Evaluative response (positive or negative
feeling state) that typically includes subjective
experience, physiological arousal, and
Distinguished from MOOD (421):
Relatively extended emotional states that, unlike
emotions, typically do not shift attention or
disrupt ongoing activities.
Hierarchy (Fig 11.7)
Time connection (p. 421)
Present: Joy, distress
Future: Hope, fear
Past: Guilt, grief
Applying the ABC trilogy to sort out emotion theories:
Jump, Leap ... become joyous
"Smile --> be happy; Run--> be scared" theory
Peripheral nervous system (see pp. 86-89; Fig.
3.6) responds to stimulus in environment;
emotion is the subjective experience of
physiological state & action (body/behavior)
Stimulus --> B response --> A experience
Coincident Behavior & experience
Dual response theory: Stimulus elicits body/
behavior reaction & emotional reaction
Stimulus --> B response [slower]
Stimulus --> A response [faster]
Based on presumption that physiological state
of arousal is "generic," & can be associated with
many different emotions. Thus person must
interpret their own arousal, and find a meaning
that corresponds to a particular emotion.
Stimulus-->B response-->C interpretation--> A
Experiments evoked arousal and then
demonstrated that subjects interpreted that
arousal as different emotions based on behavior
of a confederate (p. 420-421)
Hemispheric association with negative &
positive affect & left dominance for emotional
processing (Fig. 11.9):
Right brain (NOTE: corresponds to Left side of body)-->dominant in
processing emotional cues and producing facial
Left (right hand) -> "approach" emotions: pleasant, positive
Right (left hand) -> "avoid" emotions: negative
Dual neural pathways for processing emotion
Thalamus--> Amygdala (FAST)--> A & B
Thalamus--> Cortex (SLOW) --> C interpretation
Thalamus: Relay station for information from
the sensory systems. Information goes from
thalamus to the cortex for processing.
Amygdala: specializes in emotional
memory--the emotional qualities associated
with a particular memory. Located in
subcortical areas inside the temporal lobes.
Hippocampus: narrative memory and context.
Frontal (prefrontal is just another word for
frontal) lobes: planning & organizing actions
and responses, including emotional responses.
Double pathways from thalamus to frontal
cortex and direct to amygdala mean that you can
have an emotional response (mediated by the
amygdala) BEFORE the thinking cortex has a
chance to process the information.
Note: This supports the Cannon-Bard intuition
about dual pathways. How does it connect to Schachter-Singer and
What can you do to handle stress in your life?
1. Acknowledge & examine your feelings.
Write about stressful events and feelings. Talk
about them with a friend or counselor.
(P. 409, Pennebaker 1992 study)
2. Exercise helps relieve stress (p. 435) Why? [consider the
flight-fight reaction and its role in stress]
3. Longer term strategy for coping (p. 437)