U - u

u   Letter representing the Maa high back advanced tongue root vowel /u/.

ʉ   Letter representing the Maa high back non-advanced tongue root vowel /ʊ/.

u- [North]   pn.b. [North] Variant of second person subject prefix occurring on verbs with a back stem vowel in the first syllable. Múntókì ainyoyíé mpúlîâ. Stop throwing up (disturbing, causing) dust. (SN). See: ɨ- Second person subject pronominal prefix.

-u   In some suffixed forms: -un. asp. Inceptive aspect: will become, can become. Néyiolouní áàjò eétuo ɛnadúóó âŋ It will be known that the afore-mentioned family has come [to look for a girl to marry]. LING: For the most part, Inceptive aspect only occurs on stative verbs, either inherently stative roots, or derived statives carrying a Middle suffix: Kéŋóròyù. 'It can be stabbed.' (K -SN).

-ʉ́   In some suffixed forms: -ʉ́n. dir. Verbal suffix indicating that the action is done with direction towards the point of reference; Ventive. Mílotúǃ Don't comeǃ (W). Kɨ́barnʉ́ ɨlpápɨ́t lo lmelíl. We shave hair from the neck (of a donkey). Kájì eikoní tɛ̀ nɛ́gɛlʉnɨ́ ɔlaigúɛ́nànì lólpórrôr? How do they elect (choose out) the age-set leader? LING: For the most part, directional affixes only occur on active verbs. LING: Tone and ATR vary depending on surrounding sounds. See: [North] -yi Motion toward suffix; -a Motion away.

a-úáp   v. 1 • To seize. Míntokíki kʉná kɛ́râ áàùàp inkulîê tɛ̀ níŋamáà impálà. Children stop seizing papers as you wait to receive them from others. (Pk).

2 • [North] To swoop down on, as a bird.

a-uapaá   To snatch, grab quickly from someone.

a-uaparíé   To snatch from.

a-uapʉ́   1 • To snatch towards the speaker.

2 • To snatch it out of.

a-uaparí   To rush to somewhere with an intention of coming back soon.

a-uapʉ́   To snatch out of something e.g a finger from fire. See: a-ɨkɔ́ny To seize; a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To seize; a-simayie To seize.

e-úásò   n. See: e-wúásò River.

E-úásò ŋirô1   n.prop. 1 • Name of a large river flowing north from Mt. Kenya and then turning east to form the southern boundary of Samburu District, Kenya. This river, also known as the Northern Eúásò ŋirô, eventually loses itself and evaporates in the Lorian Swamp.

2 • Name of a river flowing south from Mau Narok through Narok District, Kenya. This river passes Ololulunga and Eúásò ŋirô trading center, also known as Enkiporôî 'The Scar.' it joins up with the Enkare Narok River and the Siyapei River, descending down the Inkurman Escarpment in some spectacular waterfalls. At the bottom of the Inkurman Escarpment the river changes name and is known as Enkare ŋirô 'The Brown Stream.' It flows into Lake Natron where it provides some sweet water to an otherwise alkaline lake (Mol 96 398).

é-úásò oó Nkídòŋì2   n.prop. 1 • Name of a small stream flowing south from endikir o lkiloriti [the Kikuyu Escarpment] towards oldóínyó onyokie [Mt. Suswa].

2 • Name of a stream and a trading-center about 40 km. west of ŋong, Kajiado District, Kenya. The kind of calabash referenced in this name is that used by the Il-Aiser sub-clan, known as Il-Oibónòk or In-kídòŋì. Mol calls this "The River of the Ritual Experts" because there is a sub-clan of the Il-Aiser clan called "The Calabashes" which is known for the ritual experts that come from it. See: en-kídoŋ Sub-clan of the il-aiser clan.

úátá   Nom sg: uatá. n. Fence. Kɛ́ɨ́kárà wuatá. The fences are strong. (S). See: ol-pááshíé Fence; ɛn-kɨkarrɛtá Fence; e-sitá Fence; kiónì Fence.

a-úd   v. 1 • To bore, pierce, make a hole. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàùd intóyìè inkíyiaa. The girls are having their ears pierced. Usage: In S, the main idea conveyed by a-úd is to make a hole. The word is used to describe piercing the body, or making a hole by burning with fire. The sense is less violent than that conveyed by a-irús. a-búl refers to piercing sth. that will burst or emit sth. as a result..

2 • [Purko] To inject, vaccinate. Ɛkɛ́púóí áàùd inkɛ́rà tááisérè iláditariní. Children will go to be vaccinated (injected) tomorrow by doctors. (Pk). Tɔ́bɔɨnʉ́ ɛndâ kɨ́tɛ́ŋ wúâs ɔ́ ɛ́ndâ nárɔk peê éúdí. Bring that cow with the patch on the side/belly together with that black one to be vaccinated. (Pk). Usage: áà-ùd and áà-rèm refer to giving an injection. These plural forms are usually used in an impersonal context such as when one has gone to a dispensary, clinic, or hospital and no specific person is in mind who might have given an injection. The plural form áà-ɨ̀shɔ̀ ɨl-túpaí refers to administration of intravenous medicine (lit: 'to give bottles')..

a-udú ɛnkárɛ́   To drill for water.

a-udó   v.mid. To be pierced; have a hole. Kéúdó nɨnyɛ́ ɛná mótì. This cooking pan has a hole. (Pk). See: a-rém To spear, pierce.

a-udoó   v. To betray; give out confidential information.

e-údótó   Nom sg: ɛ-udotó. Acc pl: i-udót. Nom pl: i-udót. [Purko] Acc sg: ɛn-áúdótó. [Purko] Nom sg: ɛn-audotó. [Purko] Acc pl: in-audót. [Purko] Nom pl: in-áùdòt. [North] Acc sg: údótó. n. 1 • Hole made by poking, piercing, drilling. Ɛgɨ́rà empúrùò ayɨmʉ́ ɛnáúdótó ɛ́ nkají. The smoke is coming through the hole of the house. (Pk). This can be used for a hole drilled in the ground, as when one is looking for water.

2 • Hole in earlobe.

e-údótó oó-inkiyiaa   Minor ceremony for boys and girls in which their earlobes are cut. . See: Syn = en-gúmótó Hole.

a-ɨjɨpaá   Variant: a-ujipaa. v. To follow something that is moving, or stationary but ahead; (e.g.tracking an animal, spying out the enemy, following s.o. who is several kilometers ahead); the follower might or might not be able to see the person/animal being followed. See: a-sʉ́j To follow; a-írúkúrúkòrè To follow; a-tubake To follow.

Il-úkúmâê   n.prop. A sub-clan of the Il-Aiser clan, who do not have an attribute of witchcraft.

a-uló   v. 1 • To swerve; be unstable. Ɛtɔ́tɔ́ná dúóó ɛngárɨ́ auló ɔmɛtʉ́pʉkʉ́ tɛ̀ nkoitóí. The vehicle kept swerving until it was out of the road. (Pk).

2 • To go all over the place. Míntókì doí auló aló endê, níló endê; shɔ́mɔ̀ dúóó tɔ́tɔ̀nà tɛ̀ wúéjì nébo. Stop going there, and then there; go and stay in one place. (Pk). See: a-iuló To be unstable.

a-ulú   v. To eat heavily. This is not necessarily a negative characteristic. See: a-lubó To eat heavily; a-ɨsɛpɛ́ To be greedy, gluttonous.

e-úlulû   Nom sg: e-úlulû. Acc pl: i-ululuní. Nom pl: i-úluluní. n. 1 • Bottomless pit. Mmɛɨpʉ́táí áɨ́kata inê amʉ̂ eúlulû nɛ́mɛ́ɛ́tà enkítíŋótó. You can never fill there because it is a bottomless pit. (Pk).

2 • Deep valley. Ɨ́ntapaashá ɨlashɔ́ eúlulû amʉ̂ kɛ́sʉlakínò. Prevent the calves from getting near the valley because they will fall into it. (Pk).

3 • Cave. Nɛ́jɨ̀ŋ, nɛ́malúlú eúlulû. And the monster went into the cave. (Pk). Usage: For PK, the sense of 'cave' is perhaps somewhat archaic, associated with Maa narratives rather than day-to-day language. See: ɔl-ɔdɔ́ lɛ́ nkɔ̀p The deep-most part of the earth; e-nóŋótó Valley; ɔ-yɛ́rátá Valley; ɛ-ŋɛ́rɛ́m Ditch, depression; ɔl-kɛjʉ́ Valley, river; ɛn-kápʉ́nɛ́ Cave.

a-ulúó   [North]: a-uló. v.mid. To be out of the kraal.

a-ʉ́m   v.prog. To heap together. Míntókì aʉ́m kʉnâ tokitín, ɨ́ndapashá. Do not heap these things together, spread them. (Pk). See: a-sót To heap together.

a-ʉmá   v.mid. 1 • To be heaped together.

2 • [North] To slide down, as of land-slides.

3 • [North] To reduce in size and number.

áà-ʉ̀mà   v.mid.pl. 1 • To be collected together. Eétùò ɨltʉŋaná áàʉ̀mà áàɨ̀ŋɔ̀r telepéshèn. People have collected together to watch TV.

2 • [North] To reduce in number or size.

ɛ-ʉ́mà   Nom sg: ɛ-ʉ́mâ. Variant: ɛ-ʉmâ fv Þ (PK). Acc pl: ɨ-ʉ́maí. Nom pl: ɨ-ʉ́maɨ́. n. Fork. Ɨncɔ́ɔkɨ ɛndâ ʉ́mà maitáínyíé enkiriŋó. Give me that fork so that I may use it to remove meat. (Pk). See: en-kijíkò ɔɔ́ làlà Fork.

ɛ-ʉ́mátá   Nom sg: ɛʉmátà. n. Crowd. Ɛ́gɨ́rà ɛʉmátà ɔ́ ɔltʉ́ŋáná áàpùònù àŋ. A crowd of people are coming home. (Pk).

ol-úmpuaní   n. Well.

a-ʉmʉnyɛ́   v. 1 • To come in forcefully (e.g. as when many people push into a house). Ɛgɨ́rà ɨltʉŋaná áàʉmʉ̀nyɛ̀ atúà ají. People are coming into the house forcefully. (Pk).

2 • To fall down, as from a seat.

a-ún   v.prog. 1 • To plant, erect. a-ún ɨlpáyɛk To plant maize. Ɛ́gɨ́ráɨ áàtùr ɛnkɔ́p peê euní ɨmpɔɔshɔ́. The ground is being dug so that beans can be planted. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàùn ɨlkɛɛ́k. Trees are being planted. (Pk). Ɛpɔ́kɨ́tà ɔlcátá láátuunó ɔlápà ɔshɔmɔ́. The tree that I planted last month is reviving. (W). Néúní imbókìshì. Side posts (of a house) are planted. (Pk). Kaún olpááshíé arɨ́sh olcámpà láí wólè Tinkói I will put up a fence to separate my land from Tinkoi's. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàùn ɛnk-ají. The house is being erected. (Pk).

2 • To install or graduate warriors to adulthood.

3 • To appoint a ceremonial leader called ɔlaúnònì.

a-unó   v.mid. 1 • To be planted.

2 • To be grounded, stand still.

3 • To be planted upright.

ol-otunó   The one who has planted. This is a name given to one of the leaders of a Maasai age-group. See: e-únótó Installation ceremony for warrior.

2 • Planting.

3 • Ceremonial home where Maasai warriors end their warriorhood.

ol-otunó   The one who has planted. This is a name given to one of the leaders of a Maasai age-group.

uní   Nom sg: únì. num. Three. Ɨ́nkɛ̀nɨ̀shɔ̀ sií íyíé téjò "nabô, aré, uní" oontabai ip. Do the counting saying "one, two, three" up to one hundred. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ pɔ́kʉ́rà ókuni. All three (of them) have gone. (SN). Káyieu doí nílotú sáâ uní. I want you to come at nine o'clock a.m. (Implication: There will be some major consequence or damage if you don't come at that time.) (lit: I want you indeed to come (at) three hours.) (Pk). Káyieu doí nílotú sáâ uní ɛ́ nkɛwaríé. I want you to come at nine o'clock at night. (lit: I want you to come at three hours of night.) (Pk).

okúnì   Nom sg: ókuni. Three (masc).

a-unó   v.mid. 1 • To be planted upright. Ɛgɨ́rà taá nɨnyɛ́ ɔlcánì aunó. The tree is getting planted. (Pk).

2 • To stand still; be grounded. Míntókì doí aunó, tɔ́tɔ̀nà. Stop standing still, sit down. ɛgɨ́rà taá nɨnɛ́ ɛnkají aunó. The house is standing still/The house is getting grounded.

e-únótó   Nom sg: e-unotó. Acc pl: i-unót. Nom pl: i-unót. n. 1 • Planting.

2 • Installation ceremony for warriors as they pass from warriorhood to junior elders. Following the e-únótó ceremony the men may marry.(However, the warriors are still prohibited from eating without the company of other warriors, up until the time of the aók kʉlɛ́ (in some areas known as ɛnk-áŋ ɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ) ceremony. The purpose of this taboo is to teach young men to be self-reliant rather than to depend on their mothers who mostly prepare food for their husbands and young children.). Ɛɨdɨpákɨ̀ apá eúnótó ɔɔ́ lmʉ́rràn peê ɛakʉ́ ɨlpayianí. The installation ceremony of warriors to become junior elders has taken place. (Pk). The e-únótó ceremony takes place in a specially-chosen camp that includes a total of 49 houses. The 49th house is known as osinkira, the ol-oibónì's house. During the event, warriors daily entertain the ol-oibónì. Prior to the ceremony three important leaders are chosen. ol-aigúɛ́nànì (lɛ́ nkàshè) is honored with a specially-chosen cow. ɔl-ɔbɔrʉ́ ɛn-kɛɛnɛ́ is honored with a leather strap with a knot that symbolizes his age set. By the end of warriorhood, this knot will be untied to free the warriors from their isolated world and enable them to do things independently without other age mates. ol-otunó shoulders all of his age set's sins. During the e-únótó festival. During the event, an animal horn is set on fire and warriors are forced to take a piece out before it is completely burned. No one wants to take the piece out, because whoever takes the horn out of the fire will be misfortunate throughout his life. However, if everyone refuses to take the horn out of the fire, the entire age set will be cursed.

-únyè, -únyìè1   dir voi. Suffix complex containing Motion Towards plus Instrumental Applicative.

-únyè2   asp appl. Suffix complex containing Inceptive plus Instrumental Applicative. órè doí eneyioloúnyè ɛnkɛráí enkishón é mórúáó ɛtúá where the child will know life (issues).

-ʉ́nyɛ̀   dir voi. Frozen suffix combination with Motion Toward (Ventive) plus Middle meaning. Nɛ́ɨshʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛnkátiní âî tɛ̀ ínè. My story ends there. néshukunyíêî amʉ̂ ɛɨdɨpákɨ̀. and people (indefinite) come back because they have finished. LING: TM say -ʉ́nyɛ̀ is invariably "close"; but in our data it harmonizes as a -ATR suffix. See: -ʉ́(n) Ventive; -ɛ̀ Perfective Middle suffix; -árì Motion Away plus Middle.

a-ʉpʉ́ ɨlɔmɔ́n [North]   v. [North] To speak rudely.

a-úr   v.prog. 1 • To cut sth. down; make sth. fall or slide down. áúrítò ɔlcatá. I am felling a log. (Pk). Kéúr ɛnkárɛ̀ ɛmártì. Water will make the cliff slide/fall down,

2 • To bend sth. over; droop. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ námùèì aúr enkíòk. The sick cow is drooping the ear.

3 • [North] To change direction.

4 • [North] To listen.

a-uroó   To cut down, push down. Ágɨ́rà auroó ɔlcatá. I am cutting/pushing a log down. (Pk).

a-urú   To pull down, cut down towards self. Ágɨ́rà aurú ɔlcatá. I am pulling down a log. (Pk).

a-urunyé   To fall down this way.

a-uró   v.mid. 1 • To lean or fall over. Tódùàà taá mɨ́sʉlárì amʉ̂ kéúrórì ɨ̀nà mártî. Take care so that you don't fall, because that cliff will fall over (i.e. it is weak) (Pk).

2 • To fall down (of house, etc). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkájì auró. The house is falling down. (Pk).

a-urorí   To fall down. Tódùàà taá mɨ́sʉlárì amʉ̂ kéúrórì ɨ̀nà mártî. Take care so that you don't fall, because that cliff will fall over (i.e. it is weak). (Pk). Nɛ́ɨ́kɨrɨ́kɨ́rá ɛnkɔ́p olêŋ o mɛtáa kéjó enkáji áúrori. The earth shook very much until the house is about to fall. Etuurórì télepéshèn. The television fell down. Etúúrórì ɛldɛ́ shɛ́tá tɛ̀ nkárakɛ́ ɛtamórùà. That tree has fallen because it has become old. (W).

a-urokinó   To fall, lean over onto.

a-urokinó nk-ájì   [North] To loose a wife in death. See: a-roó To make it fall down; a-batát To fall down; a-rriá To fall down. A-batatá indicates falling down while one is doing something else or accidental, e.g. a car involved in an accident; a-urorí indicates falling down when one is in a normal upright position, e.g. fainting.

a-uré   [North]: a-uríé. v.s v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To be afraid of, fear. Káure ɔltɔ́mɛ́. I fear an elephant. Euré Dórìs olásúráí. Doris is afraid of snakes. (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔuré a person who is afraid.

ol-ouré Kokóyò   Ankle.

olouré kijápɛ̀   See: kurêt Cowardly.

a-ureyú   [North]: a-urieú. v. 1 • To grow afraid of, come to fear. Ágɨ́rà aureyú ɛnâ síáì amʉ̂ kégól payé. I am growing to fear this job because it is difficult. (Pk). Áyéwuo aureyú peê adɔl ajo mmeniŋisho aké. I came to fear her when I realized she does not heed anyway. (Pk).

enk-uritisho   Nom sg: enk-úrìtìshò. n. Cowardliness ? Ɔlbáríé ɛná áyíóní tenkúrìtìshò. This cowardliness of this boy is equivalent to that of a jackal. (Pk). See: a-uré To be afraid.

a-uró(r)   v. 1 • To lean or fall over. Tódùàà taá mɨ́sʉlárì amʉ̂ kéúrórì ɨ̀nà mártî. Take care so that you don't fall, because that cliff will fall over (i.e., it is weak) (Pk).

2 • To fall (of house, etc). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkájì auró. The house is falling down. (Pk). See: a-úr To make fall.

úrò   Nom sg: úrô. Acc pl: úroí. Nom pl: úroí. n. Axe. Kéímíŋánàk kʉná úroí. These axes are blunt. See: en-tólú Axe; a-úr To fell.

a-urokinó   v.mid. 1 • To fall on, lean on or over sth. Ɛ́kɨ́gɨ́rà taá doí ɨnâ perɛ́ aurokinó. That spear is falling on you. (Pk). Míkíntókì aurokínó amʉ̂ atanauré sií nanʉ́. Stop leaning on me because I am also tired. (Pk). See: a-úr To cut sth. down.

a-urorí   v.mid. To fall (of sth. that is normally upright). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlcátá aurorí. The log is falling down. (Pk). Nɛ́ɨ́kɨrɨ́kɨ́rá ɛnkɔ̂p olêŋ o mɛtáà kéjó enkájì áúrórì. The earth shook very much until the house is about to fall. Eturórì télepéshèn. The television fell down. See: a-úr To fell; a-batát To fell, make fall down; a-itɛrrɛ́ To fall from fainting; a-sʉlarí To fall off.

a-urunyé   v.mid. To fall down "this way", towards the point of reference. Ɛ́ntɔ̀dɔ̀l doí ɔlcatá amʉ̂ ɛgɨ́rà aurunyé. Watch out for the log, because it is falling this way (towards the speaker's side). (Pk). See: a-úr To fell.

úrráúr [North]   Nom sg: urraúr. Acc pl: urraurrí. Nom pl: úrraurrí. n. [North] Earring for newly-circumcised girls. See: e-mónyórít Earring for newly-circumcised girls.

-ût   adjvz. Suffix which derives a (human propensity?) adjective from a verb. WORK ON THIS. LING: W lacks this ending.

a-ʉ́t   v. 1 • To point at, point out, show. Tʉ́ʉ̀tà ɛnkalámù lɛrâî. Point to the orange pen. Tʉ́ʉ̀tà ɛnkɔlɔ́ŋ. Point to the sun. Míkíntókì aʉ́t. Stop pointing at me. (Pk). Órè kʉná atampó náà ɨlbʉ́labʉ́l ɔɔ́ʉtʉ́ ɛncán. These clouds are signs that show it's going to rain. (W). Tʉ́ʉ̀tà ɔltápʉ̂t. Point at the ceiling! (W).

2 • To intend. Ágɨ́rà aʉ́t sií nɨnyɛ́ sukúùl ajó kálò. I am intending to go to school too. LING: This verb appears to allow raising out of the complement clause.

a-ʉtaá   1 • To direct away from reference point. Ágɨ́rà aʉtaá peê méló aké apoŋorí. I am directing him so that he does not loose the way.(Pk).

2 • To advise, instruct, show how sth. is done, with expectation that the hearer will act. Kɛ́ʉtáà ŋɔtɔnyɛ́ entíto ɛnyɛ́ peê méísèr A mother will advise her daughter so that she will not misbehave. Syn: a-ikók To advise, counsel.

a-ʉtakɨ́   1 • To point towards. Tʉ́ʉtakákɨ̀ osínkirrírì. Point to where the fish is.

2 • To show, indicate, instruct. Áagɨrá aʉtakɨ́ ɛnáíkó peê akéd ɔlcaní. She is showing me how to climb a tree. (lit: She is pointing to me that which is hung in order to climb a tree.) (Pk). Kɛ́ʉtákɨ̀ ɔlpáyìàn ɔlayíónì lɛnyɛ́ eneikoní tenéudi ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. The man will show his son how to inject a cow.

a-ʉtaríé   To show by means of sth. Áàgɨ̀rà aʉtaríé ɛmpɛ́rɛ́ ɛnyɛ́. He is directing me by using his spear. (Pk).

a-ʉtʉ́   To direct towards point of reference.

a-ʉtá   v.mid. To be cursed. Náà kɛ́átà taá doí ɛná áyíóní ɛmpúkúnotó ɔltʉ́ŋaní ɔʉ́tà. This boy has a behavior of someone who has been cursed. (Pk).

ɛ-ʉ́tárotó   Nom sg: ɛ-ʉtárotó. Acc pl: ɨ-ʉtarót. Nom pl: ɨ-ʉ́tàròt. n. Direction, instruction. See: a-ʉ́t To point.

a-ʉtʉ́   v. To direct towards point of reference. Ágɨ́rà aʉtʉ́ ɨ̀nɛ̀ nitií. I am directing him to where you are. (Pk).

a-utu'út   v.prog. To grind. Áútú'útítò. [áútúʔútítò, two initial moras] I am grinding.

e-útù'ùt   Nom sg: e-útú'ùt. Acc pl: i-utu'utí. Nom pl: i-útu'utí. n. Stone used for smoothing wood, such as in making an oriŋká. ɨncɔɔkɨ́ eútù'ùt násíkíé ɛlɛ̂ rinká. Give me a smoothing stone so that I can use it to make this club smooth. (Pk).