Lecture 2.1 Categories

Organization of the Categories

A. Generate the list of beings of the world
            1. ask ti esti of the objects there are in the world
            2. then ask of those objects poion, poson, pros ti, etc.
            result: lists of primary objects
            3. now ask ti esti of all these objects
            result: secondary substances, qualities, etc.

B. Classify their predication relations
            1. the ‘predicated of’ relation is already done
                        *origin of syllogistic
            2. the ‘present in’ relation is implied in A.1 and 2

C. The less subject they are, the less being they have
            1. primary substance: not predicated of, not present in
            2. secondary substance: predicated of, not present in
            3. primary non-substance: not predicated of, present in
            4. secondary non-substance: predicated of, present in


                        predicated of                         not predicated of
                        (name and def’n)

present in            2ry non-subst                        primary non-subst
(name only,            pallor                                    this pallor
if that)
not present in            2ry substance                  primary substance
                                   Man                        Socrates

Non-composites: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place time, position, state, action, affection  (no division: being is not a genus)

predicated of: not explained (but part of definition)
present in: not as part of whole, but incapable of existence apart from the subject



            Quality                                                                                   Substance           

            color                                                                                    animal                       
            pale                        predicated of          present in -->            man
            this pale                        v                                                this man


Definitions: Genus and Differentia

A. Divisions are through differentiae
            1. differentiae are predicated of their subjects
                        but differentiae are poion
            2. specific differentiae are unique
            3. differentiae, like genera, are predicated of transitively!
                        e.g. footed of man
Propria of Substance

A. substance has no contrary
            nor does quantity, at least definite quantity (e.g. 3)
B. substance does not admit of variation of degrees
C. while remaining one and the same, it is capable of admitting contrary qualities
            this belongs to substance alone