Note "the deal" on p. 27

FreiKorps. a few words: normallly, a constitution authorizes and regulates the management of armed forces [police, army, etc., but what happens when the central govt cannot or will no take action? Insurrection? or ] vs. armed citizens seeking to defend themselves?

Chapter 3: 1919

  1. Consider the variety of pressures on the government in 1919
    1. external ontinuing Allied blockade led to deaths of 700,000 children, civilians in 6 months after war.
    2. internal: [36]
      1. Among the poeple Problems in January: embittered soldiers, refugees, cold and hunger; the influenza; but, he high-life continues (profiteers, their girls, cabaret life. street fighting and competition for prettiest legs.
      2. For and against the new government: Note the varieties of socialism
        1. 38. Noske (the bloodhound). A socialist ally of Ebert: socialism meant rising from poverty and sharing the glories of the Empire; Germany had right to colonies, a militant nationalist. = national socialist ?? and an effective party organizer.
        2. the development of Freikorps; forces to combat disintegration of old regiments; "storm battalions" of disciplined and loyal vets. short term inlistment in private army, but vote for deputies. personal oaths [38]of loyalty to the govt of Ebert. formation of 100s of such warrior bands, loyal to no one but their unit commanders, but Ebert feared a communist putsch even more, but why?. Freikorps opposed to naval forces around the police building. The Deal at work; Ebert ready to tolerate much to defend the status quo. Up to 200 bands [39]
        3. 40-2. Leftist call for mass protests. that might lead to revolution, Liebknecht's desire to be the German Lenin. Depose Ebert's govt., set up soviets, hand out arms. 41-3.
        4. Open warfare in city in January. People rushing about in confusion and chaos, but gunfire everywhere. anarchy and total unawareness of what was happening elsewhere. 44.
      3. Restoration of order: Freikorps seize police station, summary executions now up to 1000. 45 Liebknecht and Luxembourg found and excuted, perpetrators not punished.-what does this suggest about the future of law and order? 47 Election results: read and analyze. Eberts program: "national sovereignty (so long in the hands of the Hohenzollerns) could not be inherited by the self-appointed revolutionary groups in Berlin , but only by the German people as a whole.
    3. The new constitution 48. Weimar : end of Kaiserism. renew the nation (Ebert). Qualities of the constitution : strong president elected by the whole people, chancellor for the legislature, minority interests protected through proportional representation; autonomy of provinces. Read critique : of qualities [48] and of realities [49]. In general , no Consensus 49.
    4. General Strike by left as last ditch putsch.-no other way to overcome middle class inertia [52]. Ebert and cabinet authorized force [freikorps??]to put it down. Battle in the streets in March.52. thousands killed, but Spartacus movement dead.
  2. the Versailles Treaty. 53. Nov armistice only, but Germany could not fight on. Terms: on this page.54. govt threatens to resign rather than sign. a humiliating peace. Esp the guilt clauses and the loss of territory. Resistence impossible.
  3. 56. Science, Einstein, and eclipse.

Chapter 4: 1920 Revolution from the left had failed when the Socialists under Ebert rejected and then suppressed the extreme leftist Spartacists. Now begins the counter revolution from the extreme right.

  1. Conspiracy: to overthrow government. Role of Freikorps in mix? Aristocratic contempt for republic (59, cf. Florence). Why was government hated? For signing Versailles treaty, and for raising taxes situation and printing money[60]. Why necessary? Attempted assassination of Erzberger, but note the assassin got off easily...why? Kapp Putsch...note tension between government and the regular army as the nationalists (Kapp, et al.) plot. Remember "the deal" concluded on p.27. Government flees Berlin.
  2. Culture:
    1. Film: what did the public want? sex and spectacle? To what extent does film reflect the status of society? [66] or does it affect the public order? The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari: zombies, murder, the use of expressionist painter to design sets heightened the insane distortion, and the use of hypnotic power to force his will upon his tool. READ 67 top. A premonition of things to come? Psycholanalysis: at the newly opened Berlin
    2. Psycholanalytic Inst. The beginning of a system of standardized training. But why Berlin[74-5]? and not Vienna?
  3. The government
    1. proclaims general strike and then flees. The city shuts down... But what was the goal of the putsch (p. 70)? Could the nationalists and socialists find common ground? Unwilling to shoot anyone, the govt leaders let the armed putsch collapse and march out of Berlin and receive a bonus..
    2. Ebert has new chance to reform army and civil service and to base power more on labor unions and less on the Freikorps. Sources of power/authority??? Failed...why [76]. Paid freikorps the promised bonus (for its attempted putsch!!!) and removed Noske, but why so lenient? socialist unions could not control their radical minority: The Red Ruhr army of 50,000 attacked regular army. Freikorps and Red Army ready for war. Election results (77) show trend to extremist positions at cost of the middle.--Reichtag without a pro-democratic majority.

Chapter 5 1921

  1. von Seekt and the new army.. "to break the treaty in any way he could" [80-1]. Respect the constitution but plan for next war (already!! note citation on 80 middle about mobile command). Next war considered "inevitable". Note the mutual cynicism in selecting Russia, the Bolschevik enemy and at the same time he was actively engaged in suppressing German communism
  2. the russians in Berlin: [82]. monarchist, anarchists, poets, businessmen --all seeking sanctuary. 17 russian publishers started. "free exchange between those who fled and thoe who made their peace with. Eisenstein, Kandinsky, Pavlova, Piatigorsky....why did they leave? and why to Berlin? Nabokov...sudden and absurd death as a theme. ...his novels(90) a paradigm of the city's self-indulgent upper middle class. Culturally productive. Russian revolution as prelude to German, .direct Soviet encouragement of revolutionaries.and the Germans feared the consequences (94)..application of terror against "classes whom history has sentenced to death...possibility of alliance of Russia and GErmany, however, absurd! full of militany Russian reactionaries.
  3. protocols of the Elders of Zion. and the emergence of an anti Russian sentiment. " overthrow all states and religions, but such tricks as democracy and socialism, and to replace them with a world wide Jewish empire