Lecture 1.1 -1.2 Introducton and Degrees of Reality: Preface to Categories

Philosophy and Greek character
            factious people – argumentative and combative
                        best in speaking and in doing
            polis and political self-determination - Vernant
  Hesiodic theogony
            early  cosmogonies: from chaos and lawlessness to present order           
                        history of  origin (world is not eternal)
            sexual reproduction and intergenerational strife

interest in truth and falsehood
                        Odysseus and the Cretan lies

Milesian Philosophers
            reality behind the appearance

Heraclitus  b. c. 540
54.  The unapparent attunement is more powerful than the apparent.
123.  Nature loves to hide.
93.  The lord, whose oracle is in Delphi, neither speaks nor hides, but points out.
34.  Those who do not understand, when they hear are like the deaf.  The saying is true of them - though present they are absent.
17.  Many people, whenever they come across such things, cannot conceive them, nor do they know them after they have learned them, but they think they do.
 88.  It is the same thing in us - living and dead, awake and sleeping, young and old. For by changing the former are the latter, and by changing again the latter are the former.


Parmenides  b.515
For in no way may this prevail, that things that are not, are.
But you, bar your thought from this way of inquiry,
and do not let habit born from much experience compel you along this way
to direct your sightless eye and sounding ear and tongue,
but judge by reason the heavily contested refutation
spoken by me.

Socrates: definition and ethical concerns what is it?  ti esti
            one and many
            Meno and breaking plates: man’s virtue, woman’s virtue
            cause (aition) that makes them all virtues

            sensibles and intelligibles
            plurity                        unity
            changing            unchanging
            opinion            knowledge
            imitation            original

Division and collection: Phaedrus, Sophist, etc.

            def’n of angler: expert, caring (imitation), acquisition (production), (willing exchange) attaining by actions/words, hunting (combat), of living (lifeless), of aquatic (land animals), having wings (living in water), (nets) striking, (torch-hunting) hooking, (from above) from below with hook

Knowledge of similarity and difference

Categories: the -onymies
homonyms - equivocal (same name, different definition; man, picture of man)
synonym - univocal (same name, same definition; man, ox (as animal))
paronyms - derivatives (altered and related name (grammar, grammatical))

language or reality