Chinese Buddhism: Mahayana Buddhism
549-623 CE: Chi-tsang (Jizang), master of the San-lun (Sanlun) or emptiness school of Chinese Buddhism.
538-597 CE: Chih-i (Zhiyi), master of the T'ien-t'ai (Tiantai) school of Chinese Buddhism emphasizing that human nature is karmically evil. Lotus Sutra
643-712 CE: Fazang (Fa-ts'ang), master of the Huayan school emphasizing the web of interrelations and interpenetration.
A. Chi-tsang and the Emptiness School (San-lun): Based on the Wisdom Sutras
1. The "middle" as the intersection of form and emptiness, of distinctions and no distinctions, word and beyond words
2. The Four Middles: Comparative Middle, Exhaustive Middle, Absolute Middle, and Creative Middle.
B. Chih-i and the T'ien-t'ai School: Based on The Lotus Sutra
Amitabha Buddha - Amitabha - infinite light
1. Human Nature as Inherently Evil - Karmically Evil
2. Buddha Nature as Inherently Evil - Both Good and Evil; Neither Good Nor Evil.
3. The Four Samadhis (Meditative Absorption) of Amitabha (Buddha of Infinite Light)
* Sitting, Walking, Both Sitting and Walking, Neither Sitting nor Walking
C. Fazang and the Huayan (Hua-yen) School.
1. The Huayan school is based on the Flower Garland Sutra (Ch. Huayan, Skt. Avatamsaka).
2. Four Levels of Realization
Phenomena (form) A exists
Principle (emptiness) A does not exist
Phenomena and Principle (form and emptiness) A both exists and doesn't exist
Phenomena and Phenomena (form and form) A neither exists nor doesn't exist
The fourth level of realization, the Interpenetration of Phenomena and Phenomena, is represented by the image of Indra's Net, a kind of cosmic fisherman's net in which there is a reflective jewel placed at each intersection of the web. Each jewel is said to reflect all other jewels, suggesting the interpenetration of all phenomena.