A computer is a machine designed for the input, storage,
processing, and retrieval of information. ICT includes of
general purpose and limited purpose computers and
computerized devices. It includes connectivity among the
devices and with people. It includes:
1. Effective Procedure (Can also be called a
An Effective Procedure is a detailed step-by-step set
of instructions that can be mechanically interpreted and
carried out by a specified agent, such as a computer
and/or or automated equipment.
Procedural thinking includes developing, representing,
testing, and debugging procedures, and using them to
solve problems and accomplish tasks.
The concept of Effective Procedure lies at the very
heart of the field of Computer and Information Science
(Computer Science). Two points to make:
- An Effective Procedure may or may not accomplish
its intended goal. (This is a place to insert the
ideas of an algorithm versus a heuristic.)
- The theory and practice of developing, testing,
and "proving" Effective Procedures is quite
mathematical in nature.
For many years, we have been in a trend toward
students learning less about the development and use of
Effective Procedures, and of procedural thinking.
From a math education point of view, one of the things
we want students to learn to do is to identify
reoccurring and repetitious tasks that they are carrying
out as they work to solve a mathematics problem or
accomplish a mathematics task. The chances are that a
calculator or a computer can be used to help automate
this activity, doing it both faster and more
2. Human-Machine Interface
A "good" interface saves a lot of time and effort on
the part of the learner/user.
We all understand the significance of the development
of the graphical user interface (GUI) that includes the
We are just at the beginnings of routine use of voice
and virtual reality as part of the human/machine