Rr - rr

rr   Letter combination representing the Maa alveolar retroflexed trill phoneme /r/. This contrasts with the retroflex tap r /ɾ/. In word final-position both phonemes are pronounced as trills. However, certain morphemes do lexically end in one, while others lexically end in the other. Which one a morpheme ends with is clarified when a suffix is added. LING: In this situation, a lexical tap (prounced as a phonetic trill word-finally) will surface as the tap word-internally, while a lexical trill (also pronounced as a trill word-finally) will surface as the trill word-internally. Cf. a-bɔ́r 'to cut, injure' and ɛmbɔ́rátá 'wound', versus a-bɔ́r 'to be calm' but ɛmbɔrrɔ́n 'calmness'. LING: In word-final position there is some practical tradition of writing both /r/ and /rr/ as a single orthographic r. For head-words, however, we write /rr/ as rr in word-final position.

a-rraán [North]   v. [North] To sew a strap onto a calabash. See: a-rɨ́p To sew.

rráánɛ́tà [North]   n. [North] Straps on a calabash to hold while milking.

ɔ-rramɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔ-rrámɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨ-rramɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨ-rrámɛ̀tà. n. Bardizzo. See: ɔl-kídóŋét Bardizzo.

e-rráncóí   n. Type of song.

Rrántíléí [North]   Nom sg: Rrantiléí. Acc pl: Rrántilé. Nom pl: Rrántilé. n.prop. [North] Rendille person. Rrántíléí ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ the tall Rendille man (SN).

ɔ-rrantílì   Nom sg: ɔ-rrántìlì. Acc pl: i-rrantiliní. Nom pl: i-rrántiliní. n. Scale for weighing. etarróyìè rrántìlì. The scale is disfunctional. (SN). See: ɔ-rratílì Scale.

rráŋá [North]   Nom sg: rraŋá ??. Acc pl: rráŋân. Nom pl: rraŋán ??. n. [North] Uninvited guest who goes to eat meat he is not welcome to. See: ɔl-arrípònì Uninvited guest.

rráŋíé [North]   Nom sg: rraŋíé. n. [North] Uninvited guest; one who comes for a meal without being invited for it.

a-rráp [North]   v. 1 • [North] To root. Ɛ́tárrápá lcánì nkɔ́p. The tree has become rooted (become established) in the ground. (SN). Ntarrapá lcaní nkɔ́p. Cause the plant to root in the ground (i.e., so that it does not die). (SN). LING: High tone on the initial N, including when whistled. This could be done by watering the plant and tending it carefully in the first few days.

2 • [North] To attach, as in metal to wood.

3 • [North] To catch fire. This verb sense refers to the beginning stage of burning. Kɛ́rráp alɛ́ shatá nkɨ́mà. This wood will catch fire. (lit: The fire will catch the wood.). LING: *Kɛ́rráp alɛ́ shátá nk(r)má. Ie. the "wood" cannot be the subject of this verb. Kɛ́rrapɨ́tà nkɨ́mà lkeék. The fire is burning the wood. (SN). Kɛ́rráp alɛ́ shatá nkɨ́mà. This wood will catch fire. (SN). LING: This would not make sense if nkɨ́mà is omitted. Kɛ́rrap lcánì nkɔ́p nɛ́mɛ́rráp nkɨ́mà. The tree will become rooted in the ground and will not catch fire. (SN). Káɨ́tárrapa lcatá (nkɨmá). I caused the wood to catch (fire). (SN). lkeék ɔɔ́tarrapâ the firewood that caught fire (SN).

4 • [North] To plant. LING: What is "caught" or what sth. is rooted into may be specified in the sentence; but this is not necessary: Kɛ́rrapɨ́tà lkéèk. (i) The firewood pieces are catching fire. (ii) The trees are being rooted. (SN). See: a-ún To plant.

a-rrapʉ́ [North]   v. [North] To pick up, collect. Kɛ́rrapɨ́tà soitó. He/she is picking up stones. (SN). Tárrapʉ́ sóít! Pick up a stone! (SN). Kátárrápúá sóít oipilípìl. I collected a shining stone. (SN). LING: The Progressive suffix -ɨta may not co-occur with the Ventive -ʉ(n). Though with the Ventive addition a-rappʉ́ means 'pick up' (lit: attach and move toward the point of reference), the sense of 'pick up' may also surface with the progressive formation: Kɛ́rrapɨ́tà soitó. He/she is picking up stones. (SN).

a-rrárr   v. 1 • To smash, crack, crush, shatter, break. Kárrarr alɛ́ kɨkɔ́mpɛ̀. I will shatter this cup to pieces. (SN). Átúmò rrarrátì é motí aáí natarrárrɛ̀. I got a piece of my pot that got shattered. (SN). Kɛ́tarrárrɛ̀ lkɨkɔ́mpɛ̀. The cup is shattered. (SN).

2 • To consume.

a-rrarrʉ́   To knock down all over the place. Ɛshɔmɔ́ oladúó áyíóní kɛ̀rɛ̀rɛ̀ arrarrú imbúkuí tɛ̀ kábât. That slovenly boy has gone to knock all the books out of the cupboards. (W). This implies the books have fallen down all over the place. See: a-arrarrú To become old; a-mʉ́t To consume.

ɛ-rrarrátì   Nom sg: ɛ-rrárràtì. Acc pl: ɨ-rrarrát. Nom pl: ɨ-rrarrát. [North] Nom pl: rrárràt. n. 1 • Shard, crushed piece. átúmò rrarrátì é motí aáí natarrárrɛ̀. I got a piece of my pot that got shattered. (SN). Kéríco rrárràt ɛ́ ltupá. Pieces of a broken bottle do hurt. (SN).

2 • Crumb (e.g. of food).

a-rratány [North]   v. 1 • [North] To oppress. Mɛɨsʉ́pàt láríkóní ɔ́árratány lórèrè. [wáràtáɲ] A ruler who oppresses people is not good. (SN).

2 • [North] To cause to fall, crumble. Ɛtarratányɛ̀ nkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ námùàì. The sick cow has fallen down. (SN).

ɔ-rratílì   Nom sg: ɔ-rrátìlì. Acc pl: i-rratiliní. Nom pl: i-rrátiliní. n. Scale for weighing. Etym: < Swahili ratili scale.

a-rrɛ́k [North]   Before suffixes with -a: rrɨ. v.prog. 1 • [North] To make something fall down, wrestle down. Ɛtɛ́rrɨ́áákɨ̀ nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ áàmɨ̀ncɨ̀r. The cow has been knocked down so that a brand can be put on it. (SN). lkeék ɔɔ́rrɨaa split firewood.

2 • [North] To rape.

3 • [North] To cut into small pieces.

4 • [North] To split. Áɨ́shɔ̀ɔ̀ yeyíó nkúé ɛ́ nkérr metérríaa. I have given my mother the sheep's head for her to split. (SN). See: a-batát To make something fall down; a-ɨpɛ́rr To split.

o-rrékíé   Nom sg: o-rrekíé. Acc pl: i-rrékieí. Nom pl: i-rrékieí. [Chamus] Acc sg: rréké. n. 1 • Track, trail, path. Ɨ́kɨ́talá rrékíé. We have missed the track. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́tɔ̌rrnɔ̀ aná rrekíé. This path is bad. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́kɨ́ kʉná rrékieí olêŋ. These paths are very bad. (SN).

2 • Spoor. See: en-kóítóí Path.

a-rrɛ́p   v.prog. To praise, applaud, approve, commend, talk good about. Kɛ́shám ntóyîê áàtɛ̀rrɛ̀p lmʉ́rràn. Girls like to praise warriors. Syn: a-ɨsɨ́s To praise.

rrɛ́pɛ̀t [North]   [North] Nom sg: rrɛ́pɛ̀t. n. [North] Praise. Kɛ́nɛ́rɛ́ nkáí rrɛ́pɛ̀t. God is worthy of praise. (SN). Kɛ́ɨ́sʉ́pàt rrɛ́pɛ̀t. Praise is good. (SN).

a-rrésh   [North]: a-rrɛ́sh. v.prog. v.prog. To ambush (a person or animal); catch, trap. Ágɨ́rà arrésh ɔlpúríshóí peê aár. I am ambushing the thief so as to beat him. (Pk). Árréshítò. I'm ambushing it. (Pk). Átárréshò ŋolé. I trapped it yesterday. (Pk). Kéyíólò alɛ́ tʉ́ŋání atɛrrɛ́shà ŋúésì. This man knows how to trap wild animals. (SN). Ɛtɛ́rrɛ́shá ŋolé pápâ lòùòrú kerî. Yesterday my father trapped a leopard. (SN). a-rrésh implies trickery; it would not be used to express catching a ball.

2 • v.prog. To wait (for sth). See: a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To catch.

a-rrésh i-sínkìr   v. To fish. See: a-ɨbʉ́ŋ To catch (sth. moving); a-ɨtayú isínkìr To fish; a-ŋorú To fish.

o-rreshét   Nom sg: o-rréshet. Acc pl: i-rreshéta. Nom pl: i-rréshètà. [Chamus] Acc sg: recét. n. Trap. See: l-kírɛ̀ŋgɛ̀t Trap.

a-rrɛtɛn   v. 1 • To prepare, plan carefully step by step.

2 • To pack properly by organizing.

a-rrɛtɛná   v.mid. 1 • To gird sth. around self. Tɛ́rrɛ̀tɛ̀nà nánká ńtɨbɨrakɨ́. Tie the cloth well around yourself. (SN). LING: This appears to be a transitive middle example.

2 • To get prepared (for) (e.g. get one's cloth, club and spear). Káló arrɛtɛná payîê aɨrrɨtá nkíshú. I will go and get prepared so that I can look after the cows. (SN). Kárrɛ́tɛ́nà. I will be prepared for sth. (Pk). Átɛ́rrɛ́tɛ́nɛ̀. I am prepared for it (i.e. I got prepared and am still prepared) (Pk). Kátárrɛ́tánà tááisérè peê aló shoó. Tomorrow I will be prepared to go herding. (Pk).

rrɨ   v. Allomorph of rrɛk 'wrestle' occurring before suffixes starting with -a.

a-rriá   v.mid. 1 • To fall down. Átárríê náakʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛnkainá. I fell down and my hand became paralyzed/stunned. (W).

2 • [Purko] To be broken in pieces.

3 • To backslide. Usage: christian.

4 • To fail. Árríàà ɛntɨ́mátá. I will fail the exam. (W). See: a-ur To droop.

a-rriáá   v.mid. 1 • [North] To wrestle; middle formation from a-rrɛ́k.

2 • To fall down. Ɛ̀kwɛ̀tɨ̀tà eterriéè She fell down while running. (SN).

3 • To fail, be disqualified. Eterríèè láyíéní ntɛ́mátá. The boy has failed the (school) examination. (SN).

a-rriarɛ́   To wrestle with. Kárríárɛ́ alɛ̂ ayíónì. I will wrestle with this boy. (SN). See: a-irriaayá To make s.t fall; a-irraayá To drop things; [North] a-rrɛ́k To wrestle, make fall; áà-nàŋàrò To wrestle.

rríáí [North]   Acc pl: rriaitín. Nom sg: rríàì. Nom pl: rríaitín. n. [North] Severe drought. See: ɔl-áméyú Drought; famine.

rríàr [North]   Nom sg: rriár. n. [North] Taking of refuge in a safe environment after being attacked by enemies. See: a-ɨsɨ́k To escape.

a-rrɨ́d   v. 1 • To tie, cover up with strings.

2 • To pack by tying onto sth.

rrɨ́dátá   Nom sg: rrɨdatá. Acc pl: rrɨdát. Nom pl: rrɨ́dàt. n. 1 • Sth. tied up, usually with strings; bundle.

2 • [North] Difficult place on a path, usually narrow and full of rocks. Tɛ̀ rrɨdatá ɛtɛrrɨ́ɛ́ɛ̀ nkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. It is at this difficult place that the cow fell down. (SN).

a-rrikí   v. 1 • To go wrong (of plans).

2 • To suffer.

a-rrɨmʉ́ [South]   v. [South] To wait. See: a-anyʉ́ To wait.

ɔ-rrɨ́ndɨ̀k   Nom sg: ɔ-rrɨ́ndɨ̂k. Acc pl: ɨ-rrɨ́ndɨ́kɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨ-rrɨ́ndɨ́kɨ̂. n. Slave. Kárá oláàsànì linó kákè kɨ́nkʉnɨ́tà ánàà ɔrrɨ́ndɨ̀k. I am your worker, but you treat me like a slave. (Pk).

a-rríny   v.prog. 1 • To bring sth. back, return sth., restore sth. Ɛshɔmɔ́ arríny nkíné natupúrruakɨ́. He has gone to take back the stolen goat. (SN). Kárrínyítò ntaré. I am returning the goats back (e.g. from where they have been eating grass). (SN). Kárrínyítò ntaré arɛwakɨ́ lopény. I am returning these goats to the owner. (SN). Kárrínyókɨ́tà ntaré lopény. I am returning these goats to the owner. (SN). LING: Dative Applicative object lopény may syntactically occur before or after Patient object.

2 • To put away. Usage: This is used for things at mid to low level, lower than a-ɨ́k.. LING: *Kárrínyítò ntaré lopény.'I am returning these goats to the owner.' (SN sl 50.039).

a-rrinyú(n)   To return toward the pt. of reference. Nkíné natirrínyuakɨ́ aná. [nàtìríɲwàkɪ́] This is the goat which was restored.

a-rrinyúnyé   To return. Syn: a-shúk To return.

a-rrinyúnyé   [North]: rriny‹. [Chamus]: rinyʉ́. v. v. To return. Káshɔ́mɔ̀ Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀ nárrinyúnyè. I went to Nairobi and returned. (SN).

See: a-shukunyé To return.

a-rríp   v.prog. To guard, protect from danger. Kárrípítò nkɛrrá. I am guarding the sheep. (SN). Tórripoyú téínà kɛráí amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́ olêŋ. Guard yourself (i.e. be careful) because that child talks a lot. (W). See: ɔl-arrípònì Guard.

o-rrípíé   Acc pl: i-rrípíétà. Nom sg: o-rripíé. Nom pl: i-rripietá. n. Small house for shepherds.

e-rrípíé   Small house for shepherds. Usage: Perjorative. See: n-kórrímpâ Small house; e-surúsurî Abandoned house; o-séêt Small house for shepherds; ɛnk-ají House; en-kisonó Abandoned house.

e-rrípórè   Nom sg: e-rripórè. n. Guarding.

e-rrípótó   Nom sg: e-rripotó. n. Guarding, protection.

a-rríp   To guard.

a-rrɨrrɨ́   v.mid. 1 • To be rough to the touch. Kɛ́rrɨrrɨ́ ɔlcónì lɔ́lmokúà The skin of a lizard is rough. Kɛ́rrɨrrɨ́ alɛ́ soít. This stone is rough. (SN). Káaɨtɨrrɨrrɨtâ sɨ́ndató sésèn. The little 1 centimeter white hairy things that crawl in straight line on the ground bugs have made my body rough. (SN).

2 • A rough person(ality), someone who speaks rudely. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́rrɨ́rrɨ́ A rough person.

3 • [North] The characteristic of getting angry very quickly; quick-tempered. Ant: a-sɨpá.

a-rrɨ́sh   v. 1 • To be tight; hold firmly; grasp. Kɛ́rrɨsh ɛnkɛ́ɛ̀nɛ̀ The strap is tight. Ɨ́ntɨrrɨshá! Make it tight.

2 • To ambush.

a-ɨtɨrrɨ́sh   1 • To fasten.

2 • To keep on urging; push for sth.

a-ɨtɨrrɨshakɨ́   To compel; push s.o to do sth. See: a-rrúɛ́sh To tie up.

ɛ-rrɨshɛ́t   Nom sg: ɛ-rrɨ́shɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨ-rrɨshɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨ-rrɨ́shɛ̀tà. n. Thigh.

ɔl-ɔ́rrɨshɛ́t   Thigh.

ɔ-rrɨshɛ́t   Thigh.

a-rrón   v. To shave. See: a-bárn To shave.

a-rropíl   v.s. 1 • To be fresh or sweet. Ámaâ, kɛ́kʉlɛ́ naárropíl íyíéú anáà kɛ́kʉlɛ́ naáɨsʉkɨ̀t? Is it fresh milk you like, or unfresh milk?

2 • To smell sweet, fragrant (of flowers, food cooking, perfume, etc.).

a-itorropilí   To cleanse (ritually).

a-rropilí [North]   v. [North] To smell good, sweet (of flowers, perfume, meat or nice-smelling food being fried, a well-cleaned calabash). Kórropílì. It smells nice. (SN).

a-rrotíán   v.prog. To girdle; put on a skirt or sheet around one's own waist. Árrotíán ɔlkáráshá. I will put on the cloth. Árrótíánù ɔlkáráshá linó. I will come with your sheet (i.e. having tied it on my waist). Árrótíánɨ́tà. I am wearing it / I am putting it on (e.g. a cloth around my waist). LING: In K, a-rrotíán is used more commonly than a-kɛsɛ́n, though both exist.

a-rrɔtianá   Káló arrotianá. I am going to put it (e.g. a shirt) on. Ágɨ́rà arrotianá. I am putting it (e.g. a skirt) on. Syn: a-kɛsɛ́n To tie a sheet around the waist.

o-rrotíánɨ   n. Skirt; sarong? See: ɔl-ɔ́kɛ́sɛ́nà Sarong; a-rrotíán To put on a sarong; girdle.

a-rroyó   v. To be spoiled, non-functional, not working. Kɛ́tarróyìè nkárrî áàì dúó tasɨrán. My vehicle broke down this morning (refers to the event when it happened). Kɛ́tarróyìè nkárrî áàì. My vehicle has broken down (it is in a non-functional state; does not necessarily refer to the event when it broke down). Etarróyìè rrántìlì. The scale is disfunctional. (SN). Malotíé aná árrì ááí amʉ̂ kórróyò. I will not go with this car of mine because it will break down. (SN). Malotíé aná árrì ááí amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m norroyo tɔ̀ nkoitéí. I will not go with this car of mine because it may break down on the way. (SN). Káɨ́rrɨ́tà nkɨtabuní áinén payîê móróyò. I will take care of my books so that they are not spoiled. (e.g. protect from water, be careful about lending them). (SN).

a-rrú   v. To depend upon.

rruashíé [North]   n. [North] Slaughtered billy goat for cleansing the home after the death of an elder. See: ol-kípókét Slaughtered ram for cleansing the home.

e-rrúât   [Chamus] Acc sg: rrúɛ̂t. n. 1 • Bed. errúât kɨtɨ́ the small bed in a traditional house. errúât sápùk the big bed in a traditional house (Pk).

2 • [North] Partioned area in a house where hides are spread on the floor, upon which people sleep. Rrûât eperíé ltʉŋaná. It is within the rrûât that people sleep. (SN). See: ɛn-dápásh Bed; l-kɔrrɔ́r Bed; l-tápʉ́tɛ́t Bed.

a-rrúɛ́sh   Variant: a-rrúásh; a-rrɨ́sh. v.prog. 1 • To trip; make something fall down, entangle, trap. Árrúɛ́́shɨ́tà. I am tripping it. (Pk). Áatarruɛshâ ɛnkɛ́ɛnɛ́. The strap tripped me. (Pk). Kéyíólò alɛ́ tʉ́ŋání atɛrrúɛ́shà ŋúésì. This man knows how to trap wild animals. (SN).

Árrúésh ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ napé. I will tie the legs of the hostile cow. (e.g. so that it can be milked). (Pk).

a-rruɛshá   To be triped, blocked. Árrúéshà. I am tripped/blocked (e.g. so that I cannot do what I want). (Pk). Ɛ́tárrúéshákɨ̀ ɔlpayíán peê mérík enkitók ɛnyɛ́. The man is blocked so he cannot marry his woman.

a-rrueshishó   To stumble. Míntókì arrueshishó. Stop stumbling.

rrʉ́g [North]   [North] Acc pl: rrʉgá. n. Hump.

a-rrugó   v. To bend over. Syn: a-gʉrrʉmá To bend over. See: a-irrúg To bend; ɛ-rrʉ́k Hump.

a-rrʉgʉ́m   v.prog. To cause to vomit; nauseate. Káàrrʉ̀gɨ̀mɨ̀tà olcánì. The medicine is making me vomit.

a-rrʉgʉmá   v.s. 1 • To vomit. Kɛgɨ́rà arrugumú olcaní. She is vomiting the medicine. LING: This word has a variant a-gʉrrʉmá, which for some dialects has the same meaning, but for others (e.g. S) has independent meaning 'bend over' -kar. See: a-gʉrrʉmá To vomit.

rrûk [North]   n. 1 • [North] Wind.

2 • [North] Dust raised up into the air which prevents clear visibility; esp. associated with desert areas. Rrûk néméíshó iyioó mátɔdɔ́l lówúà. It is the dust that is preventing us from seeing the mountain. (SN).

ɛ-rrʉ́k   Nom sg: ɛ-rrʉ̂k. Acc pl: ɨ-rrʉká. Nom pl: ɨ-rrʉ́kà. n. Hump. See: [North] rrʉ́g Hump.

a-rrúm   v. To push. Árrúmóò táatá. I will push it today. Átúrrúmoyie. I pushed it.

a-rrumoó   To push. See: a-húm To push; a-rúm To poke.

rrʉrrʉ́mɛ̀ [North]   n. [North] Rain that comes after a long draught.

a-rrutishó [North]   v. 1 • [North] To eat. Usage: colloquial. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔlpáyìàn arrutishó. The man has gone to eat food.

2 • [North] To look for food to eat. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔlpáyìàn errútórè. The man has gone looking for food. See: a-ɨnɔ́s To eat; a-nyá To eat; a-muyiokí to eat; Támà! Eat it!; a-ám To eat.

rrútíshóí [North]   n. [North] Mean person who likes to eat alone; keeps food for him/herself so that he/she can eat when the rest of the people are gone. See: a-píák To be mean.

a-rruwoyú   v. To become bad.