The Quiet Revolution:
A PTTT Implementation Grant Proposal

Table of Contents

Abstract (One Page)

Narrative: The Quiet Revolution

Need for the Project

Compelling Applications
Science of Teaching and Learning
National Needs Assessment
Local Needs Assessment

Project Design

Goal 1. General IT Preparation
Goal 2. Compelling Applications
Goal 3. IT and the Science of Teaching and Learning
Goal 4. Professional Support via Internet
Sustainability of Design

Adequacy of Resources

Management Plan

Evaluation Plan

References

Budget

Appendices

1. Consortium Members List and Budget Summary

2. Consortium Member ID Form and Cost Share Worksheet

3. Project Personnel

4. Equitable Access and Participation

5. Private School Participation

Back in the days of the "wild wild west," Oregon was the terminus of the Oregon Trail. Now Oregon has a population of about 3 million, with 550,000 school-age children. The bulk of Oregon's population is in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene to Salem to Portland. However, Oregon has vast rural areas in which the population density is less than one person per square mile.

Abstract (One Page)

This project is a systemic research-based and practitioner-based approach to addressing a major problem in the University of Oregon's teacher training program. Most preservice teachers are not being adequately prepared to integrate information technology (IT) into their teaching or into their professional lives. This project is focused on developing technology preparedness in preservice teachers and has a major emphasis on higher-order uses of IT in education.

The overarching project goal is to substantially improve the education being received by all children. To achieve this goal, more specific goals of this project are to develop and identify steps providing preservice teachers the IT knowledge and skills needed to help children more effectively. The preservice teacher program will produce teachers that routinely and confidently integrate IT into their curriculum, instruction, and assessment. This will help all students meet high learning standards such as those specified in the State of Oregon's Certificate of Initial Mastery and Certificate of Advanced Mastery. In addition, these teachers will routinely use IT to carry out their own professional work, to learn, and to advance in their profession.

Activities in this project include: 1) Incorporating appropriate use of IT into the teaching process and content of a number of courses that preservice teachers take before entering a teacher education program; 2) Integrating IT throughout the teacher education program, with special emphasis on their field experiences and student teaching; 3) Providing preservice teachers with continuing IT support as they enter the teaching profession; and 4) Working with the Oregon Department of Education to modify teacher certification requirements and statewide policy to help support the accomplishment of 1-3 on a statewide basis.

The project will be carried out by a consortium headed by the University of Oregon (UO). The consortium includes the regional organizations involved in the UO teacher education program the Oregon Department of Education, and a number of corporations.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Narrative: The Quiet Revolution

 

This project addresses the problem that most of our preservice elementary and secondary school teachers are not being adequately prepared in the theory and practice of IT as an aid to improving our educational system. The IT they are learning is usually at a lower-order skill level, and often misses the power of IT to help represent and solve difficult problems. Most of our teacher education graduates lack the IT knowledge, skills, and experience to be full participants in The Quiet Revolution described below.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

Need for the Project

This Needs Assessment is disproportionally long. Some of the ideas it covers are not yet widely understood but are keys to this cutting edge project. The first part presents an introduction to Compelling Applications. Such IT applications are powerful and intrinsically motivating. Such IT applications are significantly transforming various components of our educational system. Such IT applications serve as an aid to solving complex and difficult problems. The second provides an introduction to the Science of Teaching and Learning (SoTL). This shows the role of IT in this science. A major need readily identifiable is that our teachers and our educational system do not understand Compelling Applications and roles of IT in SoTL. This need is being directly addressed in this project.

The subsequent parts of this Needs Assessment section are the more traditional National and Local Needs Assessment components that are requested in the RFP.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

Compelling Applications

There is a Quiet Revolution going on in our formal and informal educational system. This Quiet Revolution is rooted in:

  1. the continued exponential rate of growth in information technology (IT) hardware and connectivity and their use in both informal and formal educational settings.
  2. a steadily increasing collection of computer applications that are so compelling and intrinsically motivating that many people are willing to spend the time and effort needed to learn to use these applications. We call these Compelling Applications.
  3. the past 30 years of SoTL progress. This includes brain theory, where research-based knowledge has doubled in the past five years (Educational Leadership, November 1998).

This Quiet Revolution will transform our educational system, as it has already transformed business and the economy in our country (Christensen, 1997). You may be thinking "Show me the evidence." The evidence consists of many small pieces. The following scenarios illustrate how some of these Compelling Applications and SoTL are changing education.

Note that Compelling Applications (by their definition) tend to have characteristics that lead to widespread adoption. Rogers (1995) contains an extensive analysis of the research literature on the adoption of innovations. His book suggests that a focus on Compelling Applications will help to ensure the widespread adoption of IT integration into our classrooms.

This short bulleted list of Compelling Applications can easily be extended. A spreadsheet example is given in the next section of this proposal.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

Science of Teaching and Learning: An Example

As long as there have been teachers and learners, efforts have been made to improve teaching and learning. Until recently, however, improvements were based more on trial and error and informal discussions. Teaching was more an art than a science and progress was made relatively slowly, if at all. SoTL is changing the field.

The past three decades have seen an accelerated rate of SoTL progress (Bransford et al., 1999; ROLE, 1999). This is perhaps most evident in special education. Because our school systems have an inclusion policy, all teachers need to know ways in which IT is helping children with special needs.

However, SoTL is important in all of education. This section contains an example illustrating some of the progress that is occurring in SoTL and roles of IT in achieving this progress.

 

Benjamin Bloom and the 2-Sigma Learning Goal 

During the 1980s, Benjamin Bloom and his students carried out seminal SoTL research (Bloom, 1984.) Bloom and his students began by comparing the effectiveness of individual or small group tutoring versus teaching in classes of size 25-30. They found that over a wide range of grade levels and course areas, tutoring produced an average gain in test scores of two standard deviations (2 sigmas) versus the control groups. That is, instead of the class average being at the 50th percentile, average for the tutored students was at the 96th percentile. This is an astonishing result! It says that students can meet much higher standards than they are currently meeting.

 

Computer-Assisted Learning and the 2-Sigma Goal

Many people believe that computer-assisted learning (CAL) has the potential to achieve the 2-sigma learning gains that come from tutoring. To date, however, CAL has not had this level of success. Kulik's meta-metastudy (1994) of CAL reports that over a wide range of instructional areas and student levels, a gain of approximately .35-sigmas is achieved. This means that the average student moves from the 50th percentile to the 64th percentile. Moreover, students achieve this gain in approximately 30-percent less time, as compared to control groups. These results are significant, and research is continuing on improving CAL. It is important that our preservice teachers understand this level of success that CAL has had in implementing ideas from SoTL.

 

Moving Beyond the 2-Sigma Goal

IT brings some other dimensions to the 2-sigma discussion. Suppose, for example, that the instructional goal is to have students become skilled at carrying out simple bookkeeping tasks, including doing the necessary arithmetic swiftly and accurately. We know that it takes hundreds of hours of study and practice to develop a reasonable level of skill at doing paper and pencil arithmetic and bookkeeping.

Contrast this with a person learning to use a spreadsheet or a simple bookkeeping software package. The learning time to achieve similar results is often significantly reduced. Computational errors are no longer an issue and computations are completed in much less time.

With a spreadsheet or computerized accounting system it is feasible to pose and answer "What if?" questions. Posing and answering such questions is a higher-order skill--one of the really important goals in education. Moreover, spreadsheet software makes possible developing spreadsheet models, not only in business, but also in many other disciplines. With appropriate teaching, students learn to transfer their spreadsheet modeling knowledge and skills to many different disciplines. Transfer of learning is one of the important components of SoTL (Mayer & Wittrock, 1996: 47-62).

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

National Needs Assessment

There is little need to elaborate on national needs for IT in preservice education. The PT3 program is based on such a Needs Assessment. Similar needs assessments have led to decisions by many states and by the Federal Government to allocate large amounts of resources to providing IT facilities, staff development, and curriculum development throughout the country. In brief summary, this project is based on the following four national needs:

  1. Relatively few preservice teachers are prepared to integrate IT into their curriculum, instruction, and assessment in a manner that will: a) Help all students meet high standards in both non-IT and IT academic areas; and b) Help all students gain higher-order knowledge and skills so they can solve challenging problems.
  2. Our K-12 educational system is doing a relatively poor job of recognizing the importance of Compelling Applications and integrating the routine, higher-order use of Compelling Applications into curriculum, instruction, and assessment. (PCAST, 1997).
  3. Our K-12 educational system is doing relatively poorly in implementing important IT-related findings in the Science of Teaching and Learning (Bransford et al., 1999).
  4. The IT-oriented advising and mentoring professional support system for pre-education students, preservice teachers, and new teachers on the job is practically nonexistent.

 Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Local Needs Assessment

The Local Needs Assessment that follows is based on a local analysis of the four major categories of the National Needs. This Local Needs Assessment work began well before the submission of the University of Oregon PT3 Capacity Building proposal last year, and has continued throughout implementation of that project. These needs are found to varying degrees in all five of our regular education and special education preservice teacher education programs.

1. IT Preparation of Preservice Teachers

Local Needs Identified
Evidence

Our graduates are not being adequately prepared in the areas of IT and underrepresented populations, and IT and At-Risk students. They have little insight into the Digital Divide problem. IT-related information from the UO’s Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior is not being integrated into teacher education programs.

Many of our graduates have limited insight into roles of IT in working with and helping students with special needs.

 Data from the school districts served by the UO indicate significant local Digital Divide problems. Interviews with faculty and students indicate there is very little instruction on roles of IT in addressing issues of At-Risk students and students who have the potential for violent and disruptive behavior. Preliminary findings from doctoral dissertation research by a UO student (Tom Owens) who is working on this topic reaffirm the finding as do discussions with researchers in special education.

Oregon has many small, rural communities that have poor connectivity and limited IT facilities in their schools. Our preservice teachers are not being adequately prepared to make effective use of the IT facilities that are available nor to provide leadership in helping to improve this situation.

Interviews and conversations with our students who are from small, rural communities, as well as with some who have taken jobs in such communities. In Oregon, there is still substantial need for knowing how to teach in the 1-computer classroom.

The non-education courses that preservice teachers take do not role model effective use of IT or encourage students to make routine and effective use of IT. Similarly, in the teacher education programs in the College of Education, relatively few faculty model effective use of IT or explicitly encourage use of IT.

Interviews with students and faculty members in non-education courses. Students indicate concern that course instructors are so "behind the times" in use of IT. In the College of Education, observations of courses, interviews of faculty, interviews of students, and analysis of course syllabi.

Most preservice teachers do not appropriately integrate IT into their classrooms during their field experiences and their student teaching, and are not adequately prepared to do so. Few preservice teachers have field placements and student teaching in classrooms where the cooperating teacher routinely integrates IT into teaching.

Interviews with graduating preservice teachers and interviews with supervisors of field experience student teaching activities. Analysis of the state-required required "Work Samples" for all preservice teachers. Feedback from supervising teachers that often the preservice teachers are not making effective use of the IT available in the school classrooms.

Most of our graduates have had no instruction about or experience with Distance Learning.

Analysis of our curriculum. Interviews with students.

There is a huge variation in the IT background of students entering the various preservice teacher education programs. Many students entering the program have very weak IT basic knowledge and skills.

Examination of results from needs assessment instruments used at the beginning of required IT courses, analysis of applications for admission to the programs, and interviews with teachers of required IT courses.

Figure 1. Local needs assessment of IT preparation of preservice teachers.

 

2. Compelling Applications

Local Needs Identified
Evidence

The greatest use of IT in local schools is lower-order use of tools. Elementary schools tend to make overly extensive use of edutainment software.

Classroom observations by preservice students in their field placements, a UO doctorate dissertation (Jurema, 1998), and interviews of local technology coordinators.

Students and faculty have not been exposed to the idea of Compelling Application and its implications for education.

Evidence comes from interviews and informal conversations with a number of students and faculty. Discipline-specific Compelling Applications receive only modest attention in methods courses.

Our students need aids to learning about and helping to implement Oregon’s Certificate of Initial Mastery, Certificate of Advanced Mastery, and Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System. Note that this local need is also related to the first and fourth of the Local Needs Assessment categories.

Powerful web-based learning, implementation, and use aids are now under development both commercially and through grant support in Oregon. These have the potential to be Compelling Applications for teachers. Use of these systems has not yet made its way into our teacher education programs.

Figure 2. Local needs assessment on Compelling Applications.

3. IT in the Science of Teaching and Learning

Local Needs Identified
Evidence

Our program of study for preservice teachers contains very little emphasis on the Science of Teaching and Learning, or roles of IT in SoTL. Our students have little awareness of modern developments in brain theory and how the developments are affecting education. They have not explored ideas of what the human brain can do best versus what computers can do best, and how to educate students to best take advantage of both brain and computer capabilities in solving hard problems.

Analysis of the syllabi of core courses required in the teacher education programs and conversations with the faculty teaching these courses.

Interviews with two UO faculty members. Dr. Michael Posner is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and for many years he headed the UO Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences. Dr. Robert Sylwester is author of several books and many articles on brain research applications to education.

Figure 3. Local needs assessment of Science of Teaching and Learning.

 

4. Professional Support System

Local Needs Identified
Evidence

The State of Oregon certification requirements, established by the Teachers Standards and Practices Commission, say very little about the IT preparation of preservice teachers. (TSPC indicates that they will work with this PTTT project and will review their teacher standards based on the emerging ISTE NETS for teachers.)

Evidence comes from examination of the standards and conversations with people working to make changes in IT-related components of the state requirements for teacher certification.

Pre-education students (who are thinking that they may eventually want to enter the College of Education) receive little guidance in developing the IT-oriented background and experience integrated into their general coursework.

Discussions with faculty and student advisors. Examination of the volunteer work experiences that many pre-education students participate in. Examination of their pre-education programs of study.

There are very few "Just in time" IT options available to preservice teachers and to faculty in the College of Education.

Interviews with the Dean of the College of Education, who has set this part of the strategic plan for IT in the teacher education program. Interviews with faculty. Observations of the problems preservice teachers encounter as they attempt to use IT to do assignments and their Work Samples.

There is very little IT-related follow-up support to graduates of the UO teacher education programs. The State of Oregon was working on such a general purpose mentoring system several years, as ago, but dropped it during a budget crunch. They are now beginning to working of figuring out how to implement such a system of support for new teachers.

Actually, there is no formal program of follow-up IT-related support to provide our teachers with IT-oriented help during their first few years on the job. However, the Oregon State Department of Education has indicated desire that this occur at a state level; this is one of their reasons for being part of the Consortium for this project.

Figure 4. Local needs assessment of Professional Support System.

 

Project Design

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

As educators, we know that "It takes a whole village to raise a child." This quotation could appropriately be modified into "It takes a whole village and nearly half a lifetime to raise a great teacher." Figure 5 contains five major phases in the preparation of high quality teachers. As Figure 5 indicates, all five phases of teacher development will be addressed in this project

Time or Development Phases in Teacher Preparation

Approximate Percentage of Grant + Match Resources Allocated to this Phase

P1. The informal and formal educational from birth up through graduation from high school. "Teachers teach the way in which they were taught."

25% Through the work of field placement & student teachers, cooperating teachers & volunteers.

P2. Work and volunteer experiences. Many preservice teachers have had considerable work experience before entering a teacher education program.

5% Increasing and improving the IT-oriented available experiences.

P3. College education, before entering the teacher education program. Approximately 3/4 of the coursework taken by a typical preservice teacher is from outside the School, College, or Department of Education. (SCDE).

10% Increasing availability of courses with IT integration, and advertising these courses.

P4. Coursework, field placements, and student teaching experiences that are under the control of the SCDE.

45% The core and central focus of this project.

P5. The first few years on the job. Helping the new teacher to begin a professional career, and retention during the first three years. Continuing professional development is a critical issue in Oregon.

15% Via an Internet-based Professional Support System.

Figure 5. Time or Development Phases in Teacher Preparation.

The remainder of this Project Design section discusses plans for addressing each of the four major categories of Local Needs Assessment. Communication is a unifying theme in all four components. The Internet (web, Distribution Lists, e-mail) will be one of the vehicles used in this communication. However, we know that one-on-one and small group interaction is absolutely essential to accomplishing the goals of this project. Thus, the overall project is labor intensive.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Goal 1. General IT Preparation

Goal 1: Our graduates integrate IT into curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Objective
Project Activities

1.1 Our program of study adequately and appropriately addresses the roles of IT in meeting needs of under represented populations, students who are At Risk, students who have special needs, and students in small rural communities.

This objective will be met through changes in our required diversity course and law course, and by appropriately integrating IT-related materials into a variety of other required courses. In each of their required Work Samples, students will be expected to address the IT needs of under represented populations, students who are At Risk, students who have special needs, and students in small rural communities.

1.2 Our pre-education students (students who are giving thought to eventually entering a teacher education program) are given the opportunity to take non-education coursework in which the instructor appropriately integrates use of IT.

A number of faculty who teach widely-taken pre-education courses will be given training, technical support, and individual help to integrate IT into their courses. Pre-education majors will be encouraged to enroll in courses taught by this group. This project activity will be implemented both at the University of Oregon and at Lane Community College--a large CC located near the UO.

1.3 Our teacher education faculty appropriately integrates IT into their curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Each of our teacher education programs has set Objective 1.3 as a goal. The project will provide training, technical support, and individual help to learn to faculty.

1.4 Our students do their field experiences and student teaching in classrooms where the cooperating teachers integrate use of IT.

Cooperating teachers will receive training, technical support, and individual help to increase their integration of IT and in meeting the IT-learning needs of preservice students who will do field experiences and student teaching in their classrooms.

1.5 An IT assessment and remediation program is implemented for students entering our teacher education programs.

The assessment system currently under development includes both self-assessment and hands on components. The project’s Just in Time IT Support Center will provide appropriate remediation via self-study, short course, one-on-one help and other support systems to meet the needs of students who are weak in IT basic skills.

1.6 IT competency is required for graduation from our teacher licensure program.

Competency standards are currently under development. These are aligned with the State of Oregon’s Professional Growth Assessment Domains for Initial Teaching License, and draw heavily on the ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for Students and the emerging ISTE NETS for preservice teachers.

Figure 6. Goal 1: Our graduates integrate IT into curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal  

 

Goal 2. Compelling Applications

Goal 2: Our graduates are skilled in using a variety of IT applications that are commonly found to be Compelling Applications for the students they are preparing to teach.

Objectives
Project Activities

2.1 Our graduates are skilled in using the general-purpose pieces of software that are applicable across many disciplines and have been found by many people to be Compelling Applications. Examples include email, web browser, Distribution Lists, all of the components of integrated packages such as AppleWorks or Microsoft Office, and multimedia software.

A significant component of the approach here will be via setting basic IT knowledge and skills as part of the requirements for full admission in the programs. A combination of self-assessment, portfolio assessment, and hands-on assessment will be used to identify areas in which preservice teachers need additional work early in their program of study. This work will be individualized, making use of self-instructional and Distance Learning materials. Instruction in and use of multimedia will be integrated into several of the required courses in the program of study.

2.2 Graduates from our regular education and special education Middle School/Secondary School programs are skilled in using a variety of the subject-specific computer applications that have been found to be Compelling Applications in these disciplines.

We will use two approaches to meet this objective. First, we will work to increase the appropriate use of IT in a number of pre-education courses that our students take. Second, we will incorporate the study of such software into the subject-specific methods courses (such as Math Methods, Science Methods, etc.)

2.3 Our graduates are skilled in using a variety of IT applications that many teachers feel are Compelling Applications in their own professional work and development.

Typical IT applications falling into this category include grade books, test generators, desktop presentation systems, staff development presented via web-based Distance Learning, and job-alike or subject-specific Distribution Lists and threaded discussions. All will be emphasized by integration into courses and through our Internet-based Professional Support System.

Figure 7. Goal 2: Our graduates are skilled in using a variety of IT Compelling Applications.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal  

 

Goal 3. IT and the Science of Teaching and Learning

Goal 3: Our graduates make effective use of IT-related finding in the Science of Teaching and Learning.

Objectives
Project Activities

3.1 Our graduates know roles of IT as an aid to problem solving and as an aid to transfer of learning in problem solving. They know how to incorporate these aspects of transfer of learning into their teaching.

The project will work individually with staff teaching each of the required courses in the teacher education program. Roles of IT in helping to represent and solve the problems of the course area discipline, and in transfer of learning, will be explored. Faculty will receive individual help in implementing appropriate changes to their courses. In addition, problem solving and transfer of learning will be given increased attention in required IT courses.

3.2 Our graduates know roles of IT as a personal aid to learning and to developing expertise, and know how to help their students learning to use IT as an aid to learning and developing expertise (Scardamalia & Breiter, 1996).

The major focus will be on learning to make use of web-based Distant Learning and learning to appropriately incorporate use of IT in project-based learning activities designed to help students develop expertise in a particular area. Instruction and assignments in these areas will be build into a number of the required courses, using the same approach described above. In addition, the Just in Time IT Support Center will make extensive use of Distance Learning and other self-instruction modules.

Figure 8. Goal 3: Our graduates make effective use of IT-related finding in SoTL.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Goal 4. Professional Support via Internet

Goal 4: A Professional Support System is available to our students and graduates.

Objectives
Project Activities

4.1 A system of human and web-based advising provides IT-related support to pre-education students. Students have access to a web-based system to assess their own levels of expertise in IT.

A web and human-based advising system will be implemented that guides pre-education students into volunteer experiences, course experiences, and work experiences that will increase their IT knowledge and skills. An IT self-assessment will be made available, with suggestions for remediation.

4.2 An Internet-based system, using the web, Distribution Lists, and threaded discussion groups supports the emerging professional needs of our preservice teachers and aids in meeting their Continuing Professional Development needs as they begin their professional careers.

An Internet-based system will be developed. It will consist of a Web site, threaded discussion groups, and email Distribution Lists. It will include highly experienced inservice teachers, some of our recent graduates, our preservice teachers, mentors from the UO College of Education, school administrators, and faculty-level mentors from outside the College of Education.

4.3 The State of Oregon has increased and more explicitly stated IT requirements for preservice teachers.

.

The Teachers Standards and Practices Commission has expressed interest in working with the PTTT project and to consider possible integration of emerging ISTE NETS for Teachers into requirements for initial licensure The project will work with Oregon’s Proficiency-bases Assessment System (PASS) project, which is being phased in as the system to be used for college admission into the Oregon University System PASS is in the P3 Consortium.

Figure 9. Goal 4: A Professional Support System is available to our students and graduates.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal  

 

Sustainability of Design

The overall design is based on making substantial changes to our current program--in a manner that can be sustained after funding ends. In brief summary this is accomplished by:

  1. Developing IT requirements for Full Admission into the teacher education programs. Once these are institutionalized, they can be easily updated from year to year, as more and more of the incoming students meet the IT standards being defined by their individual states.
  2. Developing a Just in Time IT Support Center for students and faculty. This component of the proposal came from the Dean of the College of Education, and he has indicated commitment to its continuation after grant funding ends. His commitment is shown in the substantial nonfederal funds he has committed to the development of this Support Center.
  3. A number of teachers of pre-education courses will receive training and help in integrating the use of IT into their courses. Such courses are self-sustaining once the faculty get used to teaching in this manner. The listing and description of these special sections of courses will become part of the College of Education's web site.
  4. A number of cooperating/mentor teachers will become more adept at integrating IT into their teaching and in working with preservice teachers. The pool of such cooperating teachers will grow over time through the inservice efforts of the local school districts and through the growing number of well IT-prepared new teachers entering the profession.
  5. Modifying the required teacher education courses so that they appropriately integrate IT, and preparing the current faculty to teach these courses. Once these changes are in place, newly hired faculty will be expected to integrate IT in these required courses.
  6. Implementation of IT requirements for graduation. A mechanism will be developed and implemented that assesses the IT preparation of graduating students, and ensures that they are prepared to integrate use of IT into curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The acceptance and implementation of high standards tends to be self-sustaining. Progress toward increasing the State of Oregon IT requirements for teacher licensure will also contribute to sustaining implementation of the local standards being developed.
  7. The project will set up an Internet-base professional support system (web, email, Distribution Lists) that that include Master Teachers, School Administrators (drawing upon our Administrative Licensure programs), subject matter specialists, and graduates of our program. Use of this system will be built into our curriculum. The system will be designed so that it can continue to function at minimal cost once it is well established.
  8. This proposal does not request funds for hardware or connectivity, and requests only small amounts for software. The focus on Compelling Applications means that it requires relatively modest expenditures to maintain and upgrade the software collection in the years after the grant funding ends. The letter of support from the Dean of the College of Education commits to this continuation.

 Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Adequacy of Resources

This PT3 project builds upon and extends the work of the current Capacity Building project at the University of Oregon. Work on the current project has given us good insight into the nature and extent of resources needed to accomplish the goals specified for the Implementation project.

Six major achievements of the current Capacity Building project have been: 1) Planning for and initial development work on a Just in Time IT Support Center and other support to students and faculty. 2) Initial work on developing IT assessment instruments to be used at a pre-admission or prior to the start of the first term of study. 3) Development of and initial work in implementing a strategic plan that will lead to all of our graduates being well prepared in IT. 4) Development of a web site to support IT in education, and initial experimentation with having our more IT-advanced students making contributions to this web site as part of their required coursework; 5) Progress on increasing the level of integrating IT into the courses required of preservice teachers. 6) Working with local school districts and the field placement personnel to significantly increase IT opportunities for preservice teachers in practicums and student teaching.

The success of the Capacity Building project demonstrates that the consortium partnership members have the resources needed to facilitate and implement this type of teacher education improvement program. In addition, the Consortium for this PT3 Implementation project has been substantially expanded from the Consortium for the Capacity Building project.

Estimated Resources Allocated to Each Goal (Figure 10) contains estimates of the dollar resources and the percentages of resources devoted to each of the four goals of the project during each year of the project. Approximately 60% of all resources (requested Federal funds plus the non-Federal match) are devoted to Goal 1, while the remainder of the resources are distributed approximately evenly over the other three goals. This makes sense, because Goal 1 focuses most directly improving the ability of our graduates to integrate IT into their teaching.

 

 

Figure 10. Resources devoted to each of the four major goals of the project.

 

Adequacy of Support

The University of Oregon (UO) is the Lead Organization for this project. The UO has a strong commitment to professional training and research, and it is the only Oregon member of the Association of American Universities. The UO and its College of Education facilities provide excellent classroom, office, conference, and research facilities. A fiber optic system provides high-speed connectivity within the UO and to all of the consortium partners.

The UO participates in the statewide communications system known as ED-NET, enabling high speed video, audio, and data access. The UO library is the largest in the state, with over 2,500,000 items in the main library. In addition, the library is now subscribing to hundreds journals and other periodicals that are available electronically.

The UO provides all incoming students with Internet access. A wide range of short courses are available to help students develop basic skills in use of the Internet (email and Web) and other basic IT tools. The University of Oregon has excellent networking and microcomputer lab facilities. Several years ago, Yahoo! listed the UO as one of the 10 most wired campuses in the US.

 

Relevance and Demonstrated Commitment of Partners

The Dean of the College of Education has played a significant role in the development of this proposal. Form his point of view, the proposal is a representation of the planning for IT in the Teacher Education programs. One of his major contributions is for the Just in Time Support Center for students and faculty. This is consistent with and supportive of long-range plans for the College of Education.

The commitment of the College of Education at the University of Oregon is demonstrated by the letter from the Dean of the College of Education and the three-year commitment of more than $590,000 of cash and faculty release time. There are several additional letters of support from key people in the College of Education and the teacher education programs.

The remainder of the Consortium can be divided into three major components:

  1. Six local school districts, our local Educational Service District, and our local Community College. The school districts handle all of our practicum students and student teacher placements, and they represent an ongoing consortium in their own right. We have formal commitment from all of these school districts. One is unable to make a fiscal commitment because it is in a severe financial crisis. However, that district will be treated just like all of the other districts in terms of opportunities to participate in the project. Our local community college, located in Eugene, Oregon, feeds many students into the University of Oregon. A number of these eventually enter our teacher education programs
  2. The Oregon Department of Education. The Oregon Department of Education has taken a particular interest in this project because it is supportive of long-range planning and major implementation projects going on in the state. This is critical to the project, since one of the objectives is to help increase the IT standards for preservice teachers in the state. In addition, we want to disseminate project results on a statewide basis. The letter from Joyce Benjamin and the matching funds from the State of Oregon indicate a major commitment from the state to this project. In recent years the state has invested heavily in improving the telecommunications network system to schools and in a Database Initiative that is designed to help measure performance of school systems and increase accountability. Oregon has a major commitment to standards based education.
  3. The corporate (for-profit and nonprofit) members of the Consortium were selected because of specific contributions that they are able to make that are aligned with the project goals and objectives. We are especially pleased to have the International Society for technology in Education (ISTE) as a Consortium member. ISTE is headquartered in Eugene, Oregon and has worked closely with the University of Oregon for many years.

 

Costs are Reasonable

The bulk of the requested grant funds will fall into four major categories:

It should be noted that the proposal does not request any funds for hardware. It is expected that the University of Oregon and the other participating Consortium members will supply the needed hardware. The proposal requests only a minor amount of funds for software. The various corporate members of the consortium will supply additional software.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Management Plan

This section contains a Project Staff Loading Charts (Part 1 and Part 2; see Figure 11). This Project Staff Loading Chart lists all of the goals and objectives of the project, and it provides detail of what each of the project staff will do on each objective. The chart provide details on the "who, what, where, when, why" and expected outcomes, and they cover all three years of the project.

The project management team consists of Dr. David Moursund, Dr. Irene Smith, and Dr. Sharon Yoder. This is the same team that is running the current PT3 Capacity Building project at the University of Oregon. As indicated in the Project Personnel section, all three have extensive experience in teacher education and in the field of IT in education. Dr. Moursund is the Project Director. His administrative experience includes being the Executive Officer of ISTE and one of its predecessors for 20 years, and being the PI of a number of IT in education grants.

Dr. Carolyn Knox, who has been doing teaching, research, and evaluation in IT in education for many years, will direct the formative and summative evaluation. Her location at the Center for Advanced Technology in Education on the UO campus makes her readily available for routine interaction with the project management team. She is currently heading up the evaluation on the current PT3 Capacity Building project at the University of Oregon.

The Consortium includes partners from a community college, a educational service district, and six local school districts. There will be regular face to face meetings of representatives from these partners, as well as extensive use of a Distribution List.

 

 

 

Figure 11. Project Staff Loading Chart.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

Evaluation Plan

The Quiet Revolution project will include substantial formative and summative evaluation carried out under a contract with the Center for Advanced Technology in Education, a non-instructional arm of the UO. It undertakes a variety of research and evaluation activities. It is currently the outside evaluator for a statewide Computer Literacy Challenge Fund CyberSchool project and is the outside evaluator for the current PT3 Capacity Building project at the UO.

The change theory implicit in this program invokes three forces promoting improved integration of technology in teaching:

Figure 12 depicts the logic model for this approach. The activities from the Objectives/Activities figures (Project Design Section) support the three change forces and ultimately result in improved teaching and learning.

 

Figure 12. Logic model for evaluation.

Each object in the diagram is a point at which evaluation will occur. Many project evaluations focus on only the first two columns in Figure 12. Thus, the focus is on the processes, and not on the final outcome. The evaluation of this PT3 project will move forward on all three fronts simultaneously. There will be considerable emphasis on measuring how well our students do both before they graduate and also after they graduate in integrating IT into their curriculum. (Note that a current UO Ph.D. dissertation, under the supervision of Dr. Moursund, is focusing on how some of our recent graduates are doing on integrating IT into their teaching.)

For each activity in the project, the fundamental evaluation questions are:

Three types of information will be collected throughout the program. First, much of the program will be chronicled in educational documents such as course syllabi, student work samples, and official publications. Second, evaluators will conduct interviews and observations with participants to construct of qualitative picture of effective practice. Finally, quantitative data can be derived from resource access records, assessment instruments, and from analysis of surveys and structured interviews with participants.

Figures 13-16 summarize the Project Design and contains proposed evaluation procedures for the objectives and activities.

 

Objectives

 

Activities

 

Evaluation

1.1 Revised education program of study.

IT integrated into required courses.

Students' required work samples address the IT needs of underrepresented populations.

Review of syllabi.

Classroom observations.

Review of student work samples.

1.2 Integration of technology into non-education coursework.

Faculty who teach pre-education courses given support to integrate IT.

Pre-education majors encouraged to enroll in courses taught by these faculty.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Documentation of student guidance policies.

Interviews of faculty.

1.3 Modeling of technology use by faculty.

Each of the UO teacher education programs sets IT modeling as a goal.

Training, technical support, and individual help for faculty.

Documentation of faculty commitments.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Interviews of faculty.

1.4 Field experiences in classrooms where the cooperating teachers integrate use of IT.

Cooperating teachers receive training, technical support, and individual help.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Interviews of teachers.

1.5 IT assessment and remediation program

Just in Time IT Support Center provides remediation, self-study, short-course, and other support systems.

Review of assessment procedures and results.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Interviews with preservice students.

1.6 IT competency required for graduation.

Development of competencies aligned with state and national standards

Review of competencies in relation to Oregon School Reform and National Educational Technology Standards.

Figure 13. Evaluation of Goal 1: Our graduates integrate IT.

2.1 Our graduates are skilled in using general-purpose software.

Basic IT knowledge and skills established as part of the admission requirements.

Assessment to identify areas in which preservice teachers need additional work.

Self-instructional and Distance Learning materials for remediation.

Instruction in and use of multimedia integrated into required courses.

Review of admission requirements.

Review of assessment procedures and results.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Interviews with preservice students

Review of syllabi

Classroom observations

Review of student work samples

2.2 Middle / Secondary program graduates skilled in using subject-specific applications.

IT use increased in pre-education courses.

Study of subject-specific software included in methods courses.

Review of syllabi.

Classroom observations.

Review of student work samples.

Interviews with preservice students.

2.3 Our graduates are skilled in using IT in their own professional work and development.

Common applications for teacher research, presentation, and communication will be integrated into courses and supported through the Internet-based Professional Support System.

Review of syllabi.

Classroom observations.

Review of student work samples.

Interviews with preservice students.

Figure 14. Evaluation of Goal 2: Graduates are skilled in using Compelling Applications.

3.1 Graduates can incorporate IT into teaching problem solving and teaching for transfer of learning.

Faculty teaching each of the required education courses receive individual help in implementing changes to their courses.

Problem solving and transfer of learning are given increased attention in required IT courses.

Review of syllabi.

Classroom observations.

Review of student work samples.

Interviews with preservice students.

Documentation and observation of support activities.

3.2 Graduates can use and teach IT as a personal aid to learning and to developing expertise.

Required courses incorporate Web-based Distant Learning and use of IT in project-based activities designed to help students develop expertise in a particular area.

The Just in Time IT Support Center makes extensive use of Distance Learning and other self-instruction modules.

Review of syllabi.

Classroom observations.

Review of student work samples

Interviews of preservice students

Documentation and observation of support activities.

Figure 15. Evaluation of Goal 3: Our graduates use IT in SoTL

4.1 Human and web-based advising provides IT-related support to pre-education students.

A web and face-to-face advising system guides pre-education students into volunteer experiences, courses, and work experiences that increase their IT knowledge and skills.

Interviews of preservice students.

Documentation and observation of counseling activities

4.2 Preservice teachers receive support during field experiences and as they begin their careers.

A Web site, threaded discussion groups, and email lists are available to preservice students and graduates.

Documentation of network resource use.

Interviews of preservice students and recent graduates

4.3 The State of Oregon increases IT requirements for education graduates.

The project works with Oregon’s Teachers Standards and Practices Commission to encourage adoption of National Educational Technology Standards.

Documentation of project input to Teachers Standards and Practices Commission.

Review of state policies.

Figure 16. Evaluation of Goal 4: A Professional Support System is available.

As the Project Design Figure 5 indicates, 85% of the project resources are targeted at the time in a teacher's career up to the point where he or she begins professional work in the classroom. The time frame of the PT3 program is such that we will have only limited opportunity to evaluate impact in the K-12 schools of our teacher graduates. However, we will have the opportunity to gather information from our preservice teachers as they do their student teaching, and to track some of them as they move into their first jobs. Also, the PT3 program will result in an infrastructure of online connections that will allow the University to receive feedback from its graduates and continuously improve its teacher training efforts beyond the PT3 grant period. Finally, the new Database Initiative in the State of Oregon is just coming on line for all schools. It will make it possible to track performance of individual teachers and their students. Part of the State of Oregon's contribution to this PT3 project is that they will track the UO graduates to see if the extra emphasis on IT preparation is visible in the performance.

 

Dissemination

This project will implement a number of ideas that are of potential statewide and nationwide interest. Dissemination will, of course, occur through the national PT3 web site and the various PT3 meetings. Additional dissemination will occur through:

 Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

References
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 Sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher. v13, n6, pp 4-16.

Bransford, J.D.; A. L. Brown; & R.R. Cocking: editors (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Christensen, Clayton M. (1997). The innovators dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Educational Leadership (November 1998). Theme issue: How the brain learns. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Fast ForWord [Online]. Scientific Learning Corporation. Accessed: http://www.scilearn.com/.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. NY: Basic Books.

Jurema, Ana (1998). The politics of technology: Revealing meaning of computer usage in schools. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oregon.

Mayer, R.E. and Wittrock, M.C. (1996). Problem-solving transfer. In D. Berliner and R. Calfee (Ed.) Handbook of educational psychology. NY: Macmillan.

Moursund, D. and Bielefeldt, T. (1999). Will new teachers be prepared to teach in a digital age?: A national survey on information technology in teacher education. Santa Monica, CA: Milken Exchange on Educational Technology.

Moursund, D. (1999). Project-based learning using information technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

NETS (2000). National educational technology standards for students: Connecting curriculum and technology. Eugene, OR: ISTE. Available: http://www.iste.org/Standards/.

PCAST (March 1997). President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. Report to the president on the use of technology to strengthen K-12 education in the United States[Online]. Accessed: http://www.ed.gov/Technology/pubsh.html. Washington DC: Author.

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th edition). NY: The Free Press.

ROLE (November 30, 1999)). National Science Foundation program: Research on Learning and Education. [Online]. Accessed: http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?nsf0017.

Scardamalia, M. and Breiter, C. (1996). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. In T. Koschmann, (Ed.). CSCL: Theory and practice of an emerging paradigm. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

TERC. http://www.terc.edu/projects/projects.html.

 Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 
Budget

Budget Notes and Budget Details have been Omitted from this Web Site

 

 

Appendices

1. Consortium Members List and Budget Summary

Budget Notes and Budget Details have been Omitted from this Web Site

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

 

2. Consortium Member ID Form and Cost Share Worksheet

This section contains cost share worksheets and a number of letters of support. There are two especially important letters. One is from Marty Kaufman, Dean of the College of Education. It shows the alignment between this project and the IT goals of the College of Education. The College of Education is making a huge commitment to this project. The second is from Stan Bunn, Superintendent of Public Instruction for the State of Oregon. The State of Oregon is making a huge commitment to this project because it aligns with the state goals.

The materials in this section are organized in the order that the Consortium members are listed in the Consortium Members List and Budget Summary

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

 

3. Project Personnel

Dr. David Moursund

Dr. Moursund is Professor, College of Education, University of Oregon and Executive Officer for Research, Development, and Evaluation, International Society for Technology in Education

College of Education

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Phone: 541-346-3564

Fax: 541-346-5174

Email: moursund@oregon.uoregon.edu

 

Dr. Moursund has been teaching , doing research, and writing in the field of IT in education for more than 30 years. He founded the International Council for Computers in Education, which later merged with the International Association for Computers in Education to form the International Society for Technology in Education. He founded The Computing Teacher which since has been renamed Learning and Leading with Technology, and is ISTE's flagship publication. He served as ISTE's Executive Officer from 1989 until 1998.

Dr. Moursund is a well-recognized national leader in IT in education. He is author or co-author of 30 books and many hundreds of articles in this field. He has been the major professor or co-major professor of more than 70 doctorate students in the field of IT in education. He is currently a member of the Department of Education's Expert Technology Panel that is working to identify Promising and Exemplary IT projects from throughout the US. At the 1999 National Educational Computing Conference he received recognition both as a Pioneer in the field of IT in education, and also for his many years of service to NECC.

 

Dr. Irene Smith

Adjunct Instructor: College of Education, University of Oregon; Staff&endash;-Research, Development and Evaluation, International Society for Technology in Education.

College of Education

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Phone: 541-346-3472

 

Email: smithire@oregon.uoregon.edu

Dr. Smith has been an educator for thirty years. She taught high school mathematics in the public school system in British Columbia for twenty years. Since arriving in Oregon, she has taught a variety of technology based classes at the University of Oregon and Lane Community College in Eugene, Oregon. In addition, she has served as the computer coordinator for Lane Educational Service District.

Dr. Smith has been working with Intel and ISTE developing the educational program The Journey Inside: The Computer. In addition to being responsible for the writing, production and layout of the material she has provided training sessions to teachers wanting to use the program. She has been editor and writer for The Journey Inside newsletter produced by Intel Corporation to support the ongoing use of the program.

Dr. Smith has aided ISTE in the development of curriculum for distance education classes, served as an instructor, and provided technical and content editing services for technology based materials. She continues to provide technology support and consulting services to ISTE staff and educators. In addition, she is the co-author of a number of books and articles written for use in educational settings.

 

Dr. Sharon Yoder

Senior Instructor, College of Education, University of Oregon

Education 130

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Phone 541-346-2190

Email: skyoder@oregon.uoregon.edu

Dr. Yoder's professional career has encompassed teaching in the public schools, doing inservice training, working in the private sector, and teaching at the university level. Dr. Yoder began her career in the public schools teaching mathematics at the secondary level. Her long-standing interest in computer technology led to her spearheading the development of a computer education program in the Wooster City School System (Ohio), eventually becoming the Computer Coordinator for that school system.

During her tenure with the Wooster City Schools, Dr. Yoder planned and provided much of the inservice training for technology. In addition, during the mid-1980's she taught computer education courses at a number of universities in northeast Ohio. After some 13 years in the public school system, Dr. Yoder briefly moved to the private sector. In this environment she developed training materials and provided inservice training, primarily at conferences throughout the United States and Canada.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s Dr. Yoder authored many articles and books designed to assist educators in learning to use technology in the classroom. In addition, she presented many workshops and training sessions at local and national conferences.

In the late 1980s, Dr. Yoder moved to the University of Oregon where she taught numerous courses required of students receiving master's and doctoral degrees in technology education. More recently her focus has been on coursework preparing undergraduate preservice teachers to use technology. In addition to teaching stand-alone technology courses, Dr. Yoder works extensively with other faculty in the College of Education helping them integrate technology into their courses. She continues to develop materials to train teachers. These materials are used both in her courses and by other faculty members in their courses.

 

Dr. Carolyn Knox

Center for Advanced Technology in Education

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Carolyn Know has a doctorate in the field of computers in education, where her dissertation focused on used of artificial intelligence in education. She has been a computer coordinator at Willamette university. She has taught a wide range of computer in education classes to preservice and inservice teachers.

Carolyn is a researcher whose focus is mainly on disadvantaged students. One of her current projects is use of a laptop networked system to aid ESL students in note taking in class.

Carolyn is the Evaluator for the current PTTT Capacity Building project at the University of Oregon.

 

Dr. Michael Posner

Cognitive Lab

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Phone: 541-346-4939

Email: mposner@oregon.uoregon.edu

Dr. Posner is a member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has served as Director of the Institute of Cognitive and Decision Sciences and as the Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Oregon. He is one of the top people in the world in doing brain research on "attention." This is fundamental to understanding how the brain functions as it focuses on learning tasks.

Dr. Posner is an outstanding teacher, and received the Ersted Award at the University of Oregon for the quality of his teaching.

Dr. Posner is currently on leave from the University of Oregon, working at Cornell. There, he has been a founder of the Sackler Institute and is the Director of this institute which does brain research related to improving education. More generally, Dr. Posner works in the areas of Development of Attention and High Level Skills. One of his recent papers is:

Posner, M.I. & McCandliss, B.D. (1999). Brain circuitry during reading. In R. Klein & P. McMullen (Eds) Converging methods for understanding reading and dyslexia. Cambridge:MIT Press page 305-337

During the period of the PT3 project, Dr. Posner will be working at the University of Oregon. He has agreed to serve as an unpaid consultant to the project, and has already helped to guide the development of this project.

 

Dr. Robert Sylwester

College of Education

University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403

Phone: 541-346-2446

Email: bobsyl@oregon.uoregon.edu

Dr. Robert Sylwester is an Emeritus Professor of Education at the University of Oregon. For many years his teaching, research, writing, and conference presentations have focused on the educational implications of new developments in science and technology, with a special emphasis on brain theory. He has written several books and over 150 journal articles. His most recent book are A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management (2000, Corwin), and Student Brains, School Issues (1998, Simon and Schuster/Skylight).

The Education Press Association of America gave him Distinguished Achievement Awards for his 1994 and 1995 syntheses of cognitive science research, published in Educational Leadership. He has made over 1,200 conference and inservice presentations on educationally developments in brain/stress theory and research, He writes a monthly column for the Internet magazine, www.BrainConnection.com.

Dr. Sylwester has been the co-major professor (with Dr. Moursund, the Director of this PT3 project) on several doctoral students working in IT in education. IN addition, he and Dr. Moursund have presented joint workshops, combining brain theory and IT ideas in education. Dr. Sylwester has volunteered his services as an unpaid consultant to the PT3 project.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

 

4. Equitable Access and Participation

The University of Oregon is an equal access employer committed to providing equal access to all potential employees and project participants. Project staff will design participant identification and selection procedures that are inclusive, rather than exclusive, and focused only on the conditions necessary for successful implementation of the project.

All consortium members are also equal opportunity employers and do not discriminate in either hiring or in selecting sites for preservice teacher field experiences.

Since 1990, the College of Education at the University of Oregon has had a plan for the recruitment and retention of minority students. This plan has been updated several times. Each of the teacher education programs is strongly proactive in both recruitment and retention of minority students.

Beginning of the PTTT Grant Proposal

 

 

5. Private School Participation

Students applying for admission to our preservice teacher education programs are expected to have had a variety of volunteer and other work experiences that are relevant to becoming a teacher.

A number of our pre-education students do volunteer work in the various private schools in the greater Eugene area. In such settings, they work with a "cooperating/mentoring teacher," much in the manner that they will later work with cooperating teachers as they do their field experience work and practice teaching work required in the preservice teacher education program. (The State of Oregon requires that these field experience and student teaching activities be carried out in public schools.)

This PT3 project will define the term "cooperating/mentoring teacher" to include both the private school teachers who supervise pre-education and preservice teachers doing volunteer work, and the public school teachers who work with preservice teachers in required school-based field experiences. Both private school and public school cooperating teachers will be eligible to participate in training offered by the PT3 project and all of the other support structure that the project offers to cooperating teachers. We will actively recruit private school teachers as participants in our Internet-based Professional Support System this is designed to meet needs of pre-education students, preservice education students, and beginning teachers.

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