Go back and reread sections if you discover you are confused about something. The second time, you will understand more. Come to lecture and labs prepared to ask questions; active learning is essential for acquiring concepts and skills. Bring Calculator & Text to class and to exams. Bring SPSS guide (SG) to labs.
SPECIAL NEEDS:
Learning disabilities & athletes. If you have a learning disability and need adjustments to help you learn and demonstrate your knowledge, or are on a sports team and need adjustments because of travel, please contact Dr. Arrow ASAP. With advance planning, adjustments are relatively easy. Adjustments at the last minute are problematic and sometimes not plausible.
"Repeaters": If you are taking the class for the second (or third) time because you did not get a C- or better in your previous attempt(s), please see Dr. Arrow (during office hours or make an appointment) so we can discuss how to ensure you are successful this time through. Your previous experience will help!
GRADING
Elements | Points | Course grades based on percentage of points earned* | ||||
Participation: | 20 | A+ | 97-100 | C | 73-76.9 | |
Homework: | 80 | A | 93-96.9 | C- | 70-72.9 | |
Quizzes: | 56 | A- | 90-92.9 | D+ | 67-69.9 | |
Midterm: | 24 | B+ | 87-89.9 | D | 63-66.9 | |
Final exam* | 100 | B | 83-86.9 | D- | 60-62.9 | |
B- | 80-82.9 | N | < 70 | |||
TOTAL points | 280 | C+ | 77-79.9 | P | 70 |
* Important Note: To pass the course, *you must pass the final* to demonstrate adequate understanding of the course material. If you demonstrate competence by passing the final (earning at least 60/100 points) you will earn the grade determined by the listed percentages. If you do especially well, and are close to a cutoff, you may be eligible for "mastery" points that push your course grade over the cutoff. The final exam will be difficult to ensure that it discriminates between competence and mastery. Escape hatch: Students who fail the final but whose average grade on homework, quizzes, & midterm is C- or above (at least 70% correct) may take an incomplete in the course and retake the final later. Deadline for clearing an incomplete is finals week of Spring Term, 2002.
RULES AND POLICIES
Students are sometimes confused about what is allowed in a collaborative learning class. Here are the rules:
Collaborative Learning:
Group portion of quizzes, homework, participation, and studying for exams. Group quiz portion helps everyone understand the material better, because you actively discuss the problems. Discussing homework with other students, with TAs, and comparing your work with others is encouraged. You will often have time to work on homework together in labs. Talking over the problems and reworking them when you discover that others got different answers promotes deeper understanding of concepts and gives you more practice in applying skills. However, each student must submit a separate homework, and you must show your work (no photocopies or word-for-word copying). Many students find that study groups are also useful in preparing for quizzes and exams.
What counts as Cheating in this class:
Your work on the Final Exam, the Midterm, and on Individual Portion of Quizzes must be your own. Copying the work of others on these elements will be considered cheating, and if detected, will earn you an F or N for the course. On exams, you can consult any materials that you have brought to the room, but you may not consult what others are doing. On quizzes (closed book, closed notes), you may not consult anything but your own memory and calculator (or, during group portion, the collective wisdom of your group). Multiple versions of the exams will be created to ensure that copying answers from others will guarantee a poor score, make cheating easy to detect, and thus help protect you against temptation.
TOP FIVE PITFALLS:
1. Passive listening and reading
Write, draw, figure. Think with a pencil to learn. Turn the concepts into something you do. To succeed, you must be able to explain and execute.
2. Spectator overconfidence
Watching someone go through the steps is a starting point only. You have to get in the pool to learn how to swim.
3. Beginner's luck
Doing it right once doesn't mean you can repeat the trick. Get it wrong to understand how the process works. Mistakes help you learn.
4. Trying to cram
You can cram content, but skills, like water, don't compress. Don't fall behind; it's too hard to catch up.
5. Giving up because you get stuck
Everyone gets stuck. Try a new tack. **Ask for help.** Play around. Math is all about getting stuck and unstuck.
THREE WAYS TO DO WELL
1. Keep up and keep trying
Read assigned chapters early and often, come to lecture, start on homework immediately so you will finish on time. If you keep up and keep trying, the concepts will eventually sink in. Turn your homework in on time. Slog through those chapters even if you only understand half of what you read. The fog will clear if you just persist. Ask questions. Ask for help. Try again. Don't give up!
2. Work hard on understanding material in the first half of the course
If you have a pretty good feel for the concepts in the first half, the second half will deepen your understanding. If you don't grasp the concepts in the first half, the second half will make no sense. Seek help *early* if you are feeling lost.
3. Stay in touch, and speak up
Come to office hours. You have an experienced instructor and two dedicated TAs, and we want to help! Ask questions--in class, lab, and on Blackboard. Forming a question helps you discover what you do and do not understand, which is vital to mastering this subject. Feel free to attend extra lab sessions besides your own.
COURSE SCHEDULE
______________________________________________________________________________________
G&W= main text SG= SPSS guide
Week One Topic Reading Homework & Tests
Mon, Sept 24: Orientation, Intro to Statistics G&W Ch1 & App A
SG 1-3, 5-6 *Post on Blackboard *
Wed, Sept 26: Frequency Distributions G&W Ch2
Fri, Sept 28: Central Tendency & Variability G&W Chs 3&4 Homework 1 due
(skip sect 4.3)
Week Two
Mon, Oct 1: z-Scores G&W Ch 5
Wed, Oct 3: z-Scores G&W Ch 5 Homework 2 due
Fri, Oct 5: Review of first 2 weeks QUIZ 1: G&W Chs 1-4
Week Three
Mon, Oct 8: Probability G&W Ch 6 SG Appendix B
Wed, Oct 10: Probability & Samples G&W Ch 7 Homework 3 due
*Fri, Oct 12: Intro to Hypothesis Testing G&W Ch 8
Week Four
Mon, Oct 15: Intro to t G&W Ch 9, SG 7
Wed, Oct 17: Independent Samples t G&W Ch 10, SG 8 Homework 4 due
Fri, Oct 19: Related Samples t G&W Ch 11, SG 9 QUIZ 2: G&W Chs 5-9
Week Five
*Mon, Oct 22: Review of Chs 6-11
Wed, Oct 24: Midterm, G&W Chs 1-11 *Midterm*
Fri, Oct 26: Estimation G&W Ch 12
Week Six
Mon, Oct 29: ANOVA G&W Ch 13, SG 7-9
Wed, Oct 31: ANOVA G&W Ch 13, SG 10 Homework 5 due
Fri, Nov 2: Advanced ANOVA G&W Ch 14, SG 11-12
Week Seven
Mon, Nov 5: Advanced ANOVA G&W Ch 14
Wed, Nov 7: Review, applications Homework 6 due
Fri, Nov 9: Correlation G&W Ch 15 QUIZ 3: G&W Ch 13-14
[last day to withdraw]
Week Eight
Mon, Nov 12: Correlation G&W Ch 15, SG 14
Wed, Nov 14: Regression G&W Ch 15, SG 15 Homework 7 due
Fri, Nov 16: Chi-Square, Goodness of Fit G&W Ch 16 QUIZ 4: G&W Ch 15
Week Nine
Mon, Nov 19: Chi-Square, Independence G&W Ch 16, SG 17
Wed, Nov 21: Which test? Applications Homework 8 due
Fri, Nov 23: **No Class! Enjoy your Thanksgiving Break**
Week Ten
Mon, Nov 26: More applications, integration QUIZ 5: G&W Ch 16
Study guide for final handed out
Wed, Nov 28: Review for final Last call, late Homework
Class & groupmate evaluations
Fri, Nov 30: Review for final continued
Finals Week: FINAL EXAM on Tuesday, Dec 4, 10:15-12:15. 146 Straub (our regular room).
* Bring CALCULATOR, BOOK, NOTES *
Results will be posted on web by noon Monday, Dec 10*
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Homework Assignments
Except for first week, due Wed, BEGINNING of class
Problems are at the end of each chapter. You will have a chance in labs to work on computer homework.
Turn homework in on time! Late homework earns half credit; quarter credit if more than one week overdue, **unless other arrangements are made in advance with your TA. Missed points on homework may be challenged **only** for homework turned in on time. Challenges due within a week of when corrected homework is returned.
NOTE: To earn full credit, show and explain all work. For problems completed by hand, be sure to show all steps. Printouts from SPSS must be *annotated* to receive full credit. Circle the most important numbers and explain (write directly on the printout) what they mean. Assume your audience understands basic statistics but is unfamiliar with SPSS. You must demonstrate that you are able to read and understand what you have produced. The book has answers to odd-numbered problems in the back.
Homework 1: Concepts, Scaling, Frequency Tables and Histograms (8 pts)
G&W Ch 1 (p. 27): problems 5,10, 14 & 18; Ch 2, problem 8. You may do problem 8 either using SPSS or by hand. Do not group. [TIP: if SPSS is "grouping" when you don't want it to, click Bar Graph instead of Histogram.] If you use SPSS for problem 8, be sure to include the printout, clearly identify which parts of the printout go with the homework question, and don't forget part c of the question. Put your name on the printout, too!
Points: Problems 5, 10,14: 1 pt each; problem 18, 2 pts, problem 8, 3 pts.
Homework 2: Central Tendency & Variability (8 pts)
G&W Ch 3, problems 9 & 10. Ch 4, problems 13 [by hand] & 14 [with variations as described below] *Do 14 (by hand, showing all steps) using the definitional formula, then use SPSS to find the mean, sample variance, and standard deviation for the data (step 1). Then (part 2) change the numbers around until you have a data set that has the SAME mean and n, but twice the sample variance as the original data set. Hand in the SPSS printout showing the mean, variance, & sd for both data sets, annotate to clarify which parts of the printout go with parts 1 & 2, and write on the printout the numbers in the data set you created for part 2.
Points: Ch 3, #9&10, 1 pt each & Ch 4, #13, 2 pts: #14: 4 pts.
Homework 3: z-Scores & the Normal Curve (8 pts)
G&W Ch 5, problems 2, 4, 5, 20. For question 20, be sure to explain your answer. G&W Ch 6, problems 7ab, 10ac, 11cd. No SPSS homework this week.
Points: Problem 5 worth 2 pts; Other problems worth 1 pt each.
Homework 4: Distribution of Sample Means, z-test & t-test (8 pts)
Ch 7, problems 10 & 24. Ch 8, problems 6 & 8. Ch 9, problems 3 & 12. Be sure to show all work and explain answers fully. No SPSS homework this week.
Points: Problem 6 worth 3 pts. Other problems worth 1 pt each.
Homework 5: t-Tests with Independent Samples and Related Samples, Estimation (12 pts)
Ch 10, problems 14 & 18a. Ch 11, problems 4 & 22. Ch 12, problem 18a. Do Ch 10 problem18a & Ch 11 problem 22 both by hand and on SPSS. On the "by hand" versions, state the research question, follow step-by-step method and number steps, and end with answer to research question. Annotate printout by circling the key elements in the output and explaining what the output shows.
Points: Ch 10 #14 & 12 #18, 1.5 pts each. Ch 11 #4, 1 pt. Ch 10 #18 & Ch 11 # 22, 4 pts each.
Homework 6: ANOVA (15 pts)
Ch 13, problems 13, & 23. Ch 14, problems 15ab (draw graph for each set) & 22. Do the ANOVA for Ch. 13 # 23 both by hand and using SPSS (note: treat the birth variable as a fixed effect). For by hand version, state research question, follow and show all steps given in G&W pp. 334-336, and also create an ANOVA summary table (as shown on p. 336). In SPSS version, do both Scheffé and Tukey post-hoc tests. Annotate output, including explaining results (what did you find?) Do Ch 14 #22 using SPSS (not by hand). Request a plot for help in interpreting the interaction. Annotate output, including an explanation of your results.
Points: Problem #13, 1 pt; #15ab, 2 pts. For #23 by hand, #23 SPSS, and #22 SPSS, 4 pts each.
Homework 7: Correlation (8 pts)
Ch 15, problems 3, 7 (by hand), 12, 18 (using SPSS). For problem 18, after finding the correlation for the data in the book, change the correlation substantially by adding an outlier (make up the data for this person). Hand in annotated printouts for both original and modified data sets (identify which is which, and write down the data for the outlier you added). Explain on the modified printout what you learned from the exercise about the possible impact of a single case on correlation.
Points: #7, 3 pts; #3 & 12, 1 pt each; #18, 3 points.
Homework 8: Regression & Chi-Square (13 pts)
G&W Ch 15, problem 21, by hand. Ch 16, problems 3, 6, & 15. Do all chi-square problems by hand, showing all work and going step by step, and explaining the answer to the research question at the end. In addition, do problem 15 using SPSS (be sure to request EXPECTED as well as OBSERVED counts). Annotate printout.
Points: Ch 15, #21, 2 pts. Ch 16: 3 pts each for 3, 6,15 by hand, 2 pts for #15 SPSS