Lecture 1.1 -1.2 Introducton and Degrees of Reality: Preface to Categories
Philosophy and Greek character
factious people – argumentative and combative
best in speaking and in doing
polis and political self-determination - Vernant
early cosmogonies: from chaos and lawlessness to present order
history of origin (world is not eternal)
sexual reproduction and intergenerational strife
interest in truth and falsehood
Odysseus and the Cretan lies
reality behind the appearance
Heraclitus b. c. 540
54. The unapparent attunement is more powerful than the apparent.
123. Nature loves to hide.
93. The lord, whose oracle is in Delphi, neither speaks nor hides, but points out.
34. Those who do not understand, when they hear are like the deaf. The saying is true of them - though present they are absent.
17. Many people, whenever they come across such things, cannot conceive them, nor do they know them after they have learned them, but they think they do.
88. It is the same thing in us - living and dead, awake and sleeping, young and old. For by changing the former are the latter, and by changing again the latter are the former.
For in no way may this prevail, that things that are not, are.
But you, bar your thought from this way of inquiry,
and do not let habit born from much experience compel you along this way
to direct your sightless eye and sounding ear and tongue,
but judge by reason the heavily contested refutation
spoken by me.
Socrates: definition and ethical concerns what is it? ti esti
one and many
Meno and breaking plates: man’s virtue, woman’s virtue
cause (aition) that makes them all virtues
sensibles and intelligibles
Division and collection: Phaedrus, Sophist, etc.
def’n of angler: expert, caring (imitation), acquisition (production), (willing exchange) attaining by actions/words, hunting (combat), of living (lifeless), of aquatic (land animals), having wings (living in water), (nets) striking, (torch-hunting) hooking, (from above) from below with hook
Knowledge of similarity and difference
Categories: the -onymies
homonyms - equivocal (same name, different definition; man, picture of man)
synonym - univocal (same name, same definition; man, ox (as animal))
paronyms - derivatives (altered and related name (grammar, grammatical))
language or reality