Retrospective: Factors favoring cultural achievement:
- economic / commercial/ communal: prosperity, appreciation for quality in the workmanship / artisanal, discretionary income, savings
- tradition of public discussion and free speech; and civic participation of projects [ [baptistry, cathedral], the role of the commune and private parties in this proecsss.
- educational level of a critical mass of citizens [even if purely funtional], religion yes, but still minimal role of the church and university in artistic production, access to different cultural traditions, social mobility, rewards in public prestige for achievement
- patronage of the arts: church...community..or the nouveaux riches the chance to invest in art and legitimize social position.
Factors discouraging??? The "old order"; and alliance of "Throne and altar"? eine cristliche Weltanschauung defined by an established church? Too much licence? Too little moderation and self-control? the weakness of the middle class?
Images of Weimar Berlin
- Sei lieb zu mir [Sprechgesang, a popular technique in the 20s and 30s]
- A movie to watch, modern but nonetheless revealing: Das Weisse Band ['The White Ribbon'] about village life in Germany on the eve of WW1. Available at Amazon.
- Maps of the period. Germany before 1914, after 1919 ; alternatively
Graf Harry Kessler, E. Munch; and again
Suburban/village Life. village
What was lost: images from the period before WW1 "There was peace and order, and a respect for traditional values, eine christliche Weltanschauung" :
- Public life: Bismarck; the fleet; emperor
women's suffrage; parade; parade2; the palace (Stadtschloss).Chancellery. Elections 1912 . How a German Professor looked: Theodore Mommsen Nobel Prize winner.
- Commerce and industry: industrial
growth; machines; xray;
; factory ; factory2; PotsdamerPlatz1914
- City scenes: dresden; better homes; leipziger platz; brandenburgertor; industry;
the public garden; take the bus or drink a beer or eat a "wurst". Streets: 1885 ; 1896 ; 1898; 2005a; 2005b und damals . Markt At the beach or on the "underground";
- Private life:
- family: familyfest; but note the secessionist tradition. an imperial family; family; baptism1, baptism2, 1st-schoolday1; 1stschoolday2 ;children; confirmation1; confirmation2; lehrling1 and lehrling2; weddingparental-advice1 and parental advice2; student, school trip; girlswork; women's work ; young workers ; verlobung; hochzeit1 and hochzeit2 ; the unwed mother; goldenerhochzeit1; daysofourlives-man; daysofourlives-woman, recruits. Students 50years later.
- housing: bath1; bath2; hinterhof; mietkaserne1; hiring help; modernwoman; the electronic kitchen.
The War began with much patriotism.
The venue for SSR-P Romanische Cafe one and two
"Forces at Work" As the old order crumbled, new forces emerge
- A divided left: Social Democrats [tho 'internationalists' had been coopted into the war effort, and had to take the blame for Versailles, Communists / Sparticists; workers. Revolutionaries and bourgeois
- a Christian middle; Zentrum, civil servants...also tainted by complicity in the failed war and peace.
- Nostalgia for the prosperous and stable past remains a powerful countervailing force.
- Right also divided: Nationalists, monarchists, Junkers. All of whom denied responsibility for losing the war; most of whom were already seeking a replay.
- NOTE: not class distinctions: there were wealthy and poor nationalists; wealthy and poor socialists. For the most part the middle class will remain on the sidelines.
- The armed forces & police: officers vs. rank and file.
- Sailors revolt. ==> paramilitary groups emerge on far left and on far right.
- Creations of a Soviet Republic of Germany? so Liebknecht: officers to be elected, debts cancelled, property re-distributed.
Events and Propaganda: the context...