T - t

t   Letter representing the Maa non-impolosive voiceless alveolar stop /t/.

ta-   Variant: to-; tɔ-; te-; tɛ-; ti-; tɨ-; tʉ-. asp. 1 • asp. Perfective or perfect aspect prefix on Class I verbs, co-occurring with the suffix -a(k) (or its variant -o(k)). Áatɔnyɔ̂ ɨláɨ́sʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ́. The ants (sp.) bit me. (W). Áataanyúá néítù abáʉ́. He waited for me, and I never arrived. (W). Etápéjókì kʉnâ naaɨ́gárà áàtùmòkì. The ɛnaɨgárà pieces have been roasted nicely. (W). LING: With certain verb subclasses, the Perfect(ive) yields an inceptive sense. Ɛtáánáʉ́rɛ̀ ɛnkɛráí. The child became sleepy. (W). LING: In its Perfect(ive) function -a(k) can derive predicates from roots that are not inherently verbal. Cf:

2 • mood. Subjunctive mood (imperative) prefix on Class I verbs. Áyia shɔ́mɔ̀ naá tásàyìà ɛnkÁí. All right, go and pray to God. LING: Tone in the imperative varies between dialects. Compare the following singular imperatives with the same root: Tʉ́dʉ̀tà ɛnâ saêî ɔ́ ɛnâ nkáɨ́. Compare this bead with this other one. (K Pk). Tʉ́dʉ́tà nkitábù o nkásèt. Choose either the book or the cassette. (S). Tʉ́dʉtá/Tʉ́dʉ̀tà aná saé ɔ́ ánà nkáɨ́. Compare this (string of) beads with this other (to choose the one you want). (SN). LING: The underlying form is given as tV-, though the prefix vowel may be specified as [+ back]. The vowel harmonizes with the root vowel as follows: If the root vowel is underlying (lexically) -ATR, the prefix vowel agrees completely (aside from tone). If the root vowel is underlyingly +ATR, the prefix vowel is always [+ back]: /tu/ if the next syllable has /u/, /to/ before /i/, and /ta/ before any [-high] root vowel.

-tá   asp. Plural perfect(ive) aspect or subjunctive mood suffix. Kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́bɨ̀ ɛlɛ̂ ŋɔ́nɨ́ mmɛɨtɨamakɨ́ta inkíshú. This bull is not easily sexually aroused so it does not mount the cows. (Pk). LING: In the preceding ex. what is plural is apparently the accusative object, and not the nominaltive subject. ɨnadúóó kíshú nikítereutûâ those cows that we brought.

taá   1 • v.pf. Perfect(ive) form of the verb 'be'. Eé kɛ́sɨ́pà taá. Yes, it is true.

2 • v.subjn. Subjunctive form of the verb 'be'. Ɨnkɛ́rà áainéí ɛ́táá taá nanʉ́ inkólòŋì ánàà peê agɨlʉ́ embénéyíó. My children it is only a few days until I die. (lit: My children it is only a few days so that/until I break a leaf.).

3 • v.subjn. Imagine it could be the case that. Olcúmà taá ɛnyaálɨ̀ mɛtáà íjio ɛnkɨkɛ́! Imagine that it is the iron bar that is chewed to be like a toothbrush. LING: With taá, this sentence gives the idea of 'imagine'. Without taá, it gives the idea that 'if you chew iron, it is conceivable that you could make a toothbrush'. Íyíé taá ólò agór kɛwɔ́n. Imagine you are going to hang yourself.

4 • prt. Form of 'be' used in cleft sentences, questions, etc. indicating exclusive focus. Néjò "Káà taá kiâs?" He said, "What then shall we do?". Káà taá kiâs néínepúakɨ́ iyíóók? What are we going to do, we have been caught? (Pk). Emúóyíáà iloiŋók, kákè mayíólò ajó álɔ̂ taá ósiokí aishíú. The bulls are sick, but I don't know which one will heal first. (W). Órè taá enikinkô ámátàŋàsìè enkóítóí. So then what we are going to do is get to the footpath before them. See: áâ Be.

ɛ́-táá   [West]: ɛ-táá. v. v.aux. 1 • Perfect(ive) of áâ 'be'; to have become. Ɛ́táá taá apá tɔ́tɔ̀nà tɛná âŋ, amʉ̂ ɛ́táá apá nɨnyɛ́ ɛnkâŋ ínyi. You stay in this home because it has become your home. Ɛtáá mʉsánà ɛná mʉ́kàtɛ̀. This bread has become old. (W).

2 • To be about to become. Tʉ́mʉ̀rà shʉ́mátá ɛ́ nkají amʉ̂ ɛ́táá kɛ́shà. Plaster the roof of the house because it is about to rain. (Pk). Ɛ́ntasotú ɨmálàsìn amʉ̂ ɛ́táá kɛ́ɨ́ŋʉrákɨnɨ ɛnapá kɛ́ráí inyî ɨntaléŋò. Collect beer gourds because it is about time for your child to go through initiation. LING: This auxiliary verb does not inflect for person: Ɛ́táá kíŋórùà ɛmpɨ́dɨ́ŋ. You have looked for the back of my neck. (KS). See: a-rá To be; táà Imperative 'be'.

ɔl-táà1   Nom sg: ɔl-táâ. Acc pl: ɨl-táaí. Nom pl: ɨl-táaí. n. Lamp, bulb, lighting in vehicles. Ɨ́nuáá ɔltáà amʉ̂ kímísímís doí ájì. Light the lamp because it is dark here in the house. (Pk). See: ɛn-kɨ́láŋɛ́t Lamp; o-sitímà Power.

táà2   v.pf. v.subjn. 1 • v.subjn. Suppletive imperative form of a-akʉ́(n) 'to become'. Táà íyie ŋotó nakitéjò, níákʉ̀ íyie ŋotó leuú. You become the mother of the hare, and you the mother of the hyena. (Pk). Táà ɛmáyìàn. Become a blessing. (Pk).

2 • v.aux. Subjunctive auxiliary verb. LING: As an auxiliary ɛ́táà does not vary for person: Olesérè amʉ̂ ɛ́táá kárɛʉ. "Goodbye, because I am going to drive them away.". LING: This defective verb form does not occur in the infinitive, but only in imperative/subjunctive environments (cf. a-akʉ́ 'to become'). See: ɛ́-táá To have become, be about to become; a-akʉ́ To become.

tááisérè   [North]: téísérè. [Chamus]: táiséérè. adv. Proximate future time; tomorrow, in a few years to come. Áló Nairóbi tááisérè. I will go to Nairobi tomorrow. Áló ɛnkárɛ́ Nàrɔ̀k tááisérè tɛ́nɛ́kɛ̀nyʉ̀. I will go to Narok tomorrow. (Pk). Ɨ́kɨ́ɛ́l nkɛ́ráí téísérè. We will smear the child (with oil) tomorrow. (SN). See: idia ɔlɔ́ŋ Distal future; mɛtábaɨkɨ́ Tomorrow.

taáke   Strong warning. Taáke nɨ́lám nkɛ́rɑ áinêî. I warn you stay away from my children (daughters).

l-táâm [North]   Nom sg: l-taám. Acc pl: l-táámî. Nom pl: l-táamí. n. [North] Cylindrical big gourd with skin on both ends for storing honey, oil.

a-taaná   v. To be near. Mmɛ̂ gɨ́rà doí intárè áàtàànà ɛ́mɨdɔ́l ajó ɛntɔ́nátá ó ldóínyó iyíóók kítíí nétíí nɨ́nchɛ̀ ɛncʉ́mátá. The goats and sheep are not near; we are at the foot of the hill and they are at the top. (Pk). Ɛtatáànà doí nɨnyɛ́ eníkìpùòìtò. The place that we are going is getting closer. (Cm). See: a-taanɨkɨ́ To be near to.

ɛn-taáni   Nom sg: ɛn-táaní. n. Nearness. Éísídáí taá doí ɛntáaní amʉ̂ áítúmókì ataásà intokitín kúmòk tɛ̀ nkatá nábò. Nearness is good because you can do so many things at the same time. (Pk). See: a-taaná To be near.

taánì   Nom sg: táání. n. Someone. Eéwuo táání. Someone has come. Metíí taani. There is nobody in. ḿmè taánì no one (W).

ɔl-taánì   n. So-and-so. Etíí doí ɔltáání osíádí lóó lkerérì. So-and-so is the last in the queue. Ɛgɨ́rà oshî táatá nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɔltáání atumokí ámaâ naá enotó esíáì. So-and-so is succeeding because he has gotten a job. (Pk).

ɛn-táànì   Nom sg: ɛn-táání. Acc pl: in-taanák. Nom pl: intaanák. n. Lady who is nearby. Usage: informal. Tíakɨ́ ɛntáànì míkíncɔ̀ɔ̀ amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ nátaanɨ́kɨ̀. Tell that lady who is nearby to give (some) to you, because she is nearer. (Pk).

ɔl-táànì   Man who is nearby.

a-taanɨkɨ́   v. To be near to. Átáánɨ́kɨ̀ amʉ̂ káɨ́dɨ̀m aɨbʉ́ŋà. I am near to it because I can touch it. (Pk). Tíakɨ́ ɛntáànì míkíncɔ̀ɔ̀ amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ nátaanɨ́kɨ̀. Tell that lady who is nearby to give (some) to you, because she is nearer. (Pk).

ɛn-táápáí   Nom sg: ɛn-taapáí. Acc pl: in-táápà. Nom pl: in-táápà. n. Girl who has become pregnant before circumcision. Órè oshî ɛntáápáí naá entító nanʉtáyù mɛ́mʉ́rátà. Ɛntáápáí is a girl who becomes pregnant before circumcision. (Pk). (S) When this happens, the child is aborted and the girl moves on with her life. It appears that for this group, sex between young girls and warriors is not a shameful thing, though pregnancy before circumcision is. See: a-áp To become pregnant before circumcision; ol-turpá Child born from a girl pregnant before circumcison.

táatá   adv. 1 • Today. Óù táatá ḿmè tááisérè. Come today, not tomorrow. (Pk). Nɛ́tɔn táatá tɛ nkaɨná ɛ tatɛnɛ o lórika lɛ nkɨtɔɔ ɛ ɛ́nkAi. He sat today at the right hand of the seat of authority (throne) of God.

2 • Nowadays. Órè oshî táatá néméékúré kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. Nowadays you don't come to see me like before. (Pk).

3 • Now. See: dúóó Today; anapârr Today.

l-tabílibílì [North]   Nom sg: l-tábílibílì. n. [North] Type of insect that makes honey and looks like a bee, but bigger in size. See: [North] l-ɛ́tʉ́rŋʉ́ŋ Type of bee.

ɛn-tábóí   Nom sg: ɛn-tabóí. Acc pl: ɨn-tábò. Nom pl: ɨn-tábô. n. Shameful and evil act; major mistake; trouble. Shameful acts include abusing your father. Pɛ́shɔ̀ doí íntáyù íyíé ɛnâ sayíɛ́t inó amʉ̂ imɨ́kɨ́palákíní ɛntábóí naáíjó ɛnâ. It is useless for you to give your gift of appeasement, because you cannot be forgiven for such an evil act. (Pk). Áatɨpɨká ɛnkaí ɛntábóí. God has put me into trouble.

tádɛkɛnyá   [West]: tɛ́dɛkɛnyá. adv. Early morning; the first couple hours after the sun has risen. Óù tádɛkɛnyá amʉ̂ káànyù, kákè mílotú taá dámà amʉ̂ áɨ́dɨ́pà ɨ̀nà kátá ashɔ́mɔ̀. Come in the morning because I will wait for you, but don't come in the afternoon because I would have left by that time. (Pk). See: ɛnk-akɛnyá Morning; ɛ-nasiríé Dawn; kɛnyá Someday in the future.

Tádùàà!   v.pf v.imp. Take care! LING: Perfect(ive) and imperative form of a-dɔ́l 'to see'. See: a-dɔ́l To see.

ɔl-tagɨ́lɨgɨ́lɨ̀   Variant: ɔl-tagɨ́lɨ̀gɨ̀lɨ̀; ɔl-tágɨ́lɨ̀gɨ̀lɨ̀. Nom sg: ɔl-tágíligílì. Acc pl: ɨl-tagɨ́lɨgɨ́l. Nom pl: ɨl-tágíligíl. n. 1 • Molar or premolar; large flat tooth in back of mouth. Mmɛ́yá doí ɨlalá lɛ́kɨshɨ́á ɨltágɨ́lɨgɨ́l ɔɔ́yà.

2 • Jaw from one side of the head, either upper or lower part. Kɛ́yá ɔltágɨ́lɨ̀gɨ̀lɨ̀ mmɛ̂ ɛsɛ́dɛ́r anáà ɔlbɔ́ɔ̀ny. He took the jaw, not the cheek or the chin. (Pk). LING: The plural ɨɨl-tagɨ́lɨgɨ́l refers to any multiple set of the four possible ɔl-ttagɨ́lɨgɨ́lɨ̀, or to those from multiple animals. See: ɔl-alâɨ̂ Tooth; a-gɨ́l To break; ɨlálá lɛ́kɨshɨ́á Upper front teeth; ol-manyaálishôî Jaw; ɛ-sɛ́dɛ̀r Jaw; ɔl-bɔɔ́ny Chin.

l-tágùlè [North]   n. [North] Forearm. See: ol-tákùlè Forearm.

n-taídiidi [North]   n. [North] Robin. See: námât n-kuwúó Robin; nakʉdɛ́l Robin.

ɔl-taɨká   Nom sg: ɔl-táɨka. Acc pl: ɨl-taɨkân. Nom pl: ɨl-táɨ́kàn. [North] Acc sg: l-toiká. n. Warrior's pigtail. Ɛshɛtɨ́tà ɨrmʉ́rrân ɨltaɨkân lɛnyɛ̂. The warriors are making their pigtails. (Pk). See: l-masí Overgrown hair; sakará RECHECK from notebook.

ɛn-táìr   Nom sg: ɛn-táír. [Purko] Acc pl: in-táirí. [Purko] Nom pl: in-táirí. [North] Acc pl: n-tairrí. [North] Nom pl: n-táirrí. n. Open shoes (sandals) made from tires. Órè oshî táatá nɛ́taá intáirí eishopí imeekúré aá ɨnamʉ́kà oólonítò anáá apá. These days people wear tire sandals, not leather sandals like before. (Pk). See: ɛn-amʉ́kɛ̀ Shoe.

ɛn-tákeitá   Nom sg: ɛn-tákeitá. n. Big horn (of an animal).

takúɛ́nyà   Acc pl: ɛntákúɛ́nyà. greeting. Greeting addressed to a woman (by a man of any age to a woman, by a young woman to another young woman, or by a younger woman to an older woman). Yéíyìò, takúɛ́nyà. Mother, Hello. "Hi.". The response made to takúɛ́nyà is íkó. See: sʉ́pà Greeting.

ɛn-takʉ́là   Nom sg: ɛn-tákʉlá. Acc pl: ɨn-takɨ̀l. Nom pl: ɨn-tákʉ̀l. [North] Acc sg: tagʉ́láɨ̀. n. Cheek. See: e-sɛ́dɛ̀r Cheek.

ɛn-tákùlè   Nom sg: ɛn-tákúlè. Acc pl: ɨn-takúlen. Nom pl: ɨn-tákulén. [North] Acc sg: tágùlè. Variant: l-takule (B). n. 1 • Forearm, between the hand and the elbow. Káayá ɛntákúlè, mmɛ̂ ilkímojìk anáà olóídolól. My forearm hurts, not the fingers or the elbow.

2 • [North] Elbow. See: ol-oidólòl Elbow; en-kikokúá Elbow; rʉbát Elbow.

a-tál   v. 1 • To survey, scout, reconnoitre. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlaɨkɨ́tàk áàtàl ɛnkɔ́p. The scouts have gone to scout the land. (Pk). Shɔ́mɔ̀ tátàlà ìnè peê tɛ̀ nélèŋ níkipuonú adúrìè inkíshú. Go and survey there, if you find it green enough with pasture then we can take the cows. (Pk).

2 • To check. See: ɔl-átálúnònì Spy; a-leén To survey, scout.

en-taláíshì   n. Side. abarnishoré entaláíshì enkishómì to shave at one side of the gate of the kraal (Pk).

n-talɛ́ [North]   Nom sg: n-tálɛ̀. n. [North] Cloth worn by initiates after circumcision on the lower part of the body.

ɛn-taléŋoi   Nom sg: ɛn-táleŋóí. Acc pl: ɨn-taléŋò. Nom pl: ɨn-tálèŋò. n. 1 • Magical charm, associated with bewitching someone. Ɛshɔmɔ́ doí apá ɔlásákútóní ayaʉ́ intaléŋò tò láíbònì naá lotú asakutushoré. The minor witch has gone to get the charms for witchcraft from a witchdoctor. (Pk).

2 • Solemn ceremony. Mɛyɨɛŋɨ́ áɨ́kata ɔlkɨ́tɛ́ŋ lɛ́mɛ́ sinyátì tɔɔ́ ntálèŋò. An ox which is not of one colour for a sacred purpose is never slaughtered in any ceremony. (Pk). Kɛ́átáɨ́ intaléŋò tɛndá âŋ ɛmʉ́rátàrɛ̀ ɔɔ́ nkɛ́rà. There are solemn ceremonies in that home for the circumcisions of children. (Pk). Kɛ́ŋaɨ lóewúó ɨntaléŋò inónok. Who came to your party? (W).

a-ɨtaleŋoyíé   To give sth little.

ɔl-talɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔl-tálɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨl-talɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨl-tálɛ̀tà. n. A raised place, e.g. mountain, tree, or man-made shelter, that is used to look at a far off area especially for approaching enemy.

ɛn-tálɨ́pá   n. Background, history. Kéruk ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɛntálɨ́pá ɛ papaí linó. Maasai scrutinize the historical background of your father. (KS).

ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ   Acc pl: in-taloishin. n. Gate-post, family gate-post. The family gate-posts are the posts of the family-gate into the kraal. A kraal may have a number of entrances, and each gate will belong to the family living immediately to the right and the left of the gate inside the kraal. The cattle of that family will go in and out of that gate; boys at circumcision are pulled back into their mother's house through the family-gate; members of that family will at all times tend to enter and come out through their own family-gate. Every entrance gate, en-kishómì, into a Maasai settlement, enk-áŋ, has two gate-posts, in-taloishin. One is on the right-hand side of the gate, ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ ɛ́ tátɛ́nɛ́, the right-hand gate-post, the other is on the left-hand side of the gate, ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ ɛ́ kédíányɛ́. Wives nos. 1, 3, 5, etc... of an elder live on the right-hand n-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ; wives nos. 2, 4, 6... of an elder live in the left-hand side ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ. All these wives look after part of their husband's cattle herd. On the death of the elder the cattle will stay and be inherited by the ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ side by which the animals were looked after when the elder was still alive. the cattle therefore do not cross or cut across from one ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ to the other ɛn-talɔ́ɨ́shɨ on the death of the owner. children born on the right-hand side have different rights of inheritance than those born on the left. The ɔl-ayíónì bótór lɛ́ nk-áŋ, the senior boy of the settlement is usually the eldest son of the first wife living on the righthand side, though boys born on the left-hand side may have been born earlier and be older.

támà   v.pf v.imp. Subjunctive and PF form of defective verb for 'eat'. Átàmà. I ate. See: a-ám To eat.

ɛn-táméjóí   n. Plant sp. whose leaves cause itching. Eyáwúá Kónené ɨmbɛ́nɛ́k ɛ́ ntáméjóí peê èlò aitaŋeyú ɔlaláshɛ̀ lɛnyɛ́. Konene has brought the leaves of entamejoi so that he makes his brother itch. (W).

n-tamés [North]   [North] Camel. See: en-tamɨ́s Camel.

ɛn-tamɨ́s   Nom sg: ɛn-támɨ̀s. Acc pl: ɨn-tamisî. Nom pl: ɨn-támisî. [Purko] Nom sg: ɛn-támɨ́s. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨn-tamisîn. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨn-támisîn. [North] Acc sg: n-tamés. [North] Nom sg: n-támès. [North] Acc pl: n-tamesí. [North] Nom pl: n-támesí. n. Camel. Kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɛntámɨ̂s atɔtɔ́nà inkólòŋì tɔ̀mɔ̀n o íŋùàn ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ èòk ɛnkárɛ́. A camel can stay for fourteen days without water. (Pk). Kórè ntamesí? Where are the camels? (SN). Nónokûâ ntamesí náàpùò nkárɛ́. There are the camels going for water. (SN). Nɛ́napɨ́tà ntámesí lkʉ́rʉ́pâ kitó. The camels are carrying lots of luggage. (SN). See: l-aúrr [North] Male camel; nyɨ́rɨ̀g [North] Young camel.

ɔl-támúéyíáí   Nom sg: ɔl-tamueyiáí. Acc pl: ɨl-támùèyìà. Nom pl: ɨl-támúéyíà. n. Sick person. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛ́ɛ̀yà abikokí ɔltámúéyíáí. The sick man is not getting better. (lit: The disease is lasting on the sick man.) (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltamueyíáí aɨtɨrrɨŋá mɛtábàkɨ̀. The patient is calm so that he can be treated. (Pk).

n-tánáŋâ [North]   Nom pl: n-tánaŋá. n.pl. [North] Bloody substance secreted from the body of a cow after birth. See: n-taŋâŋ bloody substance secreted from the body of a cow after birth.

a-tanareyíá   v.subjn. 1 • Should. Ɛtanárèyìà nɛ́ɨ́ŋɔ́r ɨltʉŋaná átɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá entórroní ó mpukunót pɔɔkɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p. People should take care of themselves because the world is full of all kinds of evil/bad feeling/trouble. (Pk). LING: Subjunctive form only.

2 • To be suitable for sth., fit, go well with. Áatanareyíá ɛná kɨ́lâ. This cloth suits me. (W).

a-ɨtanareyíá   To match things. See: a-narɛ́ To be fitting.

tánkì1   Nom sg: tánkî. Acc pl: tánkìn. Nom pl: tankín. n. Chameleon. LING: This noun does not take a prefix. See: [North] n-árrárráyíòk Chamelion.

ɔl-tánkì2   n. n. water.tank.

1 • n. Water tank.

2 • n.prop. Earlier name for Kilgoris before 1935,based on the existence of a water tank in the area. Maasai still refer to the place by this name. Etym: < English 'tank'.

ɛn-tánkì   Small tank.

ɛn-tankilé   Nom sg: ɛn-tánkilé. [West] Nom sg: ɛn-tánkɨ̀lɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨn-tankilên. Nom pl: ɨn-tánkilên. n. [West] Woman, mother. ɛná tankilé this woman. Eíshó ɛntánkilé. The woman/mother is giving birth. (W). Syn: ɛn-tásât Woman.

ɛn-tánù   Nom sg: ɛn-tánû. Acc pl: ɨn-tánuí. Nom pl: ɨn-tánuí. n. Pancreas. See: ɛ-naɨgárà Pancreas.

l-tanyánkàrɛ̀ [North]   n. [North] Nile monitor lizzard.

ɛn-taŋáŋì   Nom sg: ɛn-táŋàŋì. Acc pl: ɨn-taŋâŋ. Nom pl: ɨn-táŋàŋ. n. The bloody substance secreted from the body of a cow ɔ days after it gives birth. See: n-tánáŋâ Bloody substance secreted from the body after birth.

ɛn-taŋátaŋâ   Nom sg: ɛn-táŋátaŋâ. Acc pl: ɨn-taŋátàŋ. Nom pl: ɨn-táŋataŋ. n. Deceased old woman, of grandmother age. Usage: respect. This implies the woman died past the age of enkitók natudúŋè.

ɔl-taŋátaŋâ   Old deceased man; perhaps slightly younger than ɔl-kɨmág. See: ɔl-kɨmáɨ́tà Deceased old man; ɔl-kɨmág Deceased ancient man; ɛn-dɔ́rrɔ́p sɛ́sɛ̂n Deceased uncircumcised girl; ɔl-áɨ́mówúárànì Deceased uncircumcised boy.

ɔl-taŋóròì   Nom sg: ɔl-táŋoróí. Acc pl: ɨl-taŋórò. Nom pl: ɨl-táŋórò. n. 1 • Hawk.

2 • Belligerent individual who likes fighting.

ɛn-tapá   Nom sg: ɛn-tápà. Acc pl: ɨn-tapân. Nom pl: ɨn-tápàn. n. Flour. See: en-kurmá Flour; m-pʉsɛk Flour.

tápán [North]   n. [North] Elephant. See: sánkáláí Elephant; ɔl-tɔ́mɛ́ Elephant; losúbò Elephant; ɔlɛ́ n-káɨ́ná Elephant; ɔl-káncáóí Elephant.

n-tápáníé [North]   Nom sg: n-tápaníé. Acc pl: n-tápán. Nom pl: n-tapán. n. [North] Footprint. Ɛtarrápuakɨ́ ntapân. The footprints (on the soil) has been picked up. (S). See: e-rórúátá footprint, step.

ɛn-tápɨ̀s   Acc pl: ɨn-tápisí. Nom sg: ɛn-tápɨ̂s. Nom pl: ɨn-tápisí. adj. Hermaphrodite, having both male and female sexes. Kégol ɛntápɨ̂s. The hermaphrodite is very strong. Syn: sʉnkʉlaité Hermaphrodite. See: ɔ-lupí Barren; ɔ-sʉ́nàsh Bull with one testicle; ɔl-dárpóí Bull without testicles; ɔl-kúùntà Castrated bull; kodílè Male with one testicle; sátìmà Castrated bull; ɔ-sáídóŋóí Castrated male.

ɛ-tapɔlɔ́lɛ̀   n. Abortion. Abortion is not common, is a matter for investigation, and is not considered good. It is believed that a woman can eat certain things to PREVENT abortion; and that if she refuses to do it, abortion may result. Or, the woman could take certain herbs or drugs to cause abortion.

ɛ́-tápɔ́lɔ́lɛ ɔr-páashɛ   v.phrase. To loose a wife in death.

ɛn-tapʉ́káì   Nom sg: ɛn-tápʉkáì. Acc pl: ɨn-tapʉ́kà. Nom pl: ɨn-tápʉ̀kà. [North] Acc sg: tapʉ́káɨ̀. n. Flower, flowering part of a plant. ɨntapʉ́kà ɔ́ lpáeki sprouting part of the corn. Ɛtubúlutúà ɨntápʉ̀kà tɛ̀ ɔlcánì. Flowers have grown on the tree. Usage: The plural ɨntapʉ́kà implies a number of individual flowers, in contrast to maúà which indicates a 'bunch' or 'boquet' of flowers..

ɔl-tapʉ́kàì   Big flower. Usage: rare. See: a-ɨtapʉ́k To be flowery.

ɔl-tápʉ̂t   n. Ceiling (of any room or building); roof (of a Maasai house). Ɛtʉ́bʉ́lʉ́á ɛnkɛráɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛɨbʉ́ŋá ɔltápʉ̂t. The child is now grown up because she is able to touch the ceiling. (W).

l-tápʉ́tɛ́t [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Bed. See: e-rruât Bed; [North] l-kɔrrɔ́r Bed; dápásh Broad.

ɔl-tápʉ́ʉt   Nom sg: ɔl-tapɔʉ́t. Acc pl: ɨltapʉʉtɨ́. Nom pl: ɨltápʉʉtɨ́. n. Structure constructed in a tree to store meat away from animals, used by warriors in the bush; arboreal meat cache.

(ɛn)-tárá   Nom sg: ɛn-tárà. n.sg. adv. The time between about 8:00 p.m. to midnight. Eyétùò ŋolé tárá ɨlmʉ́rrân ɛnkáŋ âŋ. [ɛ̀ŋkáŋ àŋ] The warriors came to our home between about 7:00 and 11:00. (Pk). LING: Tárá does NOT change to *[tàrà] here. Eisídáí ŋolé ɛntárà. The evening yesterday was good/fun. See: en-téípà Evening.

ɛ́n-tárâ   Nom sg: ɛn-tárâ. Acc pl: ɨn-tárâî. Nom pl: ɨn-táráî. [Purko] Acc pl: ín-tárâî. [Purko] Nom pl: ín-táráí. n. Python. Ɛ́táŋóró ɛ́ntárâ ɔláshê nɛ́àr metúá. [ɛ̀ntàrà] The python has poisoned the calf and it is dead. (Pk). ɛ́ntárâ tara-mɛʉ́t [ɛ̀ntàrà tàràmɛ̀ʊ́t] spotted viper. See: ɛ-mɛ́ʉ̀ Python.

tárâ1   adj. Spotted and colorful. Tɔ́bɔɨnʉ́ ɛldɛ̂ áshê tárâ níŋúáá ɔlɔ́ɨ́bɔr. [tàɾà] Bring that spotted calf and leave the white one. (Pk).

tara-mɛʉ́t   Spotted like a giraffe, with even distribution of black and brown, or of black and red spots. Term may apply to cattle, felines, goats, vipers, and to non-animals. Áɨ́tàrà-mɛʉ́t apá olashé ɔ́ɨ́nɔsá orŋójìnè. The calf that was spottted like a giraffe was eaten by the hyena. (Pk). See: én-tárâ Viper; márà Spotted, patchy; mɛʉ́t Giraffe.

ɛn-táràkùèt   Nom sg: ɛn-tárákùèt. Acc pl: ɨn-tarákueti. Nom pl: ɨn-tárakuetí. n. Impala. Ɛkuɛtá ɛnadoí tárákùèt nágɨ́rá adaá aɨŋataá oldíà. The impala that was grazing has run away from the dog. (Pk). Syn: n-kotií Antelope sp..

ɨn-tarasí   Acc pl: ɨn-tarasí. Acc pl: ɨn-tarasín. Nom pl: ɨn-tárasí. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨn-tarasîn. n.pl. 1 • Forever. Tɛnɛ́ákʉ́ oshî etúá ɔltʉ́ŋání, nɛ́yɛ́ intarasí. If somebody dies (physically), he dies forever.

2 • Always. Órè oshî nɨnyɛ́ náà kéítáálàn intarasí pɔɔkɨ́. As for him (her), he (she) always makes mistakes. (Pk).

ɨn-taré   Nom pl: in-tárè. n.pl. Young sheep and goats. Ɛ́ntɛ̀rɛ̀ʉ̀ intaré mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ áɨ́tànàk ilkuoóò. Take the sheep/goats so that they can have their lambs/kids suckle. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkáyíóní aɨrrɨtá ɨntaré. The boy has gone to look after the goats and sheep. (Pk). See: en-kérr Sheep.

ɛn-táréí   Variant: ɛn-tarêî. Nom sg: ɛn-taréí. Acc pl: ɨn-taré. Nom pl: ɨn-tárè. n. Flock of sheep or goats. Usage: pl. LING: The singular is rare, and does not exist for some speakers. For those who have it, it would just mean 'flock, herd (of sheep of goats)'.

ɔl-tárgɛ́   Nom sg: ɔl-targɛ́. Acc pl: ɨl-tárgɛ̀tà. Nom pl: ɨl-targɛtá. n. Wooden hook used to pull thorny bushes for making a fence. It is relatively long in size with a hook on one end for pulling and two spikes on the other end for pushing.

ɛn-tárgɛ́   Small wooden hook. See: l-koncóòrr Wooden hook.

ɛn-targéetî   Nom sg: ɛn-tárgéetî. Acc pl: ɨn-targéet. Nom pl: ɨn-tárgeét. n. Grasshopper. See: ɔl-máatî Grasshopper.

ɔl-tárìn   Nom sg: ɔl-tárîn. n.sg. Momentary love. See: l-kɨtarínò [North] momentary love.

a-tarʉ́   v. To prevent death by means of talisman. Ɛtatárùàkɨ́ ɛldɛ̂ kúòò amʉ̂ ɛitʉ́ èrìk ŋɔtɔnyɛ́. That kid/lamb has been saved from dying by means of talisman because it's mother did not lead it. (Pk).

(ɛn-)tarubínì   Nom sg: (ɛn-)tárubínì. Acc pl: in-tarubininí. Nom pl: in-tárubininí. n. Binoculars. Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ̂ maɨŋórìè ɨltɔmíá oókìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. (Pk).

n-tasá [North]   [North] Nom sg: n-tásà. n. [North] Leaves laid down for placing meat on top of after roasting. See: ɛn-áráá Leaves to lay meat on top of.

ɛn-tásàt1   Nom sg: ɛn-tásât. Acc pl: ɨn-tasátì. Nom pl: ɨn-tásatí. [West] Acc pl: ɨn-tasáti. n. 1 • Old woman, prototypically of grandmother age. Átódùàà ɛntásàt natiwúó ɔlcɔrɛ́ lɛ̀ mpàpà. I have seen an old woman of my grandmother's age who is the mother of my father's friend. (Pk). Nɛ́dʉmʉ́nyɛ̀ ɨntásatí ɛ́ ɨ́nà áŋ, ŋɔtɔnyɛ́ ɔladúóó ... Women of that home get up, [including] the mother of that young man [who is about to be married] ... According to one S speaker, ɛn-tásàt is usually over 80 years old.

2 • Woman. Ɛtarapɔ́shè ɛná tásàt. This woman is pregnant. This could be a woman in her 30's or so, who is already a mother, typically of more than one child. (Pk).

3 • Senior wife. Nɛ́aráa ɛnapá tásàt ɛnyɛ́ botor. He chased away his older wife. Ɛshɔmɔ́ apá ɛntásât ɛ́nyɛ̀ bɔtɔ́r aɨŋúáá. His senior wife has left him. (Pk).

ɔl-tásàt   Old man of grandfather age.

tásàt2   Nom sg: tásât. Acc pl: tasáti. Nom pl: tásatí. adj. 1 • Disabled, withered, weakly. Ɛ́táá doí apá tásàt ɛldɛ́ áyíóní, imeekúré àà bíyòtò. That boy is disabled, he is no longer healthy. (Pk). Ɛ́táá tásàt, imeekúré apá ɛɨdɨ́m atanápà intokitín naáíròshì. He is weak; he is no longer able to carry heavy things. (Pk).

2 • Old. Usage: humans. kʉlɔ̂ payianí ɔárè tasáti olêŋ these two very ancient men (W). Ádɔ́lɨ́tà kʉlɔ̂ payianí ɔárè tasáti ɔ ɛ́ldɛ̀ tásàt olêŋ. I see these two old men and that very old one. (W).

ɛn-tásɨ̀m   Nom sg: ɛn-tásɨ̂m. Acc pl: ɨn-tásìmì. Nom pl: ɨn-tásímì. [North] Acc pl: n-tasími. n. 1 • A charm superstitiously believed to embody magical powers given to someone by | oloibónì as part of treatment.

2 • Sth. that is done for the sake of doing it, not important.

3 • [North] Celebration, festival, ceremony; ritual. See: a-ɨtasɨ́m To try to do sth.

tasɨrán [North]   n. [North] Dawn, morning. See: tádɛkɛnyá Morning.

tásháláí   Nom sg: tashaláí. Acc pl: táshàlà. Nom pl: táshálà. adj. 1 • Idle, lazy. Ádɔ́lɨ́tà ɔlpayíán tásháláí. ̃[ádɔ́lɪ́tà ɔ̀lpàyyán tāʃālāy] I am seeing a lazy old man. (W).

2 • Wet.

ɔl-tásháláí   n. 1 • Lazy person. Órè ɔltásháláí laáíjó ɛlɛ̂ némétùm áɨ́kátà tókì amʉ̂ ɨmɛɨŋɔ́rrʉ̀. A lazy person like this can never get anything because he does not look. (Pk).

2 • Wet person. Ɨ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ dúóó ɛlɛ̂ tásháláí ɔtasháíkíá dúóó nɛ́ákʉ́ kɛ́ɨ́lɨ́bɨ́lɨ̀b ɛnɛɛ́yɨ̀m. Let this wet one who was rained on earlier and became wet pass. (Pk). See: kɛ́rɛ́rɛ̂ Lazy, slovenly; en-kéréìshò; n-kashálànì (S) Lazy one.

tátɛ́nɛ́   [North] Acc sg: tɛ́tɛ́nɛ̀. Variant: tɛ́tɛ́nɛ́. [Chamus] Acc sg: tɛtɛnɛ. n. 1 • Right. Túŋeikíákɨ̀ ɛnkáɨ́ná ékédíányɛ́, ɨ́mbʉŋákɨ̀ ɛnɛ̂ tátɛ́nɛ́. Let go of my left hand and hold the right one. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlárɛwání lɛ́ gárrì aaraá encótó ɛ́ tátɛ́nɛ́ ɔ́ lgwɛ̂ peê mɛ́rʉ́s inkíshú. The driver of the car is keeping/fighting to the right side of the road so that he doesn't hit the cows. (W).

2 • Senior age-set of an age-group. Órè nánʉ́ náà kárá ɔlɛ́mʉ́rátà ékédíányɛ́, órè nɨ́nyɛ̀ náà ɔlɛ́mʉ́rátà ɛ́ tátɛ́nɛ́. [ɔ̀lɛ́mʊ́ɾátà ɛ̀kɛ̀dìàɲɛ̀] [ɔ̀lɛ́mʊ́ɾátà ɛ̀ tàtɛ̀nɛ̀] I am of the left-hand age-set, and he is of the right-hand age-set. See: kédíányɛ́ Left.

ɨl-Tatúá   n.prop n.pl. il-Tatua; place in Tanzania.

ɔl-táʉ́   Nom sg: ɔl-táʉ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-taʉjá. Nom pl: ɨl-táʉ̀jà. [North] Acc sg: ɔ-táʉ́. In some suffixed forms: ɔl-táʉ́j. n. 1 • Heart (of person or animal); the organ inside the chest which controls the flow of blood by pushing it around the body. Ɔltáʉ́ oshî ɔ́rɛ̀ʉ̀ ɔsárgɛ́ tósèsèn lɛ́ŋʉ̀ɛ̀s pɔɔkɨ́ naɨshʉ́. It is the heart that drives (pumps up) blood in the body of evey living thing being. (Pk).

2 • Person's feelings. Mɛɛ́tà ɔltáʉ́ lɛ́ sìààì. He does not feel like working. (lit: He does not have a heart of work.) (Pk).

3 • Central or most important part. Órè apá entókì natíi oltáʉ́ lɛnyɛ́, náà meyíéú kʉnâ anáshàrà ɛnyɛ́ná nápùò. There was something that was in his heart, that he didn't want these sisters of his to go [to be married]. ɔltáʉ́ lɛ́ ngárɨ̀ a car's engine. Órè ɔltáʉ́ léínà síááî pɔɔkɨ́ náà peê ɛ́lákɨ́ aké ɨ̀nà síle. The heart of all that business is to pay the debt. (Pk). amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pâ nɨ́ncɛ̀ áaɨsʉjá ɨltaʉjá lɛnyɛ̂ because they have cleansed their hearts (C).

4 • Someone close, dear, important to another. Ɔltáʉ́ láí doí oshî ɨlɔ́ tʉ́ŋání imɛɛ́tà entókì náás ɛ́ɨ́tʉ́ aɨkɨlɨ́kùàn anáà alíkì. That person is very important to me; I don't do anything without consulting or informing him. (Pk).

ɛn-táʉ́   Small heart. Usage: contemptuous. Ɨ́wà dúóó ɛntáʉ́ inó ìdìà ɔ́ŋátá peê teníló ayɛ́ nímíkílótú nánʉ́ aitoŋú. Take your "small heart" far away (from me) so that if you die you don't tarnish my name.

ɔl-táʉ́ sɨnyátì   Holy spirit. Usage: religious. Órè oshî ɔlairúkònì pɔɔkɨ́ náà kéíshíákínó náà ɔltáʉ́ Sinyátì órikóò inkiasin ɛnyɛ́nà. Every believer is supposed to let the Holy Spirit guide his action.

ɔl-táʉ́ ogól (lɔ́ soit)   Somebody who can not easily be overcome by emotions. Kɛ́ɛ́tà ɔltáʉ́ ogól ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání ɔlɛ́méírùt tɛnɛ́jokiní ɛtʉ́á mɛnyɛ́. This man is heart-hardened; he does not show any worry even when his father is dead.

ɔl-táʉ́ ɔ́náná (loó nkiri)   Contrite of heart, a broken-heart.[ɔ̀láʊ́ ɔ̀nànà]  Ɛ́sídáí ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́ɔ̀tà ɔltáʉ́ ɔ́náná amʉ̂ kɛ́íríndʉ̀ ɨntɔrɔ̂k ɛnyɛ́nà. Someone with a contrite heart is good because he can repent of his wrongdoing.

ɔl-táʉ́ ɔgɨlɨgɨ́là   Contrite of heart, a broken heart.

ɔl-táʉ́ sídáí   Good-hearted. Kéísídáí oshî ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́tɔ̀tà ɔltáʉ́ sídáí amʉ̂ kɛ́palíkì ɨlkʉlɨ́káɨ́ tɛnɛ́ɨ́nyál. A good-hearted person is good because he forgives others when they wrong him.

ɔl-táʉ́ tɔrrɔ́nɔ́   Bad-hearted. Imeboitároyú ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́ɔ̀tà ɔltáʉ́ tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ amʉ̂ kɛ́pʉsʉ́s inkatítìn pɔɔkɨ́. You cannot live together with a bad-hearted person, because he is always frowning.

aduŋó táʉ́   To die. Órè ɔladúóó kúòò omúéí ɛ́taá kéjó peê aduŋó. The kid (lamb) which was sick is about to di.e.

ɛn-táwúó   Nom sg: ɛn-tawúó. Acc pl: ɨn-tawúá. Nom pl: ɨn-táwùà. n. 1 • Heifer. Ɛ́ɨkàwùà ɛntawúó. My heifer has calved for the first time. (Pk).

2 • Relationship term used between two men who have exchanged a heifer. This exchange creates a special category of friendship. Ekélotú siî nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɛntawúó ìnà ɔlɔ́ŋ kíátâ ɛ́máshóì. Even my ɛntawúó will be here the day of the ceremony. (Pk). LING: The Masculine gender form *ol-táwúó does not occur. Etym: Proto-OngamoMaa *-tawwo 'calf, female -/heifer'(Vossen 1989:196), from Proto-Eastern Nilotic *-tagw- 'calf, female -/heifer'(Vossen 1982:343).. See: ɛnk-áshê Calf.

tɛ̀   prep. Oblique preposition, used to introduce noun phrases or adverbial clauses. It has a wide range of senses, covering the instrumental sense of 'using'; location 'in, at'; 'for' in certain contexts; 'circumstance', etc. With adverbial subordinate clauses, it indicates 'if' or 'when'. Only the associative 'with (a person)' sense is not conveyed by tɛ̀. Ádúŋ tɛ̀ (ɛ)nkalɛ́m. I cut it with a knife. tɛná katá in this time. Nɨ́kɨ̀yàʉ̀ aké tɛ̀ (ɛ)síàŋàù. We will just bring them in a calabash piece. Tɛ̀ nɨ́mɨ́kɨ́ndɨ̀m aɨshɔ́ɔ̀ ɛlɛ̂ kɨ́tɛ́ŋ obô, náà kááɨ̀dɨ̀m aɨshɔ́ɔ̀ kʉlɨkaɨ móŋí aárè. If you cannot give me this one bullock, then I can give you two other bullocks. Ashê olêŋ tɔ̀ kɨ́lɨkúâî linyî. Thank you very much for your (pl.) message. LING: When preceding a noun or relational noun beginning in /a/, tɛ̀ dissimilates to tì: ti-áborí 'to below'. LING: In Central Maa, tɛ̀ cliticizes to the gender prefix of a following noun, keeping the Low tone of tɛ̀ but the vowel of the gender prefix: tɛ̀ + ɛn-kalɛ́m > [tɛnkalɛ́m], tɛ̀ + ɔlcánì > [tɔlcánì]. In North Maa where gender prefixes lack an initial vowel, tɛ̀ must be said to inflect for gender (AND NUMBER?) of the following noun as tɛ̀ still surfaces before feminine nouns, while tɔ̀ or tà surface for masculine nouns: lpáyìàn or ta lpáyìàn 'on the man', but tɛ̀ mɨ́sâ 'on the table'.

tɛ̀ ídíá aló   On that side (e.g. on the outside of a house).

tenébo < tɛ ne-bô   Associative; together. See: tɛná < tɛ̀ ɛná In this; ɔ́ Associative, 'and' 'with'.

tɛ́dɛkɛnyá   adv. Morning.

ɛn-tɛ́dɛkɛnyá   n. The morning. Éjó áá ɛntɛ́dɛkɛnyá? How is the morning? Éjó áá ɛntɛ́dɛkɛnyá? Sídáí olêŋ! How is the morning? Very good! (lit: What does the morning say? Very good!) (W). See: tádɛkɛnyá Early morning.

l-teélè [North]   Nom sg: l-téèlè. n.prop. [North] Samburu clan that specializes in circumcision.

a-teeyó [North]   v. [North] To direct, advise, counsel.

tɛ́ɨ́nà   dem. From that, in that (feminine sg.); contraction from tɛ̀ ɨnâ. See: tɛ̀ Oblique preposition; ɨ́nâ that.

téínè   dem. There; in that place. See: ínê There.

en-téípà   Nom sg: en-téípâ. Acc pl: in-téípàì. Nom pl: in-téípáì. n. Late afternoon or evening, between about 4:00 p.m. until 7:00 p.m. Tɛ̀ ntéípâ adé epuonú iladúóó áyianí ɔ́ɔ́shɔ́mɔ̂ tádɛkɛnyá. It is in the evening that the men who left in the morning will come. Éjó áá entéípà? Sídáí olêŋ! How is the evening? Very good! See: ɛ-raútò Dusk; ɛn-áɨ́mɨ̀n Darkness.

téísérè [North]   [North] Tomorrow. See: táaisérè Tomorrow.

a-tɛ́j   v. To swell. Káatɛjá nkáíná. My arm is swelling. (S). Káaɨdɨ́m nkainá náají táísèrè. I think my arm can swell tomorrow. (S). See: a-ilubulub To blister.

ɛn-tɛ́kɛ̀   Variant: n-dɛ́kɛ̀ (S). Nom sg: ɛn-tɛ́kɛ̂. Variant: ɛn-tɛ́kɛ́ (PK). Acc pl: in-tékeí. Nom pl: in-tékeí. n. Aeroplane. Átódùàà dúóó ɛntɛ́kɛ̀ nalóítò tolóíŋàŋɛ̀. I saw an aeroplane that was moving in space. (Pk). Ɛntɛ́kɛ̀ ɨ́ɨ̀m? Are you going by plane?

ol-teléliai   Nom sg: ol-télelíàì. Acc pl: ɨl-telélia. Nom pl: ɨl-télelíá. [North] Acc pl: ɨl-talélia. n. The fingerlike flesh, normally two, that hangs on a goat's dewlap. See: ɔl-gɔ́lgɔ̀l Dewlap.

telepéshèn   Nom sg: télepéshèn. Acc pl: in-telepeshení. Nom pl: in-télepeshení. n. Television. Ɛɨtɔdɔ́luakɨ́ ŋolé ilarikók tɛ̀ télepéshèn. Leaders yesterday were shown on the television. (Pk). Etym: < English television.

en-teloni   Acc pl: in-telon. n. Top of a tree, crown of a tree.

a-tɛ́m   [Chamus]: tém. v. 1 • To measure. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ ŋolé inkáyìòk mɛshɔ́mɔ́ɨ́ áàtɛ̀m isésènì peê eyiolouní ɛnɛbâ inkílaní naajîŋ. The boys went yesterday to be measured so that it can be known which clothes fit. (Pk).

2 • To try. Ɛtɛtɛmákà. She gave birth, but the child died very soon thereafter. (lit: She has tried.).

3 • To imagine. Áyíéú nɨ́tɛ́m siî náají adʉmʉ́ tanáà kélotú ɔlápâ ɛnkɔ́p. I want you to imagine whether the moon will come to the ground. (Pk).

4 • To think.

áà-tɛ̀mà   v.mid.pl. To try each other out. Ɛgɨ́rà iláyìòk áàtɛ̀mà áɨ̀ŋʉ̀ràà ajó kálɔ̂ ógòl. The boys are trying each other to see which is strong. (Pk).

a-tɛmarɛ́   To strive with.

ɛn-tɛ́mátá   Test. See: a-nyók To try; a-saán To try; a-ipím To measure.

a-tɛmakɨ́   v. To abort.

a-tɛmarɛ́   v.mid. To strive with. Míntókì doí atɛmarɛ́ amʉ̂ ɨmɨnɛ́pʉ̀ aké. Stop striving with him (about who can run fast), because he is a better runner. (Pk).

ɛn-tɛ́mátá   Nom sg: tɛmatá. Acc pl: ɨn-tɛmát. Nom pl: ɨn-tɛmát. n. 1 • Exam, test. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráɨ́ adamɨshɔ́ amʉ̂ kélóítò aás ɛntɛ́mátá. The child is thinking because she is going to do an exam. (Pk). Einépua apá lɛ́lɔ̂ enduŋórotó ɛ́ntɛmata. Those were eliminated (found) by the cut-off point of the exam. (Pk). Kógól kʉná tɛmát. These tests are hard. Káɨ́báyìè néníá tɛmát. I have hated those tests. (SN). Ɛɨ́má Kónené ɛntɛ́mátá abarakɨ́. Konene passed the test correctly. (W). Ɛtódúá Kɨ́mɛ̀lɨ̀ ajó kégól ɛntɨmatá. Nɛ́kɛnyʉ́ kɨ́âs ɛntɨ́mátá. [nɛ́kɛ̀nyʊ́ kɪ̀às ɛ̀ntɪ́mátá] Kimeli thought that the exam would be difficult. The next morning we did (took) the exam. (W).

2 • [North] Temptation. See: a-tɛ́m To test.

ɔl-tɛ́mɛ́náyíóí   n. Belittling. Nɛ́mɛ́átaɨ siî ɔltɛ́mɛ́náyíóí. There is no belittling (what one says). (KS).

ɛn-tɛ́mɛ́náyíóí   Belittled one.

a-tɛ́n   v. To be fast in running. Míntókì doí atɛmarɛ́ amʉ̂ nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɔtɛ́n tɛ̀ íyie. Stop striving with him about who can run because he is faster. (Pk). This does not apply to walking. See: a-nɛnɛ́ŋ To be light.

tɛnâ   prep dem. 1 • With, at this (instrument). tɛnâ alɛ́m with this knife.

2 • In this time; soon. Álótú tɛná katá. I will come soon.

tɛnákatá   Right now, soon. See: tɛ̀ Oblique preposition; ɛnâ this.

tɛnáà   conj. 1 • If. Tɛnáà taá ílótú tááisérè tólikíókì peê ááányʉ́. If you are coming tomorrow, tell me so that I can wait for you. Nɛ́akʉ tɛnáà náají kéítúrrurri náají ɨnkayîôk áâ ɨláɨ́bártàk... So if boys could be gathered together that are newly-circumcised...

2 • Whether. Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɛldɛ̂ túrrúr otíí ɛndɛ̂ ɨ́ŋurááɨ́ tɛnáà ítʉ́m. Go to that group that is there and see if/whether you can find (st.).

3 • I think so.

tɛnákatá   [Purko]: tanákatá. adv. 1 • Immediately, right now, at this moment. Máapé tɛnákatá peê mɛ́ɨ́ŋátàà iyíóók adé. Let us go now so that he does not miss us later (e.g. in the evening). (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà enkóílií apɛrá tanáktá. The gazelle is pronking right now. (Pk).

2 • The present time, present era, now. Kákè kinyâ apáke iyioók sɨ́nkɨ́r lɛ́ nkárɛ́ ɔ tɛnákatá. But we used to eat fish of the water up to now. (C).

3 • Soon. LING: There is no case variation, as this derives from the Oblique prepositional form which requires that the NP be in the Nominative:

tɛ́nákatá aké   Immediately. Tɛnákatá aké kipúó amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́ŋátáá iyíóók. We are going immediately because we will be left. (Pk). See: adé Later in the day.

tendé   dem. In that place, there. Mmê náájí tené, átódùàà tendé. I did not see it here, I saw it there. (Pk). aɛná tendé wúéjî to be tied there (Pk). LING: This may occur with or without a following place noun. See: Pronouns-Demonstratives; enê Singular place demonstrative.

tené   prep dem. In this place; here. LING: This may occur with or without a following place noun. See: tɛ̀ Oblique preposition.

ɛn-tɛ́pɛ̀   Nom sg: ɛn-tɛ́pɛ. Acc pl: in-tépeí. Nom pl: in-tépeí. n. 1 • Flat round bead like a button but with the hole through the diameter of the bead.

2 • Flat round tablet or pill. See: ɔ-saêî Bead.

ol-tépésí   Acc pl: il-tepes. n. 1 • Red thorn tree. acacia lahai.

2 • White thorn tree. acacia seyal. Kɛ́ɨ́bɔ̀rr oshî intápùkà ó ltépésí. The flowers of an acacia tree are white. (Pk).[̌́óltèpèsì] 

3 • Umbrella thorn tree. acacia tortilis.

en-tépésí   Wait-a-bit thorn-tree. acacia brevispica.

en-teré   Nom sg: en-térè. Acc pl: in-terên. Nom pl: in-térèn. n. n. Trough.

2 • n. Mortar. Etym: See Proto-Kalenjin *ter(et) 'clay pot'. Syn: ɛ-mʉharátɛ̀ Trough; em-peút Trough. See: en-téreét Pot; mortar; trough.

en-téreét   Nom sg: en-téreét. Acc pl: ɨn-tereetí. Nom pl: ɨn-téreetí. n. 1 • Pot. See: subúrìà Pot.

2 • Mortar. Shɔ́mɔ̀ íyaʉ́ enteré peê eidoŋíékì isekétèk lɨkɨncɔ́rɨ̀. Go and bring a mortar for the grinding of traditional medicine that will be given to you. (Pk). See: en-kídóŋét Mortar; en-kiurí Mortar; l-kɨ́cɔ́pɛ́t Mortar.

3 • Trough for feeding cattle salt. Ɛ́ncɔ̀m ɛntɨ́pɨ́k enteré ɛmákát peê ɛnyɛ́ ɨntárè. Go put salt in the trough for sheep and goats to lick. (Pk). See: en-teré Trough; em-peút Trough.

ol-terégelî   Nom sg: ol-térégelî. Acc pl: ɨl-tɛrɛ́gɛ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-tɛ́rɛ̀gɛ̀. [North] Acc sg: l-téregénî. [North] Nom sg: l-teregenî. [North] Acc pl: l-tɛrɛ́gɛ̀n. [North] Nom pl: l-tɛ́rɛgɛ́n. n. Testicle (of human or animal). Eitáyokí ɨltɛrɛ́gɛ̀ pɔɔkɨ́rà aárè. Both testicles have been removed. Kɛ́ɨ́kʉtɨ́tɨ́ ɨltɛ́rɛ̀gɛ̀ lɛ́nyɛnák. Its testicles are small.

terishét [North]   [North] Between. "Kéísúpàt aná ájì": "anâ" nátií terishét "kéísúpàt" ɔ́ "ají". (In the sentence) "Kéísúpàt aná ájì", "(The word) anâ" is between "kéísúpàt" and "ají" (SN).

en-térít   Nom sg: en-terít. Acc pl: in-terito. Nom pl: in-térìtò. n. Dust; loose top soil on the surface of the ground, table, floor; soil. Kɛ́dʉmʉ́ osiwúó entérít. Wind blows up dust. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât ajút ɨnamʉ́kà naáàtà entérít. The woman is wiping shoes that have dust.

ol-térít   Big dust. Usage: rare. See: en-kulupúónì Dust.

tɛsɨrán   [North] Acc sg: tasěrán. n. Dawn. Taserán taá kímpàŋìè inkíshú amʉ̂ kɛlákúá ɛ̀nkɔ̀p Its is at dawn that we are moving the cows; we are going far. (Pk). See: ɛ-nasiríé Dawn.

tɛ́tɛ́nɛ́ [North]   [North] Right side. See: tatene Right.

tì   prep. Variant of oblique preposition tɛ̀ which occurs before certain words beginning with low back vowels a, ɔ, o. tì áúlùò Outside. tì átùà Inside. tì ɔŋatá in the plain. tì óbo in one. See: tɛ̀ Oblique preposition.

tì átùà   Variant: taátua. prep. In, inside (a space); among (a group). Nɨ́mɨ́dʉ́kɛ́nyanya tì átùà ɨltaʉjá linyî. You (pl) do not hesitate in your hearts. tì átùà ɨlMáásâɨ̂ among the Maasai. LING: From tɛ̀ Oblique preposition plus atûâ.

tiaaka(k)   [West]: tiaka. v.pf. Irregular Perfective for a-jó 'to tell'; 'told'. Nétiaakakɨ́ naá dúóó "Inkíshú íyíéú." He was earlier told that, "It is cows you want.". Áatiaká maitáríá ɛnkanáshɛ̀ áí. He told me to escort my sister. (W). See: a-likí To tell; a-jó To tell; a-limú To tell of, explain.

-tiak(a)   v.pf. Defective (?) subjunctive or perfective root for the verb 'to say'. Kááyákɨ́ ɛ́nâ dúóó tókì nɨ́kɨ́tɨ́ákà. I will bring you the thing you told me (to). (Pk). Néjí mátiakɨ́. They tried to ask him.

en-tiamásì   Nom sg: en-tíámàsì. Acc pl: in-tiamasiní. Nom pl: in-tíámasiní. n. Beast; legendary animal. See: ɔl-kúkuû Animal; e-ŋûɛ̂s Animal.

tiamuai   n. Type of plant, found in the Olóíríén region.

en-tibílì   [North] Acc sg: n-tíbílí. n. Sparks from fire. See: ol-tiílì Spark from fire.

ɛn-tɨ́dɨ́yáí   Nom sg: ɛn-tɨdɨyáí. n. Smallpox. Kéudí oshî ɨnkɛ́rà kʉtɨ́tɨ́ ɔsindánó peê mɛ́jɨ́ŋ ɛntɨ́dɨ̀yàì. Children are taken to hospital for smallpox vaccine. (lit: Children are injected so smallpox doesn't enter.) (Pk). See: ol-típó Smallpox.

ɔl-tɨ́dʉ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-tɨ́dʉ̂. Acc pl: il-tídìì. Nom pl: il-tídíì. [North] Acc sg: l-tʉ́dʉ̀. n. 1 • Traditional needle with sharp metal point inserted into a stick; used for sewing calabashes, making holes, etc. Ɛ́gɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aitainyé ɔltɨ́dʉ̀ olkikúêî tɛ̀ nkɛ́jʉ̀. The man is removing the thorn from his leg using a needle. (Pk).

2 • Awl.

a-tií   v.s. 1 • To be at or in (a place). Etíi ɛnkáyíóní orkɛjʉ́. The boy is at the river. Óù amʉ̂ kátíi atúá ɨ́lɔ̂ sokónì ɨ̀nà ɔlɔ́ŋ. Come because I will be at that market that day. (Pk). LING: [àtúá ɪ̀lɔ̀ sòkónì]. Etíi oltóò ɛnkárɛ̀ aboré. The barrel is full of water. (Pk). LING: In the preceding example ɛnkárɛ̀ is in the Nominative, while oltóò is in the Accusative. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí aibukoó ɛnkárɛ́ natíi ɛnkɨkɔ́mpɛ̀. The child has gone to pour away the water that is in the cup. Lpáeg óotií lbɛ́nɛ́. Maize (pl) is in the bag. (SN). Lbɛ́nɛ́ etíí lpaég. Maize (pl) is in the bag. (SN). Etíi ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ bɔɔ́. The cow is in the pen. metíi It is not there. Metíi inkíshù wúéjì. The cows aren't anywhere. (W). Ɨ́dámʉ́ kʉndâ ólòŋì kitií Kímpúk? Do you remember recently when we were in Kimpuk? (W). Ɛgɨ́rà kʉ́lɛ̀ áàɨ̀sàmìsù náatií olkúkúrí . The milk is going bad that is in the calabash. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛndáâ nátií emotí aɨsamisú. The food that is in the cooking pan is getting rotten. (Pk).

2 • To exist. Etíi There is... Etíi ɛnkárɛ̀ oltóò. There is water in the barrel. Kétíi ɨlpɛ́pɛ̀dɔ̀ ɛnkáíná ɔ́ lmʉ́rránì. There are scabies on the warrior's arm. Órè apá nétií ɛnkáyíóní. Long ago there was a boy. (Pk).

3 • Standard beginning for a story; there is a story that..., once upon a time... Nétií apá, ɔlmʉrraní óbo Long ago, there was a warrior. Nétií ɨlɔ́ lɔɔ́nkuukuuní. There are those (stories) of people who have to do with wild animals. (W). It is the form nétií that implies one is referring to stories. See: a-atá To have.

l-tiídì [North]   n. 1 • [North] Obligation, duty, responsibility.

2 • [North] Payment to be made to compensate for a service rendered or payment made previously.

ol-tiílì   Nom sg: ol-tíìlì. Acc pl: ɨl-tɨɨ́l. Nom pl: ɨl-tɨíl. n. 1 • Spark from a fire.

2 • Ray. ɨltɨɨ́l lɛ́ nkɔlɔ́ŋ Rays of the sun. "Táŋòrìè iyíóók ɨltɨɨ́l ɔɔ́mʉ̀nyàk." "Shine on us rays full of fortune.".

3 • Type of plant; made into a tea given to children.

4 • Problematic person; pain in the neck who is restless, violent, not calm. See: en-tibílì Spark from fire.

a-tɨɨrá   v. 1 • To be arrogant; proud; puffed up.

2 • To be blind. See: ɔl-tɨ́ɨ́ráí Blind man.

ɔl-tɨ́ɨ́ráí   n. 1 • Blind person.

2 • Proud person. See: a-tɨɨrá To be arrogant.

ɛn-tɨ́ɨs   Nom sg: ɛn-tɨ́ɨ̂s. Acc pl: in-tiisîn. Nom pl: in-tíisîn. n. Calf muscle; muscle on the back of human being's lower part of the leg behind the shin. See: ɛn-kɛjʉ́ Leg; l-kúndùd lɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Calf muscle; ɔ-sɨ́nɨ̀g Calf muscle; ol-orôk Shin.

ɛ́-tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ají   v.phrase. Live birth. The idea is not that the child entered the house, but that the mother is now comfortably at rest and celebrating in the house, along with her friends.

ól-tíkámbû   Nom sg: ól-tíkámbû. Acc pl: il-tikambuní. Nom pl: il-tíkambuní. n. Type of plant used to clean milk-calabashes. This plant imparts the characteristic smoky flavor to fresh milk. See: ol-óíríén Olive tree.

ɔ́l-tíkámpû   Acc pl: il-tikampuní. Nom pl: il-tíkampuní. n. Type of plant.

ol-tikaná   Nom sg: ol-tíkaná. [Chamus] Acc sg: tɨkaná. n.sg. n.sg. Malaria. Kɛ́yáɨ́tà oltíkaná ɨltʉ́ŋáná olêŋ tɔɔ́ nkuapí ɔ́ɔlɔɔ́rɔ́ɔ́k. Malaria is killing a lot of people in Africa. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá Dórìs oltíkaná. Doris was attacked by malaria. (= Doris became sick because of malaria).

2 • n.sg. East Coast Fever (of cattle only); disease caused by virus that lives in ticks. Eewá ɔltíkaná inkíshú kúmòk ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂. East Coast Fever has killed so many cows of the Maasai.

3 • n.sg. Chronic illness. Etym: nagana ? sleeping sickness. See: ɔl-kɨ́rɔ́bɨ̂ Fever; ol-cámá [North] Fever.

en-tíkanî   Nom sg: en-tíkanî. Acc pl: in-tíkàn. Nom pl: in-tíkân. n. Lymph node. Áayâ intíkân. The lymph nodes pain me. (W). Ɛátà ɛlɛ́ ashé intíkàn This calf has swollen lymph nodes.

tikítàm   n. Twenty. Tɛ̀ nɨ́ɨ́nkɛ̀n ɨlkɨmɔjɨ́k lɔɔ́nkáík ɔ́ lɔɔ́nkɛjɛ́k nɛ́akʉ́ tikítàm. If you count your fingers and toes together, they add up to twenty.

tíkítàm obô   Twenty one.

tíkítàm aárè   Twenty two. The Masculine forms are typically used for counting without reference to specific items.

a-tɨ́l   v. To win admiration of s.b by doing some particular thing. See: a-kát To flirt; win admiration of.

en-tílò1   Nom sg: en-tílô. Acc pl: in-tílòì. Nom pl: in-tílóì. n. Short y-shaped club with all ends sharply pointed; made from a branch which divides into two smaller branches; thrown to kill animals and birds. See: ɛ́-síárɛ̂ Short club.

ol-tílò2   Nom sg: ol-tílô. Acc pl: il-tílòì. Nom pl: il-tílóì. n. 1 • Wood pecker. Míkítóshò oltílò. May you be hit by (the pecking of) the woodpecker. (i.e. may something bad happen to you.) (Pk). The pecking of a woodpecker is believed to be the harbinger, an omen, or announcer, of bad things to come.

2 • Anger. Kɛ́átà oltílò. He is angry. (momentarily).

ol-tílòì   Acc pl: il-tílò. n. Woodpecker (general).

ɔl-tílúd   Nom sg: ol-tilúd. n. 1 • Anus. Usage: vulgar.

2 • Bottom portion of sth (e.g. part of cup that is in contact with the table top). See: ɔl-kʉ́rʉ̀m Anus, genitalia.

ol-tím   Nom sg: ol-tîm. Acc pl: il-tímítò. Nom pl: il-timitó. n. 1 • Branches used as village barricade at night.

2 • [North] Main gate of kraal (manyata) through which cattle pass when going in and out to pasture.

3 • Rear group of a raiding or war party. Ɛshɔmɔɨtɔ́ impûôt áàìtùrùk peê ɛsʉjʉ́ oltîm. The forward group of the warriors is leading, followed by the rear-guard. (Pk). See: l-kirâr Gate for people; en-jóré.

en-tîm   Nom sg: en-tîm. Acc pl: in-tímì. Nom pl: in-tímí. n. Area of trees and shrubs: forest; the bush, wilderness. Emísímís oshî intímí. The forests are usually dark. (W).

ol-tîm   A big forest. See: o-sérò Forest; ɔl-mɛ́tɛ́ráí Bush.

timigomy   n. Type of plant, found in the Olóíríén region.

Tinkáwúá   Nom sg: Tinkáwua. n.prop. Proper name of a Maasai warrior. Kéjokíni ɔlmʉ́rránì ojî Tinkáwúá... A warrior named Tinkawua was told...

tínkí   Nom sg: tinkí. Acc pl: tínkîn. adj. Not favourite. Enóto ɔláyíóní tinkí ɨmayianát The disfavored boy got blessings. (KS).

ɛn-tínkí   Disfavored one. See: kɨrɔtɛ́t Favourable.

ol-tíntílua   Nom sg: ol-tintílùà. n.m.sg. Very hot scorching heat, strictly from the sun.

en-tinyoit   n. Type of bird.

en-tiŋadú [North]   Nom sg: en-tíŋadú. n. [North] Brucellosis, rheumatism.

en-tiól   Nom sg: en-tíòl. Acc pl: in-tíólì. Nom pl: in-tíólî. n. 1 • Gun.

ol-tiól   Mayíólò ajó káɨ́nyɔɔ náyawúá ɛnâ síàì ɛsɨ́ŋárɛ̀ oltiól. Kájó kʉlɔ́ keék ɔɔ́dànyɨ̀tà ɨntapʉ́kà. I don't know what brought about this act/business of sneezing. Maybe it is because of these trees that are flowering. (W).

in-tiót [South]   n.pl. [South] Blame. ɔltʉŋánì lɛ́ mɛ́átà intiót a person without blame (KS).

a-típ   v. 1 • To make spots. Kétip ɔsárgɛ̀ ɔlkáráshá. Blood will make spots on a garment.

2 • To make impure. Kétip ɔltʉŋánì iŋôk ánàà intɔ́rɔ̀k ɛ́nyɛ̀nà. A person is made impure by his sins or wrongdoing. (Pk).

3 • To eat slowly. See: a-rásh To make spots on the sides.

tîp [North]   Nom sg: típ. n. [North] Acaricide. See: ol-díîp Acaricide.

n-tɨ́pát [North]   Nom sg: n-tɨpát. Acc pl: n-tɨ́patí. n. [North] Fruit-bat. See: ɛ-nagʉr kɛwɔ́n Fruit-bat; ɛ-sarambála Fruit-bat.

tɨ́pàt   Nom sg: tɨ́pât. n. Value, worth, usefulness, meaning, meaningfulness, importance. LING: tɨ́pàt is frequently used as an argument of a-atá 'to have'. Ɛmbúkù naátà tɨ́pàt. The book that has value/that is useful. Kɛátà rópiyaní tɨ́pàt. Money has worth (usefulness, meaning, importance). Mɛátà aná báɛ́ tɨ́pàt. This issue is not important. LING: [mɛ̀átà àná bàɛ̀ tɪ́pàt]. Kéíkinyí tɨ́pât náàtà lárrábàl. The value of war is small/War has little value. Nɨ́kɨ̀dɔ̀l áàjò oróréí lɛ́ tɨ́pàt. We saw that it [=the Bible] is an important word. See: a-ɨtɨpát To be related with.

ɛn-tɨ́pàt1   Nom sg: ɛn-tɨ́pât. Acc pl: ɨn-tɨ́patɨ́. Nom pl: ɨn-tɨ́patí. n. Lineage. Ɔlɛ̂ ntɨ́pàt âŋ amʉ̂ órè nkakúyiaâ nkakúyiaâ lɛnyɛ́ nɛ́ŋàr kɨ́nà nkákuyiaâ nkakúyiaâ làŋ. He is of our lineage because his great great grandfather was a brother to our great great grandfather. This may refer to other people besides just the Maasai, if one's historical background goes to other tribes other than the Maasai. See: ol-oshô Tribe; ol-órèrè Tribe.

ol-típipínì   Nom sg: ol-típipínì. Acc pl: il-típipín. Nom pl: il-típipín. n. Wasp.

a-tipitíp   v. To make spots. Míntókì atipitíp ɨ̀nà kɨlâ amʉ̂ áísídáí tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́bɔ̀r. Stop making spots on that cloth because it is good when white. (Pk).

ol-típó   Nom sg: ol-tipó. n. Smallpox. See: ɛn-tɨ́dɨ́yáí Small pox.

a-tír   v. 1 • To develop a feeling of sickness, ache, pain, etc. in some part of the body. Áatotiró ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. I have a feeling of stomach upset/ache. (lit: The stomach pains me.). Etírù ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. He/she will get a stomach ache. Áàìtòtìrò ɛngamatá inkáík. The gripping has made my hands ache.

2 • To feel some bodily urge or need (esp. need to go to the toilet, feel hunger). káatotirô.... It made me feel ... [Something needs to be added, to clarify what is felt, how and where]. Áàtotirô injô aásɨ̀shɔ̀. I fell asleep when I worked (i.e. that one time). (lit: Sleep ached me while I worked.) (W). LING: The form a-totiró is the expected +ATR perfective/subjunctive inflection. In S, the irregular form a-titiró is attested (cf. examples).

3 • [North] To have a headache. Káatitirô. I have a headache.

4 • [North] To need to urinate. Káatitirô. I need to urinate. (S).

5 • To infect. Káatitirô. I have been infected. (S).

a-tír esúmàsh   To feel hungry.

a-tír ɛnkʉ́rɛ̀   To feel thirsty. See: a-yá To ache, feel pain; a-múéí To be sick; a-mé To pain.

én-tíránkô [South]   Nom sg: en-tírankô. n. [South] Red ant. Syn: ŋotó kɔshɛ́shɛ̀ Red ant. See: ɨnk-alaók (Black) ants; e-muyioô Red ants.

ol-tírén   Nom sg: ol-tirén. Acc pl: il-tírénìtò. Nom pl: il-tirénìtò. [North] Acc sg: l-túrén. [North] Acc pl: l-túrénìtò. n. Floor of the house, especially the area around the fireplace and beds.

n-tirímpò [North]   Nom sg: n-tírìmpò. Acc pl: n-tirimponí. Nom pl: n-tírimponí. n. [North] Heavy and sharp metal tool for digging holes.

l-tírmám [North]   Acc pl: l-tirmamîn. Nom pl: l-tírmamín. n. [North] Hole, ditch. See: en-gúmótó Hole.

n-tírrá [North]   n. [North] Song sung by warriors as they smear red ochre on a girl who's getting married in order to ridicule or mock the man who is marrying her. See: l-ódò Song by old men; l-aparasíyíó Song by women; n-dikíé Song by boys; l-ɛbártà Mockery song for almost circumcised boys; l-kíshúrótó Raiders song of victory; l-kulonkóì Song by night trekkers; n-kérèyìò Song by uncircumcised girls; wókò Song to narrate ones achievement.

en-tírrásh [South]   Nom sg: en-tirrásh. Acc pl: in-tírráshí. Nom pl: in-tírrashí. n. [South] Jackal. See: em-báríé Jackal.

ɛn-tɨrrɨmá   n. Stick. See: ɛn-tɨrmá Walking stick; e-ŋúdì Stick; o-sebua Stick.

n-tîs  

in-tishín   n.pl. 1 • Sticks.

2 • Muscles.

3 • Calf muscles.

n-titipayó [North]   n. [North] Hedgehog. See: en-jólís Hedgehog; nakonkóyò Hedgehog.

en-títo   Nom sg: en-titó. Acc pl: in-tóyìè. Nom pl: in-tóyîê. n. 1 • Unmarried girl. Ɛgɨ́rà náají entitó arɨpakɨ́ ɔrmʉ́rránì ɔrkatáàì. The unmarried girl was making a bracelet for a warrior. Képúó intóyîê áàshɨ̀l ɨlmʉ́rràn. Girls are going to appraise warriors.

2 • Daughter. ɛ́tɛ́rɛ́wá ɔlpáyìàn entíto ɛnyɛ́ sukúùl tɛ̀ nébô ɨlaláshàrà. The man has sent his daughter to school together with (her) brothers. This term refers to a girl prior to circumcision, but can also be used by her parents or paternal relatives at any stage of her life. A daughter is not traditionally counted as part of the family. A daughter is also traditionally trained to be respectfully distant from her father. Eg. she is taught to leave the house when her father comes, and she has no physical contact with him from an early age.

ol-títo   A big girl, especially in terms of body size; an overgrown girl. Usage: Contemptuous, rare. This term is especially used when one wants to discourage certain habits in the girl; or, if the parents are late in making the girl go through some cultural rituals, close people may use the term to remind the parents of the consequences of delaying. Nótó aké táŋasakɨ́ oltitó ɔ́bancí ɨlpayianí. You overgrown girl must first greet men. (Pk). Syn: e-silá Girl; e-sélénkéí Girl; Ant: ɛnk-ayíónì Young boy. See: en-kiyíô Little girl.

títóíshò   Girlhood. See: en-títo Girl.

a-tíú   v.s. 1 • To resemble, be alike, be like. Étíú ɛná kɨ́lâ ánàà ɨ́nâ. [étyú] This cloth resembles that one. Etíùù ɛnkáyíóní ánàà mɛ́nyɛ́. [ètíùù] A boy will become like his father. Kórè ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ nétìù ánàà ɔlkɨtɨ́ tʉŋánì. A child is like a small person. (W). Kájì étíú? How is it? What is it like? (W).

2 • To seem, appear to be. LING: a-tíú must co-occur with ánàà. This verb cannot be used in the passive. See: ɛ́-nátîû The one (fem) that is like.

-to   1 • asp. Plural perfect or perfective aspect suffix form which occurs after +ATR vowels.

2 • mood. Plural subjunctive suffix form which occurs after +ATR vowels. "Lɔ́ mʉrraní túkùrtò iyíóók "You warrior, stir us.". See: -ta Perfective aspect or subjunctive mood suffix.

l-togír [North]   Nom sg: l-tógìr. n. [North] Slowness, laziness. aatá ltogír to be slow, lazy. See: ɛn-calán Laziness.

ɔl-tɔgɔ́m   Nom sg: ɔl-tɔ́gɔm. Acc pl: ɨl-tógómí. Nom pl: ɨl-togomí. n. 1 • Rampart.

2 • Constructed circumscribed basin on the surface of the earth used for storing a mixture of blood, milk and beer. It can also be used to store water.

3 • Mixture of milk, beer and blood placed on a constructed circumscribed basin on the surface of the earth, used for blessings.

a-toí   v. To get dry. Éítòì ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɨlkáràsh. The sun will dry the large cloths/shukas. (W). See: a-toyú To get dry.

toí   adv. Indeed. Táanyúakɨ toí aké amʉ̂ kálòtù. You wait for me for I am indeed going to come. (Pk). See: doí Indeed.

a-toikí   v. To dry on. Áàgɨ̀rà ɛɨlatá atoikí. The oil/fat is drying on me. (Pk). See: a-toyú To become dry.

ol-tóíló   Nom sg: ol-toiló. Acc pl: il-tóílóíshì. Nom pl: il-toiloishí. n. 1 • Voice. Kákè ɛɛ́tà ɛná titó oltóíló sídáí tɛ̀ nɛ́ràny. This girl has a beautiful voice when she sings. (Pk).

2 • Sound. Kɛ́ɛ́tà ɛná motí oltóíló lɛ́ nkɨŋusiá tɛ̀ níwòsh. This pot has an interesting sound when you hit it. (Pk). Átóníŋò oltóíló laíjó ɛsɨ́ŋátá tiaáúlùò. I have heard a sound like a sneeze outside. (W).

ol-tóíló odóyìò   n. Low tone. LING: The low tone is represented by a grave accent mark at the end of words, and by no tone mark in the beginning or middle portion of a word.

ol-tóíló óílèp   n. High tone. LING: In Maa, there are two types of High tones, a "regular high", and a "downstep high" tone. When a word ends high when another word follows within the same phrase, but low or mid in pitch when at the end of a phrase, it is said to be a "Downstep High" tone. This is indicated by writing the word with no tone mark just on the final portion of the word. The regular high tone is always high pitch, whether the word in question is phrase-final or phrase-internal. This is represented by an accute accent mark on the vowel.

ol-tóíló ɔsʉlárì   n. Falling tone. LING: In Maa falling tones only occur at the ends of words, and are apparent only when the word is in phrase-final position. This is written with a "hachek" symbol over the vowel. When such a word occurs in the middle of a phrase with another word following, the falling tone is simplified to a simple high pitch.

il-tóílóshì óítushulí peê étúmí enkírórótó1   n.pl. Sounds that are joined together so you get a sentence; alphabet. See: a-ɨrɔ́r To speak, talk.

il-tóílóshìe ɔɔ́tɔnɨ́ ɔ́ɔpɛ́ny2   n.pl. Sounds that can sit on their own; vowels.

e-toíshe   [North] Acc sg: e-tiíshè. v.mid.pf. (Third-person) Perfect(ive) middle form of a-ishó; (to) have given birth. Ɛyákakɨ́ ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ naatɔ́ɨ́shɛ́ dɛ́t ɛndáà. A woman who just had a baby had food brought for her. (Pk). Etoíshe ɛnapá tɔmɔnɔnɨ́. That pregnant woman has given birth. Átóíshè kákè káyieu ɛɨ́látá náyieu inkírí I have given birth, but I need fat and I need meat. (KS). See: a-ishó To give birth.

en-toitóì   Nom sg: en-tóitóì. [North] Acc sg: n-tóitóì. n.sg. Heat on the soil on a hot sunny day. The effect of this heat requires one to have shoes to walk. See: a-toyú To wither.

in-tóiwúó   Nom pl: in-tóiwúó. n.pl. Parents. Básì nɛ́manyɨshɔ́ nɛ́ákʉ intóiwúó. Then they will live together and become parents. (W). Eéwùò oltúlèt tɔ́rrɔnɔ̂ ɛnkɔ́p lɛ́mɛ́yányìt ɨnkɛ́râ intóiwúó. A bad generation has come to the world where children do not respect parents. Kéíshíákíno nɛ́yà intóiwúó naata ɛnkɨ́dɨ́mátá ɨnkɛ́rà sukúùl. Parents who have the ability should take their children to school. See: a-íú To give birth to.

a-toíwùò   v.pf. To have given birth; perfect(ive) of a-íú. See: a-íú(n) To give birth, bear (offspring); a-ishó To give birth, bear (offspring); in-tóyìè Girls.

en-tókì   Nom sg: en-tókî. Variant: en-tokí. Acc pl: in-tokitín. Variant: in-tokitîn. Nom pl: in-tókìtìn. [North] Acc sg: n-tóki. [North] Nom pl: n-tókitín. n. Thing; something. Sidaín táá dúóó táatá imbaâ amʉ̂ ínótó pɔɔkɨ́ tókì níyíéú. Things are good today because you have gotten all things that you wanted. (W). Míntókì ayietú amʉ̂ mmɛɛ́tà entokí nɨ́kɨ́nyá. Stop screaming because nothing is going to attack you. (Pk). Ekébikóò intókìtìn pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀ náaramát ɨlɔ́ɔpɛ̂ny. All things that their owners care for last long. (Pk). Ɛyáwuakɨ́ dúóó intokitín pɔɔkɨ́ ènè. All the things were brought here. (Pk). LING: The plural may refer to property and possessions. LING: In the speech of kk (W), the plural may be pronounced with a final velar nasal: LING: [tòkìtíŋ].

a-tól   v. To predict failure or misfortune, which is a bad omen because it is believed the very prediction will bring misfortune; to say something bad resulting in misfortune.

n-Tolíó [North]   n. [North] Name of the most "senior" Samburu section, to which all blacksmiths belong. Blacksmiths are looked down on because they do not own livestock; yet nearly all activities in some way depend on their skill.

en-tólit   Nom sg: en-tolít. Acc pl: ɨn-tólò. Nom pl: intólô. [South] Acc sg: en-tólìt. n. Marrow (of bone). Óyìè ɛ́ntɨ̀gɨ̀l ɛlɛ̂ óìtò peê ɨdɔlɨdɔ́lɔ̀ entólit natíi. Boys, break this bone so that you can see the marrow in it.

a-toló   v.mid. 1 • To be wild in manner; have a bad temper; have damage. Kɛ́áar ɔltʉ́ŋání ótolo ɛnkáŋ ɛnyɛ́. A wild person disperses the people at his home. olórèrè otólò a wild crowd (of people). This charcteristic in a person could be the result of him or her having been cursed. a-toló does not refer to "wild (non-domestic) animals".

2 • To be spoiled, hedonistic, wild, selfish, careless. Usage: Older people referring to the younger generation. Kéjó oshî ɨltásàtí, "Kétólò kʉná kɛ́râ ɛ́kʉ́ná ɔlɔ̀ŋɨ̀." Old men always say, "Children of these days are wild.". Usage: a-toló is more extreme than a-munó..

3 • [North] To have a blemish or defect, either missing an eye, horn, etc., or (for males) to have a coloring prohibited in the tribe. The tribe-specific prohibitions are regulated by the old men; mk doesn't know what the allowed colorations are in his area. -kar. See: a-munó To be unpredictable; en-tolôî Anger, bad temper; a-goró To be angry. Ant: a-munyák without.blemish.

n-toló [North]   n. [North] Suni.

en-tolôî   Nom sg: en-tólòì. n.sg. Anger, wildness, resentfulness, indifference. Tápàlà entolôî amʉ̂ órè oshî entókì nɛ́mɛ́ɨ́dɨ́mayu, nɛ́mɛ́ɨ́dɨ́mayu naá. Stop being wild because some things are impossible, impossible. (Pk). Tápàlà entolôî amʉ̂ ɛkɨpɨ́k entábóí. Stop anger because it is going to put you in trouble. (Pk). Etíákakɨ́ ɨlmórùàk oógògòŋ mɛtápàlà entolôî amʉ̂ kéímamálin ɨnkɛ́râ ɛ́ pɔɔkɨ́ ŋáɨ́. [pɔ̀ɔ̀kɪ́ ŋày] Beligerent men have been told to stop being hot-tempered [towards the mischievious children] because everyone's children are negligent. (Pk). See: a-toló To be wild.

en-tóloitá   Nom sg: en-tóloitá. Acc pl: in-tóloitán. Nom pl: in-tóloitán. n. Big post that is used to support the roof in a house with a steeped roof and rafters. Etúúrúnyè entóloitá. The house-post fell over. (W). Eitáshieyie entóloitá ɛnkají. The house-post supports the house. (W). See: o-lóómí Rafter, post.

en-tólú   Nom sg: en-tolú. Acc pl: in-tolúó. Nom pl: in-tólùò. [Chamus] Acc sg: tolú. n. 1 • Axe. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ entólú matudúŋìè ɛlɛ̂ shaní. Give me (your) axe so I can use it to cut this tree. (Pk).

2 • [North] Marrow. Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-tolu (Vossen 1989:194), from Proto-Eastern Nilotic *-tolu- 'axe' (Vossen 1982:328). Borrowed from Central Sudanic *-tolu 'axe', East Central Sudanic *lɔ 'ax' + Central Sudanic tV- Nominative Prefix, with later shift to +ATR vowel in Eastern Nilotic (C. Ehret 2003:149, "Language Contacts in Nilo-Saharan Prehistory." Language Contacts in Prehistory, Studies in Stratigraphy, ed. by Henning Andersen, 135-157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.). See: úrò Axe.

en-tolût   Nom sg: tólùt. Acc pl: tolútì. Nom pl: tólutí. adj. Miserable. Tolût ɔltʉ́ŋání lɛ́mɛ́átà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. A person who owns no cows is miserable.

n. 1 • Disadvantaged one, as in a deceased childless person who died in socially-miserable conditions with no family or friends; poor one. Usage: sympathetic term.

2 • Miserable man who characteristically has problems (not deceased, but, e.g. his car died, his wife ran away, his children are miscreants, his cows are not allowed to drink water because he hasn't paid for his share of water). Usage: derog.

ɔl-tɔ́mɛ́   Nom sg: ɔl-tɔmɛ́. Acc pl: ɨl-tɔmíá. Variant: il-tomíá. Nom pl: ɨl-tɔ́mìà. n. Elephant. Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ̂ maɨŋórìè ɨltɔmíá oókìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. Átɔ́dúàà apá ɔltɔ́mɛ́ tɔlalɛ́ lɔ́ɔ̀ ŋúésì. I saw an elephant in the game park (reserve). See: ɔ-lɛ́nkaɨna Elephant; ol-káncáóí Elephant; ɔl-cáŋito sápʉ̀k Wild animal, Elephant.

lɛ-tɔmɨ́à   n. Wild mellon tree, so named because elephants eat the fruit. citribus colocynthine.

tɔ́mɔ̂n   Nom sg: tɔ́mɔ́n. Acc pl: ín-tómónî. Nom pl: in-tómóní. num. Ten. LING: The plural refers to several tens. LING: As a IVe word, the singular of tɔ́mɔ̂n surfaces as tɔ̀mɔ̀n in the accusative case whenever it follows another word. It is also low in numerical expressions when it precedes other words. It behaves as a High tone word in the nominative case, undergoing downstep if immediately after another High tone. Ádɔ́l tɔ́mɔ̂n táatá. [ádɔ́l tɔ̀mɔ̀n táàtá] I see ten today. Képuonú tɔ́mɔ̂n. [képùònú tɔ̀mɔ̀n] They will add up to ten. Tɛ̀ nɨ́nkɛ̀n ilkimojík lɔɔ́ nkáɨ́k pokírà nɛ́rà tɔ́mɔ̂n nɛ́gɨ̀rà. [tɔ̀mɔ̀n] If you count the fingers of both hands, they are just ten. Képuonú tɔ́mɔ́n. ̤[képùònú tɔ̄mɔ̄n] Ten (people, animals, etc.) will come. LING: If something follows 'ten' when in the Accusative case, the tone on 'ten' stays low. If something follows 'ten' when in the Nominative case, 'ten' will have high tone, as shown in the phonetic form of the following exampleː fvːKépuonú fvːtɔ́mɔ́n fvːtáatá. [képùònú tɔ́mɔ́n táàtá] 'Ten are coming (now).'. Etym: Proto-Kalenjin *têmên 'ten' (speculative, from Heine, Rottland & Vossen 1979:79).

tɔ́mɔ̂n ó obô   [tɔ̀mɔ̀n òòbô]  Nom sg: form again. Looks basically like \lc form?. num. Eleven.

tomoni uní   Variant: tɔ́mɔ̂n uní. Nom sg: tómònì uní. num. Thirty. See: ɔsɔm Thirty.

en-tómónìshò   n.f. 1 • The stage of a woman just after she has given birth; post-partum woman. Ɛ́tɔ́n doí mɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ ɛncalán é tómónìshò ɨnâ kitók epukú tiájì. The weakness of the postpartum stage does not allow that woman to come out of the house. (Pk). See: óíjìè The stage of a female animal or woman after giving birth.

ɛn-tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́   n. Condition or status of having a lot of children. Ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́ doí námitikí kʉlɨ́káɨ́ máréítà ɛ̀pàl inkíshú mɛ́mɨ́rà. It is because of the many children that some families cannot avoid selling cows. (lit: It is having many children that prevents other families from stopping to sell cows.) (Pk).

ɛn-tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀   Nom sg: ɛn-tɔmɔnɔnɨ́. Acc pl: ɨn-tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́k. Nom pl: ɨn-tɔmɔnɔ́k. n. 1 • Woman who has just delivered a baby; postpartum woman. Ɛyákakɨ́ ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ naatɔ́ɨ́shɛ́ dɛ́t ɛndáà. A woman who just had a baby had food brought for her. (Pk). Etoíshe ɛnapá tɔmɔnɔnɨ́. That previously-mentioned woman has given birth.

2 • Woman who has had children. Eikilikúánúá náají ɔlpáyìàn lɛ́ ɛndâ ají ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ ɛ́ ínâ ají. The man of that house has asked for the woman of that house. [lɛ́ ɛ́ndà] [éínà].

3 • [North] Married woman. This normally implies that the woman has children.

en-tómónónisho   1 • The stage of a woman just after she has given birth; post-partum woman.

2 • Person (man or woman) who has a lot of children. See: en-kitók Woman.

tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀   Acc pl: na-́tɔmɔnɔ́k. voc. Term of address used for an adult woman. Tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀, ôû. Woman, come! (Pk). Nátɔmɔnɔ́k, ɛ́ntakúɛ́nyà. Women, hello! (Pk).

a-tɔ́n   v.prog. 1 • v.prog. To sit, sit down. Átɔ́nɨ́tà. I am sitting. Ɨ́tɔ́nɨ́tà. You are sitting. Ɛtɔ́nɨ́tà. He is sitting. Kɨ́tɔnɨ́. We are sitting. Ɨ́tɔ́nɨ́nɨ̀. Y'all are sitting. Ɛtɔ́nɨ. They are sitting. Tɔ́tɔ̀nàǃ Sit downǃ. Ímpirríó tɔ́tɔ̀nàǃ Run and sit! Ɛtɔ́nɨ ɨlpáyɨaní. The men will sit. Ɛtɔ́nɨ ɨnkɛ́râ pɔɔkɨ́ tì áúlùò. All the children are sitting outside the homestead. Ɛtɔ́nɨ ɨlŋátùnyò tɔɔ́ nkʉjɨ́t. Lions are sitting down on the grass. (W). Imetumókì ɛná áyíóní atɔtɔ́nà aɨtɔbɨ́rakɨ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ɔldʉ́tʉtáì oltúlì. This boy cannot sit well because he has a boil on his buttock. Órè ɛndáma ɔ́ ɛnkɛwaríé pɔɔkɨ́ kɛ́tɔnɨtà aké. Day and night he has just been sitting. Átɔ́nɨ́tà tɔ lóríka. I am sitting on a chair.

2 • v.prog. To stay in a place, wait. Ɛ́tɔ́tɔ́ná. He stayed / sat down. Ɛtɔ́tɔ́ná. He stayed / sat down. (W). Ɛ́tɔ́n nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɛnâ kínè tì âŋ. This goat will stay at home. (Pk). Órè aké peê ɨ́ndɨ̀p ɨ́nâ, nílo atɔ́n. Néjî, etoîshe ɛnapâ tɔmɔnɔnɨ́... When you finish that, you go and wait. And (when) it is reported that the woman has given birth...

3 • v.aux. To remain in a condition; continue, keep on, remain. LING: As an auxiliary verb, ɛ́tɔ́n is invariant for person. Ɛ́tɔ́n doí aké èshàl ɨnkɨ́lání amʉ̂ ɛnaisujíékì. The clothes are still wet because they were washed recently. (Pk). Ɛ́tɔ́n áâ entíto ɛnâ kɛráí. That child is still a girl. Ɛ́tɔ́n doí mɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ ɛncalán é tómónìshò ɨnâ kitók epukú tiájì. The weakness of the postpartum stage does not allow that woman to come out of the house. (Pk). Ɛtɔ́tɔ́ná dúóó ɛngárɨ́ auló ɔmɛtʉ́pʉkʉ́ tɛ̀ nkoitóí. The vehicle kept swerving until it was out of the road. (Pk). Nɛ́tɔ̀n ɛnapá kɛráí abʉlʉ́. The child will continue to grow [while waiting to be married]. Míntókì atɔ́n ayiaŋiyíáŋ tólimú dúóó ɛnɨ́átà. Stop continuing to rave and say exactly what you have to say. (Pk). Míkíntóki aipukíé amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n aátà esíáàì. Stop hurrying because I still have work to do. (Pk).

4 • v.aux. To delay. . See: a-lɛkʉ́ To remain; a-w(ú)ón To remain; ɛ́tɔ́n Still, (not) yet.

ɛ̀-tɔ̀n ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀   v.aux. Compound auxiliary, indicating 'not yet' or 'before'. See: a-tɔ́n To sit, still.

ɛn-tɔnâî   Nom sg: ɛn-tɔ́nàì. Variant: ɛntánàì. Acc pl: ɨn-tɔná. Variant: in-taná. Nom pl: ɨn-tɔ́nà. Variant: in-tánà. n. 1 • Root of a plant. Órè oshî ɨntɔná ɔɔ́ lkeék némélìò amʉ̂ abóri ɛnkɔ̂p etíi. The roots of trees are not seen because they are underground. (Pk).

2 • Something important that one needs to do; one's "business" Émíntókì doí áàtɔ̀nɨ̀ áàìtùmùtìkì ɨltʉ́ŋáná amʉ̂ kɛ́átáí doí ɨntɔná. Stop delaying people because they have business. (Pk).

ɛn-tɔ́nátá   Nom sg: ɛn-tɔnatá. Acc pl: ɨn-tɔnát. Nom pl: ɨn-tɔ́nàt. n. 1 • Sitting place. Óù amʉ̂ enê ɛntɔnatá. Come because this is the sitting place. (Pk).

2 • Sitting.

3 • End, conclusion. Ɛnâ taá ɛntɔnatá ɔ́ɔ lɔmɔ́n ncɛ́rɛ̀ mátayookinotó tenê. This is the conclusion of the conversation, that we meet in the morning right here. (Pk).

4 • Foot, base, bottom of sth; where it meets a level place. Mmɛ̂ gɨ́rà doí intárè áàtàànà ɛ́mɨdɔ́l ajó ɛntɔ́nátá ó ldóínyó iyíóók kítíí nétíí nɨ́nchɛ̀ ɛncʉ́mátá. The goats and sheep are not near; we are at the foot of the hill and they are at the top. (Pk). Ɛncɔ̀m ɛntɔ́nátá ó ldóínyíó ɛ́yaʉ́ ɨlkeék. Go to the foot of the hill and bring firewood. (Pk).

5 • Way of life. Ɛɨŋásíéyíé ɨltʉ́ŋánák ɛntɔnatá ɔ́ɔ̀ lMáásâɨ̂. The Maasai way of life surprises people. (W). See: a-tɔ́n To sit.

a-toníé   v. 1 • To sit on.

2 • To impregnate (of a male animal). See: a-tɔ́n To sit.

a-tɔnɨkɨ́   In some suffixed forms: a-tɔnɨkɨ́n. v. To impregnate (of a male animal). Kɛtɔtɔnɨ́kɨ́á olóíŋóní enkítéŋ Has the bull impregnated the cow? See: a-toníé To impregnate.

é-tóŋúá   v. 1 • It is rotten.

2 • To be despised, hated. Pɛ́nyɔ̀ doí nɛ́tɔ̀n ɛɛtáɨ ɔltʉŋánì láayíéu náaboitarê amʉ̂ atɔ́ŋúáà apá nanʉ́. It is unlikely there will be a person who wants to stay with me because I am rotten. (Pk). See: a-ŋuoyú To be rotten; a-isamisú To be rotten.

ol-tóò   Nom sg: ol-tóô. Acc pl: ɨl-tóoí. Nom pl: ɨl-tóoí. n. Container for storing liquid such as water, oil, fat; barrel, pail, jerrycan, bucket. Ebukú enkítòk ɛnkárɛ́ apɨ́k oltóò. The woman will pour the water to the water-container. Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk aokunyíé oltóò ɛnkárɛ́ tɔɔrkɛ́jʉ̀. The woman went to fetch water with a barrel at the river. (Pk).

en-tóò   Bucket.

tɔɔ́   Variant: toó. prep. Oblique preposition used before plural nouns. Ékíiyíéú ɨnkɨtanyaanyukót tɔɔ́ ltʉŋaná kumók. We need examples from many people. Néponu ɨlmʉ́rrân enetíi toó ltualán. The warriors come to where he is with bells. See: tɛ̀ Oblique.

l-tóò lɛ́ naiurrúur [North]   Nom sg: l-tóô lɛ́ naiurrúur. Acc pl: l-tóoí lɛ́ naiurrúur. Nom pl: l-tóoí lɛ́ naiurrúur. n. [North] Cylindrical container for making soup. See: ol-marikítì Paint can.

ɛn-tɔɔ́lɛ̀ [South]   n. [South] Flat wood base in which fire stick is turned. See: ol-pírón Fire stick.

n-tɔ́ɔ́p [North]   Nom sg: n-tɔɔ́p. Acc pl: n-tóópí. Nom pl: n-toopí. n. [North] Rib. See: ɔl-arásì Rib; l-babákì Rib; l-máràì Rib.

en-toré   Nom sg: en-tórè. Acc pl: in-torên. Nom pl: in-tórèn. n. 1 • Belt made of beads worn by warriors.

2 • [North] Belt made of beads worn by girls.

3 • Belt of beads worn by young children. See: en-kíméítá Belt made of beads.

ol-tórónkéí   Nom sg: ol-toronkéí. Acc pl: il-toronkên. Nom pl: il-tóronkên. n. Type of ornament for the wrist.

en-tórós   Nom sg: en-torós. Acc pl: in-torosí. Nom pl: in-tórosí. n. 1 • Garment of favour worn by warriors after vowing to win or die.

2 • Without fear.

3 • [North] Person who walks alone, not accompanied by anyone.

in-torosí   Nom pl: in-tórosí. n.pl. 1 • Group of women who gather and move from place to place performing ceremonial duties.

2 • [North] Singing competition between women from different clans.

3 • Singing and praying to God by women. See: n-kɨ́járɛ́ Singing competition by warriors.

en-tórròbò   Nom sg: en-tórróbo. Acc pl: in-tórròbò. Nom pl: in-tórróbò. n. 1 • Sleeping sickness in human beings, caused by tsetse fly.

2 • Trypanosomiasis: a disease in cattle caused by tsetse fly. See: ɛnk-ásíléí Tsetse fly.

ol-tórróboní   Nom sg: ol-torróbònì. Acc pl: ɨl-Tórròbò. Nom pl: ɨl-Tórróbò. n. 1 • One who gets his livelihood from hunting wild animals; hunter. Ɛ́táŋóró oltorróboní ɔɨnkát tɛndá tîm. The hunter has killed a wildebeest in that bush. (Pk). Átɔ́dùàà oltórróboní ɛ̀nàpɨ̀tà ɔɨnkát ɔtará. I saw hunter carrying meat of a wildebeast he killed. (Pk).

2 • Dorobo; often used to refer to hunter-gathering group(s) that speak the Maa language; one without cattle. Ɨmɛɛ́tà apá iltórróboní inkíshú; ɨlŋanayíó ɔ ɨnáíshí ólotóròk ó ŋúésì entîm ɛ́nyá. Before then the Dorobo never had cattle; he used to eat fruits, bee honey, and wild animals. This term often has derogatory connotations, and as they have no cattle, they are necessarily considered poor. These are 'bee hunters' -mk.

3 • An expert in circumcision. Etoríkuokí dúóó oltórróboní olotú amʉrát ɨlayîôk. An expert in circumcision who will come to circumcise boys has been brought. (Pk). See: ɔl-aŋórònì Hunter; ɔl-ámʉ́rátànì Circumciser; ɔl-akítònì Circumciser.

tɔrrɔ̂k   adj.pl. Bad (pl referent). See: tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ Bad.

en-torróni   Nom sg: en-tórroní. Acc pl: ɨn-tɔrrɔ̂k. Nom pl: ɨn-tɔ́rrɔ̀k. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨn-tɔ́rɔ̀k. n. 1 • Evil, bad feeling, trouble. Kétip ɔltʉŋánì iŋôk ánàà intɔ́rɔ̀k ɛ́nyɛ̀nà. A person is made impure by his sins or wrongdoing. (Pk). Tápàlà entorróni amʉ̂ ɛ́kɨ́yákɨ́ kɛɛ́yà. Stop evil because it will bring you death. (Pk). Káŋítò entorróni tosésèn pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀ nɛ́máɨshɔ́ aás áí. Ɛtanárèyìà nɛ́ɨ́ŋɔ́r ɨltʉŋaná átɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá entórroní ó mpukunót pɔɔkɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p. People should take care of themselves because the world is full of all kind of evil/bad feeling/trouble. (Pk).

tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂   Nom sg: tɔ́rrɔnô. Acc pl: tɔrrɔ̂k. Nom pl: tɔ́rrɔ̀k. [North] Acc sg: tɔrrnɔ̀. [Northː [tɔ̌rnɔ̀]] adj. bad.

1 • Bad, not good; unpleasant; unacceptable. Eyéwùò oltúlèt tɔ́rrɔnɔ̂ ɛnkɔ́p lɛ́mɛ́yányɨ̀t ɨnkɛ́râ intóiwúó. A bad generation has come to the world where children do not respect parents. (Pk). ɛrányárɛ́ tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ bad singing. Tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ taá ɔlkúààk ópurrishó ɨnkɛ́râ. The habit of children stealing is bad. (Pk).

2 • Dishonourable character, bad-hearted. Ɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɛlɛ̂ tʉ́ŋání amʉ̂ kɛ́lɛ́jɨshɔ This man is bad because he is a liar.

3 • Unclean; untidy; dirty. Meishópoyu ɛná kɨ́lâ amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. This cloth is not wearable because it is dirty. (Pk).

4 • Ugly, not beautiful, not handsome. Ɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ enkómòm ɛ́lɛ̀ tʉŋánì The face of this man is ugly.

5 • In bad condition; not functioning. Kɛ́ɨ́tɔrɔ̂k iŋónyò ɛ́nyɛnák. His blood vessels are in bad condition. Ɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɛngárrî. The car is bad (not mechanically functioning well). Áló sukúùl tááisérè tɔɔ́ ɨnkɛjɛ́k amʉ̂ tɔrɔ́nɔ̂ ɛngárrî áî. I will go to school tomorrow walking because my car is bad (i.e. not mechanically functioning well). (W).

6 • Severe or serious, with harmful effect. Ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá emueyíán tɔ́rrɔnɔ̂ nɛ́mɛ́ɛ́tà ɔlcaní. He/she has been affected by a bad disease that has no cure.

en-torróni   n. Ill, trouble, bad feeling. Syn: súújí Bad; Ant: sídáí Good. See: a-torronú To become bad, become spoiled.

a-torronú   v. To get or become bad. Náà kɛ́gɨ́rà taá doí intókìtìn átòrrònù. Things are becoming bad. (Pk).

toto   n. Type of shiny stone.

en-tótòì   Nom sg: en-totóí. Acc pl: in-tótò. Variant: n-tótoí ?? (S). Nom pl: in-tótô. Variant: n-tótoí (S). n. 1 • Pebble. Ɛgɨ́rà náají inkáyìòk ósòtù intótò naíguránìè. The boys are collecting pebbles for playing with. (Pk).

2 • Game with wood and stones.

ol-tótòì   Large pebble.

en-tótóí ɛ káí   Beautiful smooth little stones. See: ɔl-ŋɨ́nai Obsidian stone; o-sóít Stone; en-késhúí Wood and stones game.

totût   adj. Disadvantaged, poor, lacking in sth., unfortunate. Ɛná totût ɛ́nà puus. That is a disadvantaged cat (e.g. when rebuffed by humans and yowling for companionship). (Pk). See: ɛ-naɨbɛ̂ Disadvantaged one; ɛn-tʉmáî Disadvantaged one.

n-towúó [North]   n. [North] Age set comprising of men from all clans. See: ol-pórrôr Age set.

a-toyó   v.mid. To be dry. Meisʉ́pàt alɛ́ ránkîn amʉ̂ kótoyó. This paint is not good because it is dry. (SN). Meisʉpáti kʉlɔ́ ránkin amʉ̂ kótoítò. These paints are not good because they are dry. (SN). Kótóì. It will become dry. (SN). Kótoyó alɛ́ ránki lapatín aré oóɨshâ. This paint dried two months ago. (SN).

a-toyú   [North]: a-toí. v. 1 • To become, get dry. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɨ́lâ áí atoyú. [ɛ̀ŋkɪ́láí] My cloth is getting dry. (Pk). Etóyù ɔlkarashá. The large cloth will dry. (W). Kéírébùk inkílaní amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ etoyú olêŋ. The cloths are damp because they are not yet completely dry. (Pk). Etoyíó. It is (already) dry. (Pk). Etoyíó ɔlkarashá ŋolé. The large cloth dried yesterday. (W). Áítúŋúaa ɛnɛshál arík énétóyíó. I will make him/her leave (the place) that is wet and go to that which is dry. (Pk).

2 • To get hard, dry up. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛsárŋáb atoyú. The mud is getting hard. (K)etóyù ɛmʉ́kàtɛ̀ tè níŋúaa tɛ̀ bɔ́ɔ̀. (A slice of) bread will get dry if you leave it outside. (Pk).

3 • To wither. Ɛ́gɨ́rà ɛndâ shaní atoyú. That shrub is withering. (Pk).

a-toikí   To dry on.

a-toyú   v. To be dry. Kátóyù. I'm dry. (S). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlkarashá atoyú. The large cloth is drying (right now). (W). Etoyíó It has dried. Etóyù ɔlkarashá tááisérè. The large cloth will dry tomorrow. (W). Etoyíó ɔlkarashá. The cloth is dry. (W). Etoyíó ɔlkarashá ŋolé. The large cloth dried yesterday. (W). Etoítò ɨlkárâsh. The clothes dried. (completed) (W). See: a-itoí To make dry.

in-tóyìè   Nom pl: in-tóyîê. n.pl. Girls. Ɛátà kʉná tóyîê ɛnyamáli. These girls are sad. (W). See: en-títo Girl; in-tóiwúó Parents.

túá   v.pf. 1 • Suppletive perfect(ive)/subjunctive form of 'to die'; (to) be dead (for animate entities). Usage: not euphemistic. Other terms may be used euphemistically to avoid using this very direct term. People don't want to imagine this for themselves or anyone they love; so they will do anything possible to hasten the doing of everything necessary when s.o. dies. Kákè órè ɨlɔɔ́tɨjɨŋá pɔɔkɨ́, mɛ́ŋámákíno, nétuatâ ilkumók. But those who caught the disease when they were not innoculated, many of them died. Ɛtúá ŋolé ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ nátijiŋá oltíkaná. A cow which had East Coast Fever died yesterday. íló itúá. You are going when you are (already) dead. *You are going to be dead. Túá! Die! Drop dead!

2 • Cease functioning; (to) be as if "dead" (for inanimates). Ɛtúá apá ɛngárɨ̀ ɛ́nyɛ̀. His/her car had engine failure. (Pk). LING: túá has mixed Adj and some Verb features. Adj: won't take an infinitive, separate form for plurals. Verb: conjugatee for every person like a stative verb, takes aspect, must be relativized when modifying a noun, can be make into an imperative (túá Die!). See: a-yɛ́ To die.

-tûâ   asp. Plural perfect(ive) suffix indicating that the action is done with direction towards the point of reference; Ventive. Ɛyáutûâ inkítùààk ɛnkárɛ́ áŋ. Women have carried water home. ɨnadúóó kíshú nikítereutûâ those cows that we brought. See: -ta Plural perfect(ive) aspect or subjunctive mood suffix; -ʉ(n) Inventive.

ol-tuaâ1   Nom sg: ol-túáâ. Acc pl: il-tuaân. Nom pl: il-túáàn. n. Frog.

ɛn-tuáà   Frog. See: n-kɔɔ́k Frog.

en-tuaâ2   Nom sg: en-túaâ. Acc pl: in-tuaân. Nom pl: in-túáàn. n. Pregnant, expectant woman. Eitóíshé entúaâ apá ayɛlɔŋ. The pregnant woman has given birth. (Pk). Tuaâ refers to a "puffed-up" physical property.

ɛn-tuaâ ɛ́ nkárɛ́   [ɛ̀ntùáá ɛ́ŋkàɾɛ̀]  Nom sg: ɛn-túáá ɛ́nkárɛ́. Acc pl: in-tuaân ɔɔ́ nkáríák. [ɔ̀ɔ́ŋkàɾìàk]  Nom pl: intúààn ɔ́ɔ nkáríák. n. Frog, toad. Átɔ́dúáà dúóó ɛntuaá ɛ́ nkárɛ́ tɛ̀ nkaló ɛ́ nkàrɛ̀. I saw a frog (toad) near the water.

ol-túálá   Nom sg: ol-tualá. Acc pl: il-túálân. Nom pl: il-tualán. n. Bell made of metal, mostly by blacksmiths. Ɛ́tɨ́pɨ́kákɨ̀ dúóó orkíné oltúálá. A castrated he-goat has been belled. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltualá lé sekenkêî aɨshɨ́r. The metalic bell is making a high-pitched sound. (Pk). See: l-ɔ́dɔ́ŋɨ́dɔ́ŋ Wooden bell.

túân   Nom sg: tùàn. Acc pl: túánì. Nom pl: túánî. adj. Beautiful. Éítùànì taá dúóó táatá imbáâ ámaâ kinotô pɔɔkɨ́ tókì nikíyíéú. Things are beautiful today since we have gotten all that we wanted. (Pk).

a-tubaké   v. To follow. See: a-sʉ́j To follow; a-írúkúrúkòrè To follow; a-ɨjɨpaá To follow; a-dʉpakɛ́ To follow.

en-tubúloi   Nom sg: en-túbulóí. Acc pl: in-tubúlòk. Nom pl: in-túbùlòk. n. Dirt or dust in the eye.

en-túdé   Nom sg: en-tudé. Acc pl: in-túdên. Nom pl: in-tudén. n. Vagina (of human only).

ɛn-tʉ́dɛ́   n. He-goat. See: ɔl-ɔ́rɔ̀ He-goat.

en-túdù   Nom sg: en-túdû. Acc pl: in-túduí. Nom pl: in-túduí. n. Jigger. ɛɨnɔsa intudui ɨnkɛra ɨlkimojík lɔɔ́ nkɛjɛ́k. Children have jiggers infesting their toes (lit. the digits of the feet). (Pk).

tʉ́kʉ̂l   Nom sg: tʉ̀kʉ̀l. adv. completely. Ɨ́ndɨpá taá ɨ́nâ síáàì tʉ́kʉ̂l. Finish that work completely.[ɪ̀nà]  Nɨ́kɨshɨpá tʉ́kʉ̂l. We are very happy. Syn: pî Completely. See: katʉ́kʉ̂l Quite, completely.

en-túkurrútì   Nom sg: en-túkurrútì. Acc pl: in-túkurrút. Nom pl: in-túkurrút. n. Ear wax. See: n-kutukurrukí Ear wax.

ɛn-tukus   Nom pl: in-tukusi. n. Crowd. See: ol-túrrúr Crowd.

l-tʉ́kʉtán [North]   n. 1 • [North] Room created at the roof of a house for keeping young ones for goats and sheep to prevent them being attacked by fleas.

2 • [North] Shelf for keeping utensils. See: ɛ-mɨ́sà Table, shelf.

en-túkùtùk   Nom sg: en-túkútùk. Acc pl: in-tukutukuní. Nom pl: in-túkutukuní. [Purko] Acc pl: in-tukutukí. [Purko] Nom pl: in-túkutukí. n. 1 • Motor-cycle. Eyéwùò dúóó oltúkútùk ónàpɨ̀tà ɔlpayíán obô. A motor-cycle that was carrying one man came.

2 • Concave tire sandals, popular with warriors. Usage: pl. Kákè ɛshɛ́tà áàɨ̀tɔ̀bɨ̀ràkɨ̀ intukutukí náàishòpìtò ɛlɛ̂ mʉrraní. The concave shoes that this warrior are wearing are well made. (Pk).

a-túl   v. To hold.

ɔl-tʉ́làl   Nom sg: ɔl-tʉ́lâl. Acc pl: ɨl-tʉ́lalí. Nom pl: ɨl-tʉ́lalí. n. Baboon. Átódúáà náají ɔltʉ́làl ɔyɨdáka ɛnkají. I have seen a baboon that jumped to the house. See: o-ɛ́kɛ̀ny Baboon; ol-kima Baboon; [North] l-ótìm Baboon; [Camus] l-désí Baboon.

en-túlélei   Nom sg: en-tulélei. Acc pl: in-túlélè. Nom pl: in-tulelé. n. 1 • Sodom apple. Solanum.campylacanthum. Áatadanyakínè entulélei ɛnkɔŋʉ́. I had a sodom apple burst in my eye. (Pk).

2 • Sodom apple leaves. The leaves of this plant are used to clean the insides of calabashes, and to treat swellings, chest problems, dislocations.

túlélei   [Chamus] Acc sg: tʉ́lɛ̀lɛ̀ì. adj. Yellow. Éísikítoi túlélei ɛná tulélei. This sodom apple is yellow. LING: When occurring together with sikítóì, a special shade of yellow is designated. See: sikítóì Yellow; bukoi Yellow; dɛ́rlɛ́í Yellow.

ol-tulét   Nom sg: ol-túlèt. Acc pl: il-tulétà. Nom pl: il-túlètà. n. 1 • Gourd in its natural state. Eyáwúá ŋolé nɨ́nɨ̂ oltulét olóító ailísh aɨtaá enkúkúrí. Yesterday my mother brought a gourd (in its natural state) so as to make a usable gourd out of it.

2 • Generation. Eéwùò oltúlèt tɔ́rrɔnɔ̂ ɛnkɔ́p lɛ́mɛ́yányɨ̀t ɨnkɛ́râ intóiwúó. A bad generation has come to the world where children do not respect parents.

en-tulét   Tobacco or snuff container. Usage: Archaic. . See: en-kúkúrí Calabash; ɛnk-ɔtɨ́ Small gourd; ɛ-nyaáncà Small gourd; ɛ-málà Big gourd; sorrôr Type of calabash; n-kɨrráú Gourd.

n-tulúgò [North]   n. [North] Black-footed cat. See: [North] n-kuús Cat; em-puús Cat.

en-tulúgumî   Nom sg: en-túlúgúmî. n.sg. Old, dry, powdered dung. Kéyíéú néórí ɛnâ tulúgumî amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá bɔɔ́. We better sweep this old dry powdered dung because it has filled the homestead. (Pk). See: in-kíík Faeces.

a-túm2   PF: a-notó. PF: a-tumó. v. 1 • v. To meet, find, get. Népùò nétumi ɨlaŋeni. They went and met wisemen. Áàtùmò They are meeting. Képúó dúóó áàtùmò tɨ̀ ɔŋatá. They were going to meet. (Pk). Áshɔ́mɔ̀ dúóó atumoré olaigúánànì tɛ̀ nkâŋ ɛ́nyɛ̀. I went to meet the chief in his home. (Pk). Kátum ráshé. I will find a piece of cowhide. (SN). Nítum ɛntɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ natabáyìè nanʉ́tà You (will) find a woman who is pregnant. Ɛ́kɨ́gɨrá oshî táatá atúm ɛncán aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́. Nowdays we are getting rain regularly. (Pk). Nétùm ɨnkɛ́râ (taábu) esúmàsh sápʉ̀k. The children were very hungry. Kɨ́shɔmɔ́ entúmò áàyɨ̀ɨ̀màkɨ̀ enekinkô tenékìtùm iropiyianí. We went to the meeting to discuss how we will get the funds. (W). Áísídáí karsísìshò tɛ̀ nétùm ɔltʉ́ŋání supát. Wealth is very good if possessed by a good-hearted (generous) person. (Pk).

2 • v. To join two people in a marriage ceremony. LING: The perfect is irregular a-notó for PK, and irregular a-tumó for SN, but *kátútúmò for sl. Ɛtabáúá ɔlárî peê méítokiní áàpùò áàòk incoó tɔɔ́ lkɛ̀jɛ̀k, amʉ̂ ɛnótokí ɛnkárɛ́ narúkò. The rainy season has come so the cattle will not be taken to wells, because flowing water has been found. (Pk).

3 • v.aux+subjn-infinitive. To get an opportunity to. Ítúm atoósho ɔlɛ́ɛ̀ You will get to hit the man. LING: The perfect is irregular a-notó for PK, and irregular a-tumó for SN. LING: *kátútúmò for sl.

a-itutúm   To join, connect (e.g. putting together a pen and its cap, two bones coming together). ɨŋɔnyɔ́ naáítutûm intíkàn osésèn pɔɔkɨ́ the veins that connect the lymph nodes to the rest of the body (W).

á-àtùmò   To meet (plural). See: a-tumoré To meet; a-ŋamaá To get.

en-túmò   Nom sg: en-túmô. Acc pl: in-tumoritín. Nom pl: in-túmoritín. n. Meeting. Eyéwùò entúmô aitíŋ peê edoyíó ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. The meeting ended when the sun set. (Pk). Áíkerî ɛnâ áyíóní mmɛ̀ pálayu tɛ̀ nâ túmô amʉ̂ kélo alimú ɨmbáà. This boy is irresponsible and therefore cannot be included in this meeting because he will disclose things. (Pk). Nímíló aké entúmò ɛnyɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛátà encótó. And don't go to his meeting because he is partisan. (W).

a-tumokí   Variant: a-itumokí. v v.aux+subjn-infinitive. 1 • To have a good opportunity to. Ɛ́kɨ́gɨrá oshî táatá áàtùmòkì áàtààs esíáì. Nowadays we are having a good opportunity to work. (Pk).

2 • To succeed. Ɛgɨ́rà oshî táatá nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɔltáání atumokí ámaâ naá enotó esíáì. So-and-so is succeeding because he has gotten a job. (Pk). Mmetumókì ɛná áyíóní atɔtɔ́nà aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ɔldʉ́taɨ́ ɔltúlìì This boy cannot sit well because he has a boil on his buttock. (Pk). Ɛɨtʉ́ atumókì ɛmbɔ́látá ɛná kɨ́tɛ́ŋ. (My) holding of the mouth of this cow is not the best. (Pk). Ásɨ́p ajó imitumókì ɨ̀lɔ̀ tʉŋánì. Truthfully speaking, you cannot cope with (work with, coordinate with, approach) that man. (Pk). Átádê atumokí. I ate well (i.e. to satisfaction). Etápéjókì ɛnaɨgárà áàtùmòkì. The ɛnaɨgárà has been roasted nicely. (W). See: a-túm |fh Þ  To get.

n-túmúáí [North]   Nom sg: n-tumúáí. n. [North] Tapeworm. See: ɔl-pudúkì tapeworm; n-túmúáí ɛ́ nkɔp earthworm.

n-túmúáí ɛ́ nkɔp [North]   Nom sg: n-tumúáí ɛ́ nkɔp. n. [North] Earthworm. See: n-túmúáí tapeworm.

a-tʉmʉ́k   v. To brew. Náà órè ɨ́nâ képuoi aké áadʉ̂m áàtʉ̀mʉ̀k. And that one can just be brewed [type of beer for marriage negotiations].

l-túmùrèn [North]   n.pl. [North] Short rains. See: ol-túmùrèt Short rains.

ol-túmùrèt   Variant: tumurel. Nom sg: ol-túmúrèt. Acc pl: il-tumuretí. Nom pl: il-túmuretí. [Purko] Acc pl: il-túmúrètà. [Purko] Nom pl: il-tumúrètà. n. 1 • Early rain; short rainy season; sporadic rain. Enótokí ɔlɔtɨ́ túmùrèt lémé siî dúóó ɛncán ɛtókì. We have gotten some early, short, sporadic rain, not really significant. (Pk).

2 • Name of one of the seasons of the Maasai calendar, usually from November to January. Mmayíólò táatá eneikunúnó ɛlɛ́ túmúrèt ámaâ ɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ ɛshâ ɔlápâ lɛ́ tɔ̀mɔ̀n oobô nɛ́ɨ́tʉ̀ shà ɔládalú. I don't know the one that resembles ??? this season ??? since there was no rain in the eleventh month and there was no rain in the hot season ??? (Pk).

3 • April.

O-loltumuret   Name of a month or season in the Maasai calendar. See: ɛn-cán Rain.

ɛ́n-tʉ́nɛ́nɛ̂   n. Enlarged, distended, swollen scrotum, due to disease.

n-tʉnɛ́nɛ̀ [North]   [North] Whitish substance that covers the bark of a tree especially when the tree is old. See: l-mosorî Overgrowth of testicles.

ol-túnkásoi   Nom sg: ol-tunkasóí. Acc pl: il-túnkásò. Nom pl: il-tunkasó. n. The meat left after extracting fat from the intestines and other organs in the stomach. Syn: n-káwà Defatted meat. See: ɨ-rɔ́nkɛnà Defatted meat.

tʉ́ntáí1   Nom sg: tʉntáí. Acc pl: tʉntaîn. Nom pl: tʉ́ntaîn. adj. Characterized by an alternating black and white pattern. éíshópítò entitó ɛnkɨlâ tʉ́ntáí. The girl is wearing an alternating black and white dress. See: ɛn-tʉ́ntáí Oval bead.

ɛn-tʉ́ntáí2   Nom sg: ɛn-tʉntáí. Acc pl: ɨn-tʉntaîn. Nom pl: ɨn-tʉ́ntaîn. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨn-túntaí. n. 1 • Small oval bead of a standard size, commonly (but not necessarily) black or white color, used to finish the edge of necklaces. The black and white beads alternate around the necklace. Míncòp ɛnâ mánkékí amʉ̂ ɛtadányàtɛ̀ ɨntʉ́ntaí. Don't wear that necklace because the oval beads (used to finish the edge) are broken. (Pk).

2 • Type of necklace. See: o-lópóní Oval bead; ɔ-saêî Bead; yíyáí Black and white pattern.

ɨl-tʉ́ŋánákárêî   Nom sg: ɨl-tʉŋanakaréí. n. Populace. Ɛ́ɨ́kɛ́nákɨ̀ apá ɨltʉ́ŋánákárêî tɛldɛ́ árî. The populace was counted (i.e. a census was taken) last year. (Pk).

ɔl-tʉŋánì   Nom sg: ɔl-tʉ́ŋání. Acc pl: ɨl-tʉ́ŋáná(k). Nom pl: ɨl-tʉŋaná(k). [Chamus] Acc sg: l-cʉ́ŋáná. n. Person. Átɔ́dùàà ɔltʉŋánì ɔrɛʉ́tà inkíshú ɔlkɛjʉ́. I have seen a person taking cows to the river. (Pk). Mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì óítieu. There is no one who dares (to do something). Ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá nabô oshî ɛɛ́tà ɔltʉ́ŋání. A human being has one head. (Pk).

a-tuŋua(r)   v. To leave. Mátuŋúáí ɛnâ cocóróí amʉ̂ kɛ́ɛ́tà oróréí olêŋ. Let us leave this "bee-heaver" (person who talks so much) because he talks a lot. (Pk). See: a-ituŋuaá To leave behind.

ɨn-tʉŋʉ́s   Variant: Ntʉŋʉ́s. n.pl. December; the month when the rains end suddenly. Ntʉ́ŋʉ́s ɔlápá ɔ́bayie tɔ̀ lárî. December is the last month of the year. (Pk). See: ɨl-apaitín Months; a-ŋusʉ́r To end suddenly.

ol-túpà   Nom sg: ol-túpâ; ol-túpa. Acc pl: il-túpaí. Nom pl: il-túpaí. [North] Acc sg: tʉ́pá. [North] Nom sg: tupá. n. 1 • Bottle. oltúpà obô one bottle. iltúpaí ɔáárè two bottles. Áaɨshɔɔkɨ̂ oltúpà lápɨ́k ɔlcaní. I have been given a bottle that I will keep (my) medicine in. (Pk). Kéríco rrárràt ɛ́ ltupá. Pieces of a broken bottle do hurt. (SN).

2 • Piece of broken glass, shard. Áatuduŋó oltúpâ olkimojínò. A piece of glass has cut my finger. (Pk).

en-túpà   1 • Small bottle.

áà-ɨ̀shɔ̀ ɨl-túpaí   To give intravenous medicine.

a-túr   [North]: tʉ́rr. [Chamus]: tʉ́r. v.prog. 1 • To dig. Ágɨ́rà atúr engúmótó nɨkɨpɨ̂k isúùt. I am digging a pit that we will put rubbish in. (Pk). Nétúrí iŋgumót . Holes are dug (e.g. in preparation for putting up a house). (Pk). Étúrítò. He is digging it. (W).

2 • To dig the ground, especially using a hoe, to loosen the top soil for easy planting; cultivate. Ɛ́gɨ́ráɨ áàtùr ɛnkɔ́p peê euní ɨmpɔɔshɔ́. The ground is being dug so that beans can be planted. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà áàɨ̀tàwàŋ ɛ́mʉ́kʉ́ntâ peê étúmí áàtùtùr. The ground is being cleared so that it can be tilled. (Pk).

3 • To find out hidden, important information. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aturú ɨlɔmɔ́n lɔɔ́rpúrishó ɔɔ́waitâ inkíshú. The man is finding out information about the thieves who stole cows. (Pk). See: a-irém To cultivate; en-túrótó The digging (of a pit, hole, reservoir, puddle); ol-túrótó Small reservoir, puddle; en-túróré Cultivtion.

en-túrbúbua   Nom sg: en-turbúbùà. Acc pl: in-turbubuaní. Nom pl: in-túrbubuaní. n. Puff adder. See: ɛ-mɛ́ʉ̀ Puff adder.

ol-túrén   n. Space around the fireplace; hearth.

en-turét   Nom sg: en-túret. Acc pl: in-turétà. Nom pl: in-túrètà. n. Digging instrument, hoe. Íyakákì enturét náló airemíé èndè. Bring me a hoe so that I can go and dig there. (Pk). See: ol-cɛ́mpɛ̀ Hoe; ol-mókómpét Hoe.

en-túrkulû   Nom sg: en-túrkulû. Acc pl: in-turkuluní. Nom pl: in-túrkuluní. n. 1 • Dove. Átɔ́dùàà náají ɛntʉ́rkʉlʉ̂ naɨnɔsɨ́tà ɨlkʉ́rt tɛ̀ mpɔ́lɔ̂s ɛ́ bɔ̀ɔ̀. I have seen a dove eating worms in the middle of the homestead. (Pk).

2 • Pigeon. See: ol-maitai Pigeon; ŋgutúkùrùk Pigeon; n-cúlùs Dove.

n-turlegé [North]   Nom sg: n-túrlegé. n. [North] Stump. See: en-kóbéí Stump.

ɛn-tʉrmáì   Nom sg: ɛn-túrmàì. Acc pl: ɨn-tʉrmaîn. Nom pl: ɨn-tʉ́rmaîn. n. Disadvantaged one; Poor one.

ɔl-tʉrmáì   Male disadvantaged person. peê mípúkóò ɔltʉ́rmàì so that you do not go hungry, poor one. See: ɛ-naɨbɛ̂ Disadvantaged one; poor one; tolût Disadvantaged one; poor one.

é-túrókínè ɛnk-ájì   v.phrase. Widower. All the following phrases refer to someone who has lost a wife. See: a-úr To fell something; a-urokinó To have something fall on someone; é-tápɔ́lɔ́lɛ ɔr-páashɛ (verb) The fence fell apart (= to loose a wife in death); ɛ́tálá e-síáyioní He has lost a wife; ei-tíányé e-síáyioní His wife died.

en-túróré   Nom sg: en-turoré. n. 1 • Digging. Ɛnyaáká oshî táatá enturoré ɔ́ ngumót asapukú péshò. There is an increase in the digging of holes with no apparent cause. (Pk).

2 • Cultivation.

entúróré ɛnkɔ́p   Cultivation. Máapé áàìdìp entúróré ɛnkɔ́p peê kípúó áŋ. [kípúó ! áŋ] Let us go and finish up the cultivation so that we can go home. (Pk).

ol-túrótó1   Nom sg: ol-turotó. Acc pl: il-turót. Nom pl: il-turót. n. 1 • Man-made reservoir. Kétíi ɛnkárɛ̀ oltúrótó lâŋ. There is water in our reservoir. See: ol-buáá Reservoir. Syn: o-sílánkɛ́ Reservoir; sílánkó Reservoir. See: ɔl-ɔɨbɔtɨ́ Dam; a-túr To dig.

2 • Small reservoir; puddle.

3 • Lake. See: ɛ-naɨpɔ́shà Lake; sʉ́kʉ̀tà Mineral lake; ɛ-makát Mineral lake; ɛm-pasô Lake; m-básù Lake; ɛm-párínkóí Lake; ɔl-bálbál Pool, lake.

en-túrótó   1 • Digging.

2 • Small reservoir.

3 • Chalk.

en-túrótó2   Nom sg: en-turotó. Acc pl: in-turót. Nom pl: in-túròt. n. 1 • Digging. entúrótó ɛ́ ngùmòtò the digging of a pit (Pk). Tápàlà entúrótó ɛ́ ɨ́nɛ̀ wúéjì amʉ̂ kégòl. Stop the digging of that place because it is hard. (Pk).

2 • Chalk. Ɛyéliakɨ́ ɛldɛ̂ mʉ́rránì entúrótó amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́dɨ́pá intaléŋò. That warrior has been painted with chalk because he is done with the ceremony. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí airím enkomóm ɛ́ nkáɨ́ tɛ̀ nturotó. The child is daubing the face of the other using chalk. (Pk). See: ɛnk-ɔɨbɔtɨ́ White soil.

ol-turpá   n. A child born from a girl who became pregnanant prior to circumcison. This is a disgraceful situation for both child and mother. Therefore, this word should be used with care and could possibly be offensive.

en-turpá   Female child born from a girl who became pregnant prior to circumcision. Syn: [North] l-múrsánɛ́t Illegitimate child. See: ɛn-kɛ́ráí Child; ɛn-táápáí Girl pregnant before circumcision.

túrúáí   Acc pl: túrùà. adj. Lazy. This applies to people only.

en-túrúáí   n. Nom sg: en-turúáí. Acc pl: in-túrùà. Nom pl: in-túrúà. Lazy woman, who does a slow and poor job of building her house, is a slovenly and careless house-keeper, etc.

ol-túrúáí   Lazy man.

ɛn-tʉ́rʉ́j   Nom sg: ɛn-tʉrʉ́j. Acc pl: ɨn-tʉrʉjá. Nom pl: ɨn-tʉ́rʉ́jà. n. Taboo, prohibition. Eg. young men eating meat in the presence of women before officially undergoing the ceremony which allows it. See: ɔl-mɨnɔ́ŋ Extreme taboo.

ɔl-tʉrʉ́kà   Acc pl: il-turukan. Hippo, hippopotamus. hippopotamus amphibius. See: ol-empéì Hippo.

ol-túrúmét   Nom sg: ol-turumét. Acc pl: il-turumetí. Nom pl: il-túrumetí. n. 1 • Beer in a small calabash held and drunk (and share with other men) by the man who is the father of the newly-circumcised boy/girl.

2 • [North] Naked mole rat.

3 • [North] Blind person.

ol-turúnkì   n. Tea without milk.

a-turuturishó   v. To dig listlessly. Ágɨ́rà aturuturishó tené peê aɨŋuráá tanaa kátúm ina dúóó tona. I am digging here listlessly with hope that I will get the roots I wanted (e.g. for treating a disease). (Pk).

l-turrúkà [North]   Nom sg: l-túrrùkà. Acc pl: l-turrukaní. Nom pl: l-túrrukaní. [Chamus] Acc sg: tʉrrʉ́kà. n. [North] Hippopotamus. See: ol-empéì Hippo; ɔl-makáʉ̀ Hippopotamus.

ol-túrrúr   Nom sg: ol-turrúr. Acc pl: il-túrrúrí. [North] Acc sg: túrrúrr. [Chamus] Acc sg: túrúr. n. Crowd of people, group. Shɔ́mɔ́ ɛldɛ̂ túrrúr ótíí ɛndɛ̂ ɨ́ŋurááɨ́ anáà ítʉ̀m. Go to that crowd of people and see whether you can find him. (Pk). Ɛ́yaʉ́ ɨropiyianí naápɨkɨ́ ɔlbɛ́nɛ́ lɔɔ́ ntasátì ɔ́ ltúrrúr. [ɔ́ltùrùr] Bring money that will be put in the group of women's account. (Pk). See: en-tukus Crowd.

a-tút   v. To miss the target, e.g. when shooting at a lion. See: a-díák To miss a target.

n-tutûâ [North]   Nom sg: n-tútûâ. n. [North] Container/basket made of sisal fibre used to store liquids like milk, water etc. See: ɛn-kɨkápù Basket; en-kíóndô Basket; ɛ-mɔɔndɔ̂ Basket.

ɛn-tʉtʉ́à   n. Basket. See: ɛn-kɨkápù Basket; ɛn-kɨɔndɔ̂ Basket; ɛ-mɔɔndɔ̂ Basket.

en-tútúnyó   Nom sg: en-tutunyó. Acc pl: in-tútúny. Nom pl: in-tutúny. [Chamus] Acc sg: tʉ́tʉ́nyó. n. Heel. Míntókí doí arɔrɔ́ ɛnkɔ́p tɔɔlkímòjìk aké tóròròyìè siî nɨnyɛ́ entútúnyó. Stop standing using your toes alone; have your heel on the ground too. (lit: Stop kicking the ground with your toes alone but also use your heel.) (Pk).

n-túuntê [North]   n. [North] Big-bellied animal; including human beings.