A. Title and Composition

B. Knowledge is systematic and hierarchical

sensation, memory, experience, art, knowledge, wisdom
            distinction bt. experience and art
            one can know the higher without knowing the lower
study of theory: not practice, not useful

WISDOM (sofiva): knowledge of the causes and principles and attributes of being qua being
            not the knowledge of everything
            there are four causes: progress of their discovery
                        which cause is primary
                        mathematics and the final cause


C. General critique of predecessors: principles not appropriate to subject

i. Pythagoreans: number does not explain physics (movement)

ii. Platonic Metaphysics: unwritten doctrines
[priority of genus
                        superfluous entities
                        third man]
                        form/mathematical number
                        substance/accident distinction gone,
                                    useless for explaining sensibles moving

D.  Book B

i.    B.1 a description of the method of aporia and lusis
            philosophical limitations of the method
conservatism, constraint by the past

ii. Structure of B

1. What is the unity of metaphysics?  1-4
            all causes?
            all substances?
            all properties of substances?
2. Population questions
            insensible substances?              5
            mathematicals                                    12
3. What are the Principles
            genus or elements                        6
            highest genus                                    7
            universals/particulars                        8
            limited in number/kind            9
            perishable/imperishable            10
            being/unity as principles            11
            universal/individual                        13 cf. 8


E. The General Science
Book G 1-2. how the science of being qua being is one science
            focal unity (pros hen; cf. paronymy)
            substance is the focus
            science of one
G 3-8: Principle of Non-Contradiction

PNC: the same attribute cannot at the same time belong and not belong to the same subject in the same respect

PNC is a cause of being
            it is a cause of knowing
            if a man is to know anything, he must know PNC
            therefore, it is the clearest principle and least doubtful

PNC – no direct proof, dialectical “elenctic” proof
            a. man means two-footed rational animal
            man is a two-footed rational animal and is not a two-footed rational animal
            terms mean something – essences
            if no PNC essential traits will be accidents
                        won’t convey the ti esti of a thing
            accident – essence confusion
            b. Socrates seems to be to be tanned.
            reports of sensation need appropriate qualifications

F. New Doctrine of Substance: ZHQ


Categorial being
substance: ti esti (what is it? answer: universal) and tode ti (particular)
Categories:  not predicated of a subject; not present in a subject

What is the substance of substance?
i. substrate: leads to prime matter
ii. essence (to; tiv h\n ei\nai):
            Advant: what a thing is per se; a universal identical with the tode ti!
            Disadvant: open to non-substances; like a Platonic Form
iii. genus: too general
iv. universal (kaq j o{lou): what is common; Platonic Form
            Advant.: we know the universal (but Platonic Forms are individuals)
                        Disadvant.: substance will not be peculiar to a thing
                                    there will be many substances in the same thing
                                                species, genus, etc.
                                    genus will be more substantial (cf. the problem with the substrate)
                                    genus animal will be two and four (or no) footed
                                    “the third man”

Book Z.16-17 a new start: most “substances” are potentialities
substance as a cause of substance
            why is one thing predicated of another
            why is the matter some definite thing

Book H.  Matter and its Form as Cause
            form may be a differentia of matter (as with Democritus’ atomic positions)
                        e.g. threshold is wood in a position

                                    /                        \
                  matter                                                   form
            /                    \                                                /            \
matter                             form                        matter                form
stuff                                shape                        genus                 differentia
e.g. bone                        femur                        animal                two-footed

what is in the definition of the substance?
            how are these parts unified?
            ultimately by matter/form, potentiality/actuality


Book Q  Potentiality, Actuality and Activity

                                    Potentialities (dunameis)

            Activities                                                            Changes

            active (teach)                                                            passive (to be taught)

            capacity (has Ph.D.)                                                potentiality (has matriculated)
            activity            (teaching)                                    actuality (educated)
complete at any time                                                complete at end of process
            dancing                                                            house building

substance as activity
            god is pure activity