Appendix H

Emory, Kenneth P. 1965. Kapingamarangi: Social and Religious Life of a Polynesian Atoll. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 228. Honolulu, Hawai'i: Bishop Museum Press. (p. 211-225) Sacred canoe, Ariki, Chants, Adze

Reprinted by Permision of: Bishop Museum Press,Honolulu, Hawai'i

When festivities were held at the cult house, the ariki wore a mara hau, that is, a woven hibiscus-bark kilt, folded in half lengthwise and then put on exactly like a loincloth, but leaving a long tail (huku). An unopened coconut leaf (tira) from the top of a tree, still yellowish-white, was procured to make his headdress, arm bands and necklet. The headdress consisted of about 3 feet of the leaf hung base-downward from the back of the head and tied to the head by two of its end leaflets knotted over the forehead, two tips projecting. These two tips represent the two long arms or tentacles projecting from the head or body of the sea monster, Ti-kiha-roro-eha (the-eel-of-four-lengths), in which form the god sometimes appeared on the ocean. Tioripi and Rimari dressed young Tawera in the ariki garb for me to photograph (fig. 37). These coconut-leaf decorations were called rakei .

The ariki wore a necklace of pearl-shell shanks of bonito hooks such as may be seen on King David (Buck, 1950, Figs. 3a, 165c). He also might have turtle-shell ornaments of some kind, as revealed by the line of chant, "pua ke hunu na te ariki ka tapatapa," the turtle-shell ornaments which adorn the ariki sparkle.

While carrying out duties at Hereu, the ariki often girded (tara ) himself with a kilt of pandanus strips, called a serua pekepeke, worn over the loincloth. The two priests of the lagoon end of the sacred house (ariki i nuo i tai) were also entitled to wear such kilts when performing duties at the house. A skirt of this kind was hung by the ariki aloft in the seaward end of Hereu, as a charm. It was also hung over a piece of land on which coconut palms grew, to establish a restriction (pure) on nuts to be used as offerings to the gods of the lagoon end of Hereu.

The two priests of the seaward end of Hereu wore as a kilt a half of a coconut leaf (pahi rou niu ), and suspended one as a charm at their end of the sacred house. They also used it to restrict coconuts used in offerings to the gods who were in their charge, hanging it on a cord stretched between trees.

The ariki i nuo, that is, the four priests who presided over the four corners of the sacred house, encircled their heads with the tip ends of young coconut leaves, as shown in the photograph of Tioripi, who was one of these priests (see Fig. 22).

An important article of the ariki’s equipment was a small sitting mat of pandanus, called a pahi kahara (piece of mat). King David made one for us.* It measured 11 inches in width, 13.5 inches in length, and had 4.5 wefts to the inch. It was woven in simple check, double wefts. This mat was protected by being kept in a coconut-leaf mat of the tapakau type, but measuring 13.5 inches in width and 18 inches in length (Buck, 1950, Fig. 59).

The ariki had a canoe shed on the south side of the lagoonward marae at Touhou. In this were kept two sacred canoes called waka siu (literally, "wet canoes," that is, sea-going canoes). They also bore the name Ti-pupu-i-hanga, which seems to have been the name of Utamatua’s canoe. Should anyone brush against these canes, he must immediately go to dip his head in salt water. In the time of Keweti and Rimari, there were only two waka siu, but in earlier times there were more. These were used for bonito fishing, and to initiate young men into this fishing so that they would become muri waka (at the rear of the canoe), and be eligible for entering the services at Hereu. The canoes were of breadfruit wood and undecorated, and each held seven to eight people. A three-pronged stool of wood, like the prop (ranga) of a canoe, was lashed within the ti rongorongo (see Fig. 41). While fishing, these canoes were paddled, never sailed, hence the man handling the pole would always be in the stern. These canoes were furnished also with a frame on the platforms of the outrigger, to hold the coconut offerings. While paddling at sea the occupants chanted constantly uru or tauaroho chants, such as Ko ti waka Mongohenua .

The canoes that went out fishing for tuna (sakua), held two or three people, and were called waka Matariki (canoe of the Pleiades). These were canoes requisitioned for the purpose and kept temporarily on the marae, covered with mats. They were considered sacred only at the time of this use.

The chief had a large canoe, waka matahi, for ordinary work about the lagoon. This was carefully kept (tahita waka, waka rapakau ), but it was not

FIGURE 41.---Model of the sacred bonito canoe of the cult house, made by Tomoki, in 1951. Such a canoe was called a waka siu (wet canoe). They were never sailed, but were paddled. The three-legged stool (ti rongorongo) was to hold the legs of the fisherman with the bonito pole (nia manu) thwarts. The pearl-shell points or knives were called ti mata niha pa (peal-shell tooth). Their function was to serve as offerings should the sea monster Ti Kiha appear. They were the offering (ti mata o), the price (ti hui). The crate on the outrigger platform is the koromanga, the plate for the offerings of coconuts presented to the gods.

sacred. Each of the regional priests had a canoe of breadfruit wood in which he traveled while on sacred duties.

Concerning the bonito canoe, Rimari dictated and explained the following which he called an oriori . It had been chanted at Hereu.

Ti ra ka hinga, ka pare taki mai tiaku whoa.
When the suns sets, I will clamp my paddle (against the canoe, in steering).

Kape ra taku maunu nei.
(I will) pull out my bait (i.e., pearl-shell lure)

Tiana (= tono) pa tiri atu ki a hauhia.
The pearl-shell hook I will cast to troll.

Ma ko hana na ko moe i Te-turuki.
If (I) go (I) will rest at Te-Turuki (on the far side of the lagoon).

Kai e oti oku manatu ne hai ki te tupua koe,
I have made known my thoughts so that you would not be jealous

E tupua koe io iai,
But you do not care (for me),

Ka te aroho koe i toku moe ange
You do not love me when I sleep.

O ti tamau ia, te au e me.
[Ending without meaning in reference to the chant.]


I also heard this chant about the bonito canoe. Tokotarauta called it a hu, and it was recited at Hereu by the ariki hakaruru. It was dictated by Toko-tarauta in 1947 and again in 1950, and explained by him and Keweti. Each line ends with aie, or iaie .

Ma ti waka nei hana na ngake
If the canoe her goes south

E oina tono Wawa-i-tua.
It will be overtaken by day at the channel in-the-north.

Takitaki ai taki ai tau rekareka,
Taking, taking along your joy,

Tu-rongo ma ho ti waka.
The trolling-stool (of three legs set up in the canoe)

Hana roa ra tua ti akau.
Going way around to seaward of the reef

Hati mai ana nia ngoru e toru.
Three waves break (then it is calm).

Hana roa ki te pita i ngake.
(The canoes) circle south (of the school of fish).

Ti anga te pa te ariki
Skipping the pearl-shell lure of the priest.

Ka mahaki pe ti tauarohaki.
It breaks (the surface?)

Ka mamata i ti atu o Roua
The descendants of Roua (i.e., the people of Kapingamarangi) gaze.

Hani moi mua pe ti-ana-manu,
(The fish) comes in front of Ti-ana-mua, perhaps,

Ka pakihi ki honu tana tinana tinae.
It slaps against its mother’s belly (one who gives birth, i.e., the fish glances into the bottom of the canoe).

Ka mamatu ka takoto ru a ma (= mo) ti harupe (= haruru).
Look at the fish lying there, flapping thumping against (the bottom of the canoe).

A hu, a hu Ti-wawe, ka noho ia
Call, call to Ti-wawe to come

Kai nga koe au tama.
Sustain (?) your children

Kia ka rau tana penapena.
It is for him to see that there is plenty for those he cares for.

Hereie (= hai) iroto ko mahauhau.
The work done within (the cult house Hereu), is magic (?)

Tana niu ka wa pe ti manu.
His coconut tree quacks like a bird.

Ko Mongohenua tono moi ai
Mongohenua, it is for him to look after

Ti waka matangi ka to mai,
The canoe that goes into the wind, that it lands,

Heke iha Ti-awa-ti-maru
Slips into The-pass-called-the-shade.

Heu na ti tai ka hai ngara.
There is questioning about the tide, it is down.

Te motu ti hakatina kiama.
It is not finished (when the canoe) turns to the left.

Roua hani moi tonu
Roua come straight

Hana tonu ki Kapingamarangi.
Come straight to Kapingamarangi

Tau ra, kei mata tonu ara.
Land, at the end of her path.

Taria kei i marae a Roua.
Carry then to the marae of Roua.

O ti rongo Mongohenua
News reached Mongohenua

Ko ti waka e toru mo matawaru.
That the canoe has 380 (fish).

Ke tuwha i tina, take te tina.
It is divided into shares, the shares are carried.

Tahi kawakawa i te ahiahi
There is one ray of light in the evening.

Tahi moe au urungi ha (= hawa) ti tamau.
I shall have one sleep (says the ariki ) then I shall steer forth (again), remember the sacred offerings.

Ka hiki ti tau Mongohenua.
The tau people shall carry them to Mongohenua.

(The ending, Tokotarauta says it has no special meaning)

Papa iho wai ai.
Set(them) out.

Papa toru hikahiko wai
Set them out in three rows, catch

Turu o, ti tamana

Hua titi e, hua ta ho,

Ko te pipi, ka tama i e.

Tomoki gave me the following chant, composed by Timoweti and Korowe, for the bonito canoe (ti ranga ti waka siu):

Ea hoake hua e ti ramo hare ne tu ki tararenge (= Taringa) henuma (= henua) he hiki.
Awakening in the lonely house standing at the border of the land, (he) lifted (his canoe),

Ki tia hia hua tono waka ko Kidu-me-ruti, he wanga i rara he motu nei,
Turned his canoe Hikumeruti (of Werua village), headed for the islets south.

Ne ka uru re e iroto tana manga te ata arohia ki tai.
Then entered a branch of the pass and appeared paddling westward.

He wo ra manu nei ie, he manu henua tahaonga (= tahohogo) reitu (= terekia) he kati, ho rake ke i rara he rangi nei.
Birds, noddy ferns, fed alone, appearing below the sky.

E naho ki rahnoga ne ti (= tui) ana manu pe ra hoki tai, pe ne heu wae, ie ta.
(He) stayed at (his) place (the three-legged stool). As the birds moved so indeed he trailed (his hook).

Ne tiri atu re wa e ki ti kohu tana rimehanga i muri.
He cast it forth in the foam of his wake.

Hamumu watu hua ko te ika ka naho ai kana ki Matariki.
A fish struck while waiting for the Pleiades (when it is low in the seas, there are lost of sakua, tuna).

Ne reia ikorongao (= ni koro), ne whati ano rakau matira re tapuahia i moana tewe nei.
His pole bends, cracks, breaks, on the sacred ocean here.

Ne ka pa ti rakau a Utamatua tahi ri te moana!
The stick of Utamatua is broken, chant to the ocean!

"E, hakamaroro hia atu ro," e ki ti hiku tara ei naho. Ne pa i ono rongo.
"May the god rest" (he says), to the tail of his bonito. The news spread.

Ne tahi ake mua ti kuru waka, ne ki ho (= hoho) ai tahataha,
You all paddled you canoe until close to the breakers,

E ara kotou tira e ku kai tonu hoki tara naho ki mua ti karahenuti (= korohenua).
Then you saw and spoke truthfully when you were before the people.

Ta here hua tara renge, hiki ake hua e.
...just carry up(the canoe).

The two chants which Keweti, Tomoki, and Rimari seemed to be most proud to know were the tauaroho chants, chants of affection for the gods Mogohenua and Mongotohoro. These evidently were chanted on many occasions. The one for Mongohenua was chanted while the bonito canoe of the ariki was being paddled on the sacred ocean. Both were chanted at general meetings at Hereu. The Mongohenua chant has a little more than 100 lines and is divided into 15 sections, but the Mongotohoro chant is the longest by far of any chant recorded. It has 427 lines and 33 divisions. It took 3 hours to write it down from dictation, but when chanted Tomoki took 25 minutes to reach its end. All informants said they did not understand the chants, that they had just learned them by rote. When pressed for a translation, most parts of the Mongohenua chant were clear to them, but not so with the Monogotohoro chant. After many attempts to obtain at least a literal translation of the Mongotohoro chant, I left the island with only two or three stanzas satisfactorily translated, and a few phrases, although it does not seem to have an unusual number of archaic words. I shall give the Mongohenua chant here in its entirety, but I am simply placing the text of the Mongotohoro chant on file at Bishop Museum.

This is the Tauaroho Mongohenua, the chant offered to that god out of affection for him. It was composed in ancient times, and dictated and explained by Keweti.


E ko ti wako (= waka o) Mongohenua!
It is the canoe of (the god) Mongohenua!

E ma tane ke tia e, e tarai (= tarahi) ake,
When men, tomorrow morning, lead it forth,

Arohia, ka ro hia!
Paddle with them, go along with them!

Ma tane matakina e hakamoea ki te monana,
When they go out to lie on the ocean,

Ka pe tahi aku mea mai 'a.
May one (bonito) be granted me (the ariki).

Te ika e he ke kite ai te moana,
If fish are found somewhere on the ocean,

Ke hakana mai ko ra ki tara henua,
Then, when (the canoe) comes back to its land (Touhou),

E ke taria ki te muri hare,
Then (the bonito) will be taken to the place behind the (sacred) house,

Ma ka tuwha mai no (= nia) tina tara (= tono) henua e.
Then the division into shares for each household (tina kungo) will take place.

E ku a maheu ki muri,
When, afterward (the people) have gone off (with there shares),

Ne kai tere (= toro) a mai tona moenga, tetere (= tetene),
they will eat until they crawl onto their mats, quite happy.

Kai aku karokaro iha i ono ama.
When we look to the float-side-of-the-canoe,

Ke nei hakahawa (= hakaeha ra) hai mai ihea?
From where will (the bonito fish) appear?

Hati (= koti) tau tara katoa e hakamu au.
Cut your taro that I (the ariki) be honored.

E noko i noho mai i noho ra u.
That (the ariki) may do his duty.

Ko haia ti tanga (= tangata) ti maehaki;
Let us chant the maehaki (begging forgiveness) chant;

Ne tau kata mai taku ihra,
We who have set down baskets (of food) for my trangressions,

Ne hai ti kato ke.
For which baskets (of food) have been made.


E uru ti rau Mongohenua e,
Enter the house of Mongohenua,

E ma hina ke hiria.
Select the women (who have borne children).

E ke hiria, ma notia nge,
Select and tie together,

Taria, taku takataka (= tanga tanga) te ika e.
Carry up my heaps of fish.

Ke tuwha i roto nei.
Divide them inside.

Ka roha (= rongorongo) nange Ko ti tai,
Listen, you people seaward,

Ke amu hia e.

Ti imu, ti imu tokerau (= to ki rara?),
The oven, the oven named Tokerau,

Ma ti aku tama.
It is for my children.

Pe nei hi aha, hano horau.
How? (ending) Go out on the ocean.

Ka horau ki Tetuira.
Go Tetuira.

Ko rawahaki na matama,
To put across is fine,

He aua te tohonu (= tonu) e. not right.


He uru ko niu mai ki ti matangi (i) rihia.
Coconut fronds in the blowing wind,

I mairi mai, ke taria, taku takataka te ika e.
When the wind blows, take up my load of fish.

Ke tuwha i muri nei.
Divide it behind (the Long House).

Ka tenetene pe ko wai nei hanange a kinae.
Whoever has come there will be happy.

Ko hai a ti paru (= poro) ti morae,
Make the basket of offerings for the marae,

Ne tupaka taku pa.
I have trolled my pearl-shell hook.

He a wa, te tonu e.
(Ending, without relevant meaning)...


Teretere (i) ha ma uru i hare tapu.
Travel hither, enter the sacred house.

Rekareka e aku moe aku hira u ono mata rehareha.
But she does not yearn for the form of Mongohenua.

E marari tana kiri aku moenga e.
Smooth is her skin, my bed.

Ku hai e ke tono rau o
Her skin (literally "leaf") is different (i.e., she is plump now; her skin now is white)

Ka he tari ki taha anga ti ata e ite (= kite) koi (= koe).
(I) wait for dawn to gleam to see you.


Ka tene hano ki Ringutoru.
If I would be happy I go to Ringutoru.

Ma ko hakatina e ono tauha (= taha) onga (= ono) e.
If I examine its sides (i.e., her sides),

Kua kake tana p\uke.
I will climb its puke tree (i.e., climb onto her)

Ma ko hakataria kia, tahuri tonu mai.
If I touch (her), (she will) turn over straight toward (me).

Tike, hara oku rima.
(She will) seek my arms (to lie on).

Hakarawa kua te (= tiki) porowaki atu.
(We will) finish our promises, not yet made.

Taku hekau ne hai, e moma (= mama) e i (= hai) ti au.
When this task of mine is done, I will feel light (of heart).

Mangotahora ku ate hotu moi ai.
Mongotohoro, may his (another man's) appearance be far off.

He tangi moi ai.
(She) begs of me,

Ka teai taku tepeo ne hai aut
Not to commit adultery

Te (= pe) ne iha ra iho ki tai, ka iho (= mai),
When (she goes) lagoonward. When (she) comes back,

Ko aku waranga ne hai ia tu.
(She) has not kept (her) word.

E moma (= mama) e i (= hai) ti au.
Light am I (i.e., light is my heart),

Mongtahora ku ate hotu moi ai.
Mongotohoro, keep his (another man's) appearance at a distance.

Tangi moi, tangi e.
(She) begs (of me), begs (of me).


A i poko (= popo) i tuai e,
(It is) shrunk from waiting too long, (she says);

Teki (= tiki) wawe we o rau e pokioki (= po).
(I) have not yet grabbed your locks

Te o au, ma kia oti ai.
I have not had enough, see that (my desire) be filled.

Oku tamoa ku maiha ro.
(At last) my labia are dry.

E aroaro a mo i ti haronga i tono maro.
(The ending, without meaning in reference to the rest) : Paddle, carry the sakarhoko chants to his loincloth

Te taratara te penapena e.
It is not taken off, not looked after (i.e., ? he keeps diligently at his work).


Haere ana ti mea ki roto ra,
The person went into (? the sacred house).

Ma ka naho iha i mata tara totonga,
Sat at the border of the sacred enclosure.

Ka hira muri ai koe kua tahi ta oa.
You looked around, there was only one to touch.

Hau (= au) e te kai ai tau ma oa.
I will not eat your thing,

Hau (= au) e te ngaro.
(Should I) I could not forget.

E aroaro,...(as in verse 6, last two lines).


Ka mai te mea i ngake ra
Bring the thing (mat) from the south side,

Ti katoa (= katoho) mea ne ku o ki te o.
The people who have come to the meeting find no room.

Au hakauia mai aku wharonga (= hakarhoko).
I will answer, hoia, when the hakarhoko chants are cited.

Pe tonu ka e hara, ro (= nho) hua te roa (= iroa).
Whether right or wrong, they (many of the people) just sit, they do not know (the chants).

E araoro,...


Tu i te mua (o) tia Roua,
Stand at the mua altar, say all to Roua.

Te hingara ma ke pua ke
The male blossom of the pandanus, when it is white,

Hunu na ti katiti (= atiti)
Oil it with (coconut oil and grated) seeds of Barringtonia

Ka hie (= hia) mirimiri ake.
(Add) leaves of the hia plant rubbed in.

Tauo i.


Hirongo (= hiranga) ra maria o hoto tupuna.
Deal kindly with your sacred power.

Ma te ika ku wa (= wae)
May a fish ( a whale) break the surface

Hakatonu hia ra maria ko aitu henua, ko Mongohenua.
To prove later that Mongohenua is a god of the land.

Hai ono nua ti ariki, ka tapatapa,
So that the ariki can decorate his head, can say proudly,

U (= ku) i rake (= raka).
That (the god) is functioning.


Toko atu ki te motu o uta
Pole to the island shore

Ma te motu nau.
The island of Scaevola plants (i.e., Pumatahiti).

Hakahirihia (a) roha taiau (= taia).
(Anger) will be healed, love will come, tomorrow.

Hati tara, e oto tana pahua.
(He) breaks off his (stick), eats his tridacna clams raw,

Werowero te niu, kia haki (= hake) ake.
Spears down coconut, carries them (as a peace offering).

Tauo i.


Taha tono ata, taha marama,
(The sun) flashes its dawn, flashes its light,

Pe ti manu e kapa ki tara manga (= marama).
Like a bird winging into space.

Ti haraha ma te ruarua hoko (= oko) iha e manu i ti moata (= moana).
When (the birds) drop the haraha fish, (the frigate bird) grabs it up as it floats on the ocean.

Ka tae mo atu ma ka hiunga ma ti rakau mai tai.
The bonito will come when I troll witht eh wood from the sea (i.e., bamboo rod).

Kai oti.
(Ending:) Eat all.


Tahi oho ma ti ruarua,
(The frigate bird) will take up and strip, when (birds) vomit (the fish they have caught).

Hoko ia e manu i te moata (= moana).
(They, the frigate birds) will grab up the fish as they float on the ocean.

Ka tae mo atu ma ka hiunga ma ti rakau mai tai.
Bonito will come when (I) troll with the bamboo rod.

Kai oti.
(Ending:) Eat all.


Tae ki (o) ho ki tana pa ma tana kawiti.
(When) there, awake his shell lure and fishhook point,

Hatu ia rua.
Which has been folded away in (its case) of two (leaves).

Tana uihu (= uihuku) ho ange.
His offering of taro join to its friend (the offering of drinking nuts).

Tiria ki tamunga (= tamau),
Throw out (the hook) that it be taken firmly.

Ki takataka teki (= tiki) tohu.
That (the canoe) be loaded which has not attained its share.

Kai oti.
(Ending:) Eat all.


Hira mai noko hira nge, kai au te hira ngi hoki.
Look toward (me), (I) who looked toward (you), then I, indeed, will not look (at you).

Hira mai na muri ake, e, kai au hihai atu.
Look agian, however, and I will want (you).

Ra i takariri e oi koe noko te kapekape
Because you refused when (I) tugged you,

Ka tiu wai, ka tiu wai Hatuhai,
(I) went out on the ocean, on the ocean by Hatuhai.

E au mai ko to tape ana.
There floated toward (me) a school of fish

Ko i horo ki atu ti matangi.
(We) ran there before the wind.

Kou (= ko au) manaia (= moina) koe.
I envy you.

Each of the ariki koa, or regional priests, had a sacred shell adz used to initiate the cutting down of a tree for a canoe hull. Tokirati told me that he and Kipero, with whom he was one of two ariki pahi, kept their adzes hung over the wall beam of the house sacred to Mongotohoro. Kamure and Tuhira, the two ariki kuongo, kept their adzes at Hare Mihe. These were adzes of ordinary size and type and were not decorated.

The ariki guarded the sacred trumpet which was blown to invite the gods to the cult house, or to assemble people. It was an ordinary Cassis, or helmet shell, 12 inches long, with the first whorl broken away to permit it being blown as a trumpet. It had no "personal" name. In 1950 I found it, broken and discarded, lying on a sea wall. It was identified as the old sacred trumpet by Hetapuae and others. It now is preserved at Bishop Museum.

The ceremonial spear of the of the ariki was of coconut wood, smooth and unbarbed, and was kept in a corner of the sacred house named Takame.

The priests were organized into a well-balanced group of 20 men, in which both classes and regions were represented.* The sacerdotal class, however, as would be expected, held the higher positions. In addition, there were two priestesses.

The group consisted of a high priest and his assistant, attended by a group of 10 men. Then there were four secondary priests, one for each quadrant of the cult house, and four regional or local priests, one for each quarter of the islet Touhou. All were called ariki, but ti ariki, the priest, was the high priest. The assistant to the high priest was called ti ariki hakaruru, the summoning priest. He was the ho (friend, partner) of the ariki, and he also must belong to the sacerdotal (tautonu) class. To the ariki, as acolytes and guards, were attached five men known as ariki meteitoko, or just as meteitoko, a word meaning prop, or small staff. These were selected from the sacerdotal class. The ariki hakaruru also had five meteitokoi attached to him, but these were from the secular class, the tauihara. The four secondary priests who looked after the four divisions of the sacred house were called ariki i nuo, literally, priests above. They ranked next to the ariki. The ariki hakaruru, or assistant priest, followed after the

Figure 42.---Panel of the ariki.

ariki i nuo in station, but he outranked the two regional priests who were called ariki pahi, priests of the side, who in turn outranked the two regional priests called ariki kuongo, priests of a locality. The ranking within the secondary priests and the regional priests and the classes from which these priests were drawn, I shall take up in discussing them more in detail.

The high priest, assistant priest, and regional priests were selected at a meeting called by the secular chief. The others, that is, the secondary priests and acolytes, were chosen by the ariki and the secular chief without consulting the people.


The ariki had charge of the upkeep of the cult house Hereu and the these supplementary houses: Hare Roro, Hare Hakatautai, Hare Takame, Hare Tupua, and, I believe, Hare Ranga (see Fig. 38). He was called also ariki hakamataku (sacred chief), and tamana hakamataku (sacred father). He recited the daily evening prayer (oriori hiahi) and morning prayer (oriori ruata), and conducted services (hai saumaha). He spread the mats (hora ti kahara) over the sacred mound in the cult house while the ariki hakaruru chanted. When conducting a task such as canoe building, he fasted. He might go for one or perhaps two days without eating, says Keweti, the son of the priest Timoweti. He would fast also when a breadfruit tree was being cut and shaped at Werua, until the work was completed, and would sleep in his working girdle, even though it might be damp.

Members of both the tautonu and tauihara classes were supposed to avoid the ariki, but if they could not, were expected to crouch in humble attitude (parakamuni) before him. The names of successive priests back as far as can be recalled are given on pages 38-41.


The ariki hakruru, the ho (friend, or partner) of the ariki, earned the descriptive term hakaruru (to summon) because he blew the trumpet (iri ti pu) when he cried out (woro) to the gods to come to Hereu, and called (kahikahi) the people to come to Hereu. From the south end of the island, at Tuakau, he would call to the people of Taringa, and from the north end at Tuangeiha, to the people of Werua.

He was at the beck and call of the ariki, being present, usually at the daily prayers. He did much of the chanting at Hereu, especially of the chants called hu. Terehi remarked once that he was comparable to the "supercargo" on a ship, which implies that he looked after material things as well.

The last ariki hakaruru was Pakirangi, a son of Marieha and a brother-in-law of Taharangi. Pakirangi served in this post during Taharangi's term as ariki, and during that of Timoweti before him. Rutina, father of our informant Tokotarauta, held this position in the times of the ariki Rumane and the ariki Heakupe. Rutina's father, Pawatu, was the ariki hakaruru before him, and served in the time of Meteitep. All were of the tautonu class.