R - r

r   Letter representing the Maa alveolar retroflex flap /ɾ/. When /r/ occurs word-finally, it is pronounced as a trill, as is the trill /rr/. (Thus, in this position the phonemes /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced identically. Cf. a-bɔ́r 'to cut, injure' and a-bɔ́r(r) 'be calm').

a-rá   v.s. To be equivalent to, be a member of a set or type. Kárá lɔɔ́ lMásʉla. I am of the lMasula clan (i.e. I belong to the lMasula). (SN). Ɨ́rá ɔláɨ́kɔ́shúàànì. You are a glutton. (W). Márâ nkɛ́ráɨ́. It is not a child. (S). Nɛ́rà intókìtìn nílo aɨŋɔrʉ́ oŋúán. The things you are going to look for are four. Tɛ̀ nínkɛ̀n ilkimojík lɔɔ́ nkáɨ́k pokírà nɛ́rà tɔ̀mɔ̀n nɛ́gɨ̀rà. If you count the fingers of both hands, they are just ten. Tɛ̀ nɨ́ra taá ɔlɔ́ítieu... If you can face (him)... (lit: If you are one who can dare). Órè peê iló ɔrá ɔlmʉ́rránì... If you go as a warrior... Usage: When combined with a predicate adjective ra may indicate a permanent or long-term quality, contrasting with use of the prefix ɨ- which may indicate a more temporary quality (unless combined with the Antipassive -ɨshɔ). Compare: Árá pádán. 'I am a sharp-shooter. (always)' (W), vs. Áɨ́pádàn. 'I will shoot it exactly. (on a particular occasion)' (W). But note the Antipassive with ɨ-: Ɛɨpádánɨshɔ. 'He/she is a sharp-shooter.' (W). See: áâ Be; a-akʉ́(n) To become; táá Be (perfective).

ɛ-rakará   Nom sg: ɛ-rákará. Acc pl: ɨ-rakarân. Nom pl: ɨ-rákarân. n. Skull; head. Usage: colloquial.

ɔ-rakará   Big skull; big head. Syn: ɛm-bɔ́lbɔ́l Skull. See: ɛ-lʉ́kʉ́nyá Head; ɛn-dʉkʉ́yà Head.

a-ramát   v. 1 • To tend livestock. Néramát ɔlmʉrraní inkíshú. The warrior took care of cows. (W). Néramatíshò ɔlmʉrraní. The warrior was taking care (of cows). (W).

2 • To rear. Nɛ́tɔnɨ́ áàràmàtɨ̀shɔ̀; néíshó. They stay to rear (their home); they reproduce [have children].

3 • To care for sth., look after. Ekébikóò intókìtìn pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀ náaramát ɨlɔ́ɔpɛ̂ny. All things that their owners care for last long. (Pk). Ɛtaramátùà. He has taken care of them coming this way. See: a-bár To rear.

ɛ-rámátàrɛ̀   n. Livestock rearing, animal-husbandry. Eyéwùò ɛncân airopijíé ɛrámátàrɛ̀ amʉ̂ ɛ́tágóló oshî. The rain has come to make the rearing of livestock bearable because it has been difficult. (Pk). Mmeyíéúní esúnkúrèìshò tiátùà ɛrámátàrɛ̀ ɔ́ ɛ́mbɔ́ɨ́tà. Guile is not wanted in living and working together. (Pk).

ɛ-rámátàtà   n. Care. Kɛ́átà ɛ́lɛ́ páyìàn ɛncʉ́nɛ́t ɛ́ rámátàtà ó loshô. This man is praised for his care of the community. (lit: This man has praise of care of the community.). See: a-ramát To care.

ɔ-rámátèì   Nom sg: ɔ-ramátèì. n. 1 • Cattle management, cattle culture.

rankaúú [North]   Nom sg: ránkaúú. Acc pl: rankaûn. Nom pl: ránkaûn. n. [North] Acacia tree sp.; whistling thorn. acacia drepanolobium. Kéíkúmò kʉlɔ́ ránkaûn. These whistling thorn trees are many. (SN).

ránkì [North]   Nom sg: ránkî. Acc pl: ránkin. Nom pl: ránkin. n. [North] Paint. Meisʉ́pàt alɛ́ ránkî amʉ̂ kótoyó. This paint is not good because it is dry. (SN). Meisʉpátì kʉlɔ́ ránkin amʉ̂ kótoítò. These paints are not good because they are dry. (SN). Etym: < Swahili rangi paint, color.

a-rány   v.prog. 1 • To sing. Kákè ɛɛ́tà ɛná titó oltóíló sídáí tɛ̀ nɛ́ràny. This girl has a beautiful voice when she sings. (Pk). Ɛrányɨ́tà kʉná tánkilên osínkólio. These women are singing a song. (W).

2 • To dance, sing and chant (all actions simultaneously). Ɛrány ɨlmʉ́rrán tɛ̀ manyatá. Warriors sing-dance inside the Kraal. LING: Though apparently a one-argument verb, rany can take the Antipassive suffix. Néponunûî áàrànyɨ̀shɔ̀ tɛ́nâ dúóó ájì. People come to sing in the relevant house. a-rány indicates singing and dancing simultaneously or perhaps even more dominantly singing. Among the Maasai there are distinct dancing styles for men vs. women.

a-ranyʉ́   To give a song as a soloist does, to which other singers respond. See: a-igurán To dance; a-shá To dance; ɛ-rányátá The singing; the dance.

ɛ-rányátá   Nom sg: ɛ-ranyatá. Acc pl: ɨ-ranyát. Nom pl: ɨ-rányàt. n. Singing, dancing.

rápà [North]   [North] Cow and its calf paid as part of dowry, usually given to the mother-in-law.

ɛ-rapátɛ̀ [South]   n. [South] Diaphram. See: ɛn-aigárà Diaphram.

rapátì [North]   Nom sg: rápàtì. Acc pl: rapatîn. Nom pl: rápatîn. n. [North] Soup fat that appears on the top level of the liquid. See: ɔl-arámpâî Cream.

a-rapósh   v. To satisfy with food or drink.

a-raposhó   v.mid. 1 • To be satisfied with food. ɨ́rrɨ́tá taá táatá intaré metáraposhotó. You herded the sheep and goats until they were satisfied. (Pk). Átárápóshè. I have had enough to eat.

2 • To be pregnant (of unmarried girls or cattle). See: a-áp To get pregnant before circumcision.

a-raposhó   v.mid. 1 • To be satisfied. Kórè peê èràpòshò olóíŋóní ɔ́tʉpʉshá náà kɛ́shɛ̀r. When a bull which is pround is satisfied/fed up (and wants to fight), it will "grunt". (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔtarapóshè person who is satisfied.

2 • To be pregnant (of people). Usage: polite. Ɛtarapóshè ɛná tásàt. This woman is pregnant. (30's or so, mother of more than one, typically two) (Pk). Ɛtarapóshè ɛná selenkéí. This young unmarried woman is pregnant. (Pk). See: a-rapósh To satisfy; a-imú To be satisfied.

a-rapʉ́   Variant: apʉ |fv{(SR); apaá |fv{(SW C). v. 1 • To pick up. ntáráp nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ Pick up the cow!

2 • To to lift. See: a-dʉmʉ́ To pick up, to lift; a-ɨlepíé To lift.

a-raroyú   v. See: a-aroyú To be takable by force.

a-rasaá   v. To raid, attack, make war on. Ɨ́kɨ́rasáà. We will make war. (SN). Ɛtarasakɨtâ iyíóó lmáŋatí. Enemies attacked us. (SN). Kɛ́rasakɨ́tà iyíóó lmáŋatí. Enemies are attacking us. (SN). Ɨ́kɨ́ràsàkɨ̀tà iyioó lmaŋáti táatá. We are attacking the enemies now. (SN). See: a-ɨtarasaá To hand over.

a-rasʉ́   v. 1 • To attack hither.

2 • To break out (of an epidemic).

3 • To become a nuisance.

a-rásh   v. v. To make spots on the left and right sides. arásh olkíné to make spots on both sides of the he-goat. a-rásh is believed purely to be the work of the creator, God. This verb can otherwise only be used in cases where somebody imaginatively takes the place of God in making spots in cows, sheep, goats etc.

2 • v. [North] To doubt; be torn between two opinions. Míntokì arásh, tʉ́dʉtáí nabô Do not be torn between two opinions, choose one.

3 • v. To stain. Ɛtáráshá ránkî nánká. The paint has stained the cloth. (SN).

a-rashá   To have spots or colors all mixed up. Kɛ́ráshà ɛndá kɨ́la olêŋ. This cloth has lots of colors. See: a-típ To make spots.

rashé   [North] Acc sg: ráshé. [North] Nom sg: rashé. [North] Acc pl: ráshétà. [North] Nom pl: rashétà. n. [North] Piece of animal hide, skin; piece of cloth.

ɛ-raútò   n. Dusk. See: téípà Evening.

a-rayá   v.mid. 1 • To love to be somewhere or have sth. against contrary forces. Ɛshɔmɔ́ Tom arayá Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀ hóó néyíéú enkítòk ɛ́nyɛ̀ nétií áŋ. Tom has gone to be in Nairobi even though his wife wants him to be at home. This could describe a cat which belongs to one person, but decides to stay with another.

2 • To cling or form an exclusive relationship with (e.g. a person, belief, geographical area, etc.). Ɛtaráyìè ntitó lmʉ́rránì wáshâm olêŋ. The girl has decided to have an exclusive relationship with the warrior she loves most. (SN). LING: sl says that ɔ́áshâm with a -ATR ɔ́ would not be bad to write. However, the contracted word definitely begins with one mora, not two. Kɛ́ráyà ntitó lmʉ́rránì. The girl will stick to (decide to have an exclusive relationship with) the warrior.

3 • To move to a man's home for marriage against parents' wish (of a girl).

4 • To take sth. by force (e.g. cows in a raid). Ɛtaráítìè lmáŋatí nkíshú. The enemies have raided/taken away the cows. (SN). Kɛ́ráyà lmʉ́rrân nkíshú. The warriors will raid the cattle. (SN).

a-ré   v.prog. 1 • To support oneself against a stick or spear. Ágɨ́ra aré eŋúdì. I am leaning against the herding stick. Ɛgɨ́rà áàrè iŋúsìdìn. They are leaning against (their) herding sticks. Átérìò mpɛ́rɛ́. I supported myself using a stick. (L). Áítéréyìè. I supported it against it (e.g. against a wall). (L). LING: This verb requires a second argument expressing what is leaned on. áré 'I leaned on it' is incomplete. LING: In K, this verb cannot take the progressive -ɨta/-ito.

2 • To step on. Térìò lconí. Step on the hide. (SN).

3 • To weight something down. Káréítò mpáláí tɔ̀ soít payíé mɛ́yá síwuo aiminé. I am weighting down the paper with a stone so the wind will not take it away to get it lost. (SN).

4 • To pick up something by pressing on it.

5 • To sign; sign a document. aré sayéì To sign a document. Syn: a-ɨdásh To step on.

-rɛ   appl. Instrumental applicative verb suffix; indicates that the object of the verb is an Instrument or Associative participant. LING: This is a lexically-determined allomorph of the applicative -ie(k), occurring after the Away directional -a(r) (-o(r)), the Antipassive -ɔshɔ(r). See: -íé Instrumental applicative; -arɛ MID + INST.

a-rebúk [North]   v. [North] To be wet. Kérúbùk naŋká. The cloth is wet. (S). See: a-shál be.wet.

a-reikí   v. To keep on doing sth. .

o-réítai   Nom sg: o-reitáí. Acc pl: i-réíta. Nom pl: i-réítâ. n. Slender stick, generally cut from a shrub, used for filling in between major vertical posts of the house.

a-rɛ́k   v. 1 • To split. Ɛ́rɛ́k. He split it. (W).

2 • [North] To rape. See: a-ɨpɛ́r To split; a-danyʉ́ To split.

a-rɛkɨ́ [North]   v. 1 • [North] To physically press on. Tɛ́rɛkɨ́ nkɛjʉ́ nkɔ́p. Press your foot on the ground. (SN).

2 • [North] To insist on, stress, emphasize. Tɛ́rɛkɨ́ dɛɨ́ lɔmɔ́n metínìŋò olêŋ. Stress/emphasize the words so that she may hear well. (SN).

o-rékíé   n. 1 • Marks left by one's feet or something moving in the dirt (e.g. a dragging stick).

e-rékò   Nom sg: e-rékô. [North] Acc sg: e-récò. n. Red ochre. Ɛgɨ́rà inkɛ́rá áàèlìè átɛ́ erékò. The children are painting themselves with the red ochre. (Pk).

a-rém   v.prog. 1 • To spear. Térèmò lŋátúny! Spear the lion! (SN).

2 • To pierce, stab, poke into. Ásì náà tɛ̀ nérèm naá dúóó énâ dúóó wúéjì natíi olórérè... Then when it pops into where people are... (L). Áírémítò ɨnkardasiní. I am piercing papers (e.g. with a hole-puncher). (W). Eirémò. It is poked all over. (e.g. a ceiling with lots of holes in it). (W). Usage: With a-rém, the 'piercing' or 'poking' does not have to go all the way through the item pierced or poked; it may just partially penetrate the object..

3 • To inject medicine.

4 • To plow.

5 • To defame; to speak ill of s.o. without their knowledge to an authority over them, such as a potential father-in-law or employer, in order to gain favor or get something. Ɛshɔmɔ́ Kónené enetíi ɛláŋátá ɛ Kimélì. Kéyíéú Kónené nɛ́ám ìnà títo. Kákè kórè ɨna títo náà ɛláŋátá ɛ Kimélì. Nélò Kónené arém Kimélì peê etumokí aáwà ìnà títo. Konene went to Kimeli's girlfriend. Konene wanted to marry that girl. But that girl is Kimeli's girlfriend. Then Konene went to defame Kimeli so that he could marry (take) that girl. (W).

a-remishó   To be good at spearing. Kérémíshò mʉrranɨ́ ótàrà lŋátùny. The warrior who hit the lion is good at doing that. (S). ɔltʉŋánì orémisho person who is good at spearing. See: a-úd To pierce.

e-remét   n. Spear. See: ɛm-pɛ́rɛ́ Spear.

remit   n. Type of plant, found in the Olóíríén region.

a-rémóré   Nom sg: a-rémòrè. v. 1 • Spearing.

2 • Fighting.

e-rémóré [North]   n. [North] Type of blessing to a barren woman by a group of boys who come together for this particular purpose in hope that she will conceive. See: a-mayíán To bless.

e-rémótó   Nom sg: e-remotó. Acc pl: i-remót. Nom pl: i-rémòt. n. Spear thrust or wound.

a-rɛ́p   v. To stick to, cleave to. Tɛ́rɛ̀pà ŋútúnyí, ná-kɛráí! Cleave (hold tight) to your mother, you child! (SN). LING: ná kɛráí is pronounced as one word. sl prefers writing it as one word; lk and km would prefer to write it as two words. nánká natɛrɛpá ránkî the cloth that the paint has stuck on (SN).

a-rɛpaá   v. To bypass, go beyond. Mɨ́rɛpáá nkáŋ. Don't bypass the home. (SN). Kárɛ́páà ldɔ̀ caní. I will go beyond that tree. (SN).

a-rɛpɛ́ny   v. 1 • To be impaired (of speech). Ɛtɛ́rɛ́pɛ́nyá móyìàn lŋɛ́jɛ́p. The disease has impaired his/her tongue. (SN).

2 • To dent (e.g. tin cans). See: a-rɔgɔ́ny To disfigure, dent.

a-reré   v. 1 • To straighten sth. Káréré sobwâ. I will straighten the stick. [It is still wet and can be manipulated) (SN). Átérérìò senkéì nagól. I have straightened the tough wire. (SN). Térèrìò sobwâ éwûôn écâl. Straighten the stick while it is still wet. (SN).

2 • To put an issue right, work out a difficulty. Térèrìò anâ báê tɔ̌rrnɔ̀. [téɾèɾìò àná bàè tɔ̌rnɔ̀] Straighten out this issue. (SN).

a-rɛrɛ́ [North]   v. [North] To fight with. Kááyíéú náárɛ́rɛ táatá. I want to fight you right now. (SN).

réréí   n. Word, sound. See: o-róreí Word, sound.

a-rɛ́sh [North]   v. [North] To be tight, difficult. Kɛ́tɛ́rɛ́shà. It is tight/difficult. LING: This word may be related to a-rɨ́sh 'separate,' as mk kept referring to a belt being so tight it cut you, or a famine that felt like that. There was, however, a distinct contrast in pronunciation.

a-rét   Causative: -retie. v.prog. v.prog. To help. Kɛ́gɨ́rà ɨlpáyianí áàrèt inkinejí. The men are helping the goats (e.g. to deliver). Kɛ́gɨ́rà ɨlpáyianí áàrèt inkinejí metɔ́tɔní. The men are helping the goats to stay. kárétítò mɛtɔ́lɔ̀pɨ̀shɔ̀. I am helping him to vomit. (e.g. as when someone is ill). Táretokokí ɛnkɛ́ráí ololá. Help the child with the luggage. Kírét ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. The cow helps you. (W). Mɨ́kɨ́tárétò ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. May the cow help you. (W).

2 • v.prog. To be nutritious. Mérêt ɛndáà. She is thin. (lit: The food does not help her. i.e. She does not become hefty but remains slim.). This does not imply that one is sick, but is a standard expression for a genetic body-type; or it could be due to stress at a certain point in one's life that the person looses weight and stays slim regardless of how much is eaten, as when a man over-stresses his wife. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât aipusíé oloshoró óôk ɨnkɛ́râ peê érêt. The old woman is adding milk to the porridge that the children drink so that it can be nutritious. LING: This verb inflects for causative as a Class II verb.

a-retú   To help someone in difficulty. Eretú ɔlpáyian ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ teŋúdî. The man will help the child using a stick. Táretúókì. Help me (e.g. to understand the meaning of a Maa sentence). Táretú ɛnkɛ́ráí. Help the child.

áà-rètòkìnò   To help each other. See: e-rétò Help; rɔ́nkáí Slim.

o-rététí   Nom sg: o-retetí. Acc pl: i-rétét. Nom pl: i-retét. [North] Acc sg: rététi. [North] Nom sg: retéti. n. Type of very large tree which usually grows on the banks of streams. The fruit is red inside with lots of seeds, soft when ripe, wrinkles when dry, and can be eaten fresh or dried. The tree is smaller than sapitêî, and is usually considered sacred. Kémelók alɛ́ retéti nkátá pɔɔkɨ́. This fig tree is sweet all the time. (SN).

a-rɛtɨ́ʉ́ [North]   v.prog. [North] To stretch. Kárɛ́tɨ́ʉ́ɨ́tà. I'm stretching. (S).

e-rétò   n. Help.

áà-rètòkìnò   v.mid.pl. To help each other.

a-retú   v. To help someone in difficulty. Eretú ɔlpáyian ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ teŋúdî. The man will help the child using a stick. (W).

a-réú   v. To inquire; ask. Usage: rare. This is usually used when "eating" or shairing news, after every major point or point before another major point.

a-iteréú   To investigate; inquire; ask.

a-rɛ́ʉ́   [àɾɛ́w] v. To drive sth. away, send out. Ɛrɛwɨ́ inkíshú ɛnkárɛ́. The cows will be driven to the water place. Tɛ́rɛ̀wà ngárrì. Drive the car away! (SN). Ɛgɨ́rà aaparɛ́ oldóínyó aló arɛʉ́́ inkíshú. [or fvːàrèú with two final moras] He is going alongside the hill to go and bring the cows. (W). arɛ́ʉ́ mpálai [àrɛ́w] to send a letter (SN). Kárrínyítò ntaré arɛwakɨ́ lopény. I am returning these goats to the owner. (SN).

a-rɛʉ́   To drive sth. (cattle, car, etc.) towards the point of reference. a-rɛʉ́ To drive sth. towards. In some sufixed forms: a-rɛʉ́n. Népuoi áàrɛ̀ʉ̀ inkíshú. They brought the cows. Ɛrɛʉ́nɨ inkíshú áŋ. The cows will be driven home. Kárɛʉ nkíshú. [kárɛ́ʊ́ ! nkíshú, two moras at end of first word] I will drive the cows this way. (SN). Árɛ́wɨ́tà inkíshú oreyíét. I am taking the cows to the river. (W).

a-rɛwáá   To drive away (e.g. animals). See: a-rɛʉ́ To drive hither; a-ɨrrɨwaá To send; a-ipaayá To send.

o-reyíét   Nom sg: o-réyiet. Acc pl: i-reyíéta. Nom pl: i-réyieta. n. Natural stream of flowing water; river. Etíí ɛnkárɛ oreyíét. There is water in the river. See: ɔl-kɛjʉ́ Stream, river; e-wúásò River; sɛrɛ River.

a-ricó   v. To have a tendency of hitting or chasing people or animals; wild. It is particularly bad when an animal like this is giving birth.

a-rík   v.prog. 1 • To take s.o. somewhere, travel along with s.o. to show the way, lead, guide. arík ɨltʉ́ŋáná To lead the people (to be a leader). Lɔ́ mʉrraní, tɨ́rɨ̀shà iyíóók peê irík obô. Warrior, separate us so that you can go with one (of us). Érík. He will lead it. Érík. He will lead it. (W). Erikí. He will be led. Áríkɨ́tò. I am leading. Eríkítò. He is leading. (W). Kórè peê iló amɨ́r incereretí tɛ̀ mparɛ́t, nírik ɨ́lɔ̂ dîâ sápʉ̀k. When you go to chase the monkies from the garden, you take that big dog with you. (W). Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɛnâ óítóí amʉ̂ nɨnyɛ́ níkirik enetíi ilótòròk. Follow this path because it leads you to where the bees are. (W). nkíshú naarík lmɔŋɔ́ lɔ́ ltúálá [lmɔŋɔ́ lɔ́ ! ltúálá] the cows that are led by the ox with the bell (SN).

2 • To take (lead) a woman from her home to one's own home; marry. Ɛtáá képuonú ɛnkáŋ ɔlɛ́ Suyɨ́ánkà áàrìk entíto. Ole Suyianka's family is about to come and take the girl for marriage. (Pk). Nírik entíto ɛnkáŋ inó. You lead the girl to your home.

a-rikú   To lead towards. Etoríkuokí dúóó oltórróboní olotú amʉrát ɨlayîôk. An expert in circumcision who will come to circumcise boys has been brought. Nélotu naá arikú entíto, amʉ̂ ɛ́táá naá ɔlpayíán. He comes now to lead (marry) a girl, because he has become a man. Torikú oldîâ Bring a dog! (W). See: e-ríkúnotó Marriage; ɔl-aríkònì Leader.

a-rɨ́k   v.prog. To nauseate by being too rich (of food, also of wealth). Ɛrɨkɨ́tà. It is causing nausea. Ɛrɨ́kɨ́tà. It is causing nausea. (W). Ɛ́rɨ́k. He will cause nausea. Ɛrɨ́kɨshɔ. He will cause nausea. (W).

a-rɨká   v.mid. 1 • To be more than satisfied (with food, wealth). Átɨ́rɨ́kɛ̀ tɔɔ́ síôm. [tɔ̀ɔ́ sìòm] I am more than satisfied with livestock. (SN).

2 • To be overly satisfied or nauseated (with fatty food, wealth). Átáŋásúá arɨká. I have begun to get satisfied. (SN). Áaɨtɨrɨkɨtâ nkáwâ. The fatty meat has nauseated me. (SN). See: a-itemú To satisfy.

rike   n. Door mat, made from woven thickly tangled green twigs, used to close off the entrance leading into the main hut.

a-rikinishíó   v.mid. 1 • To be forgotten.

2 • To be forgetful.

a-rikinó   v.aux+subjn-infinitive. v. To slip one's mind, forget. Ékíjokí iyíé peê míkíríkíno ɨlɔ̂ tʉ́ŋání ɔmáɨ́dɨpá. We ask you not to forget that person until we are finished. (lit: We ask you so that person doesn't slip your mind until (we) are finished.). LING: This verb is formally a middle (cf. the Perfective form a-rikiné), but appears to be transitive as it can take Inverse prefix forms.

a-rikiné   v.pf. To have forgotten. Ɛmbuaakínotó taá doí ɛnyɛ naitorikine intokitín. His blasting made me forget things. (Pk).

ríkò   n. Gerenuk.

e-ríkórè   Nom sg: e-rikoré. n.sg. Leading.

e-ríkótó   n. Leading.

e-ríkúnotó   n. Marriage. eríkúnotó ɔ́ lpayíán é nkitók the marriage of a man to a woman. See: a-rík To lead.

o-rinká   Nom sg: o-rínka. Acc pl: i-rinkân. Nom pl: i-rínkàn. n. Wooden club with a heavy round head and narrow shaft, made to throw at wild animals. See: ɛ-síárɛ̂ Club.

a-rɨ́ny   v. To talk boastfully.

a-rɨnyakɨ́   To talk boastfully to s.o. See: a-pʉ́rd To smash.

e-ríótó   n. A stride. Syn: e-rórúátá A stride.

a-rɨ́p   v. 1 • To sew, mend. Ɛwá nánká arɨ́p. She/he has taken the cloth to sew. (SN). Ɨ́yaʉ́ empíto nárípíé ɛnâ kɨlâ natɔpɔlɔ́sɛ̀. Bring me a thread which I will use to sew this cloth which is torn. (Pk).

2 • To make from beads.

a-rɨpakɨ́   To sew on or for; to make from beads for. Ɛgɨ́rà náají entitó arɨpakɨ́ ɔrmʉ́rránì ɔrkatáàrr. The unmarried girl was making a bracelet for a warrior. (Pk).

rìpìè   unfinished.house. Éítélékínó ɨlɔ́ɔ̀m shʉ́mátá órìpìè. The rafters are on top of the unfinished house. (Pk).

o-rírí   Nom sg: o-rirí. n. Termite. See: ɔl-ásàì Termite; en-tirankô Red ant.

rírí   Nom sg: ririn. adj. Colour possessed by the termite: characteristically red and white. When applied to a cow, indicates red head and white body. Áírírí orirí ɔ́ɨ́nɔsá inkamʉ́kà áinéí. The termite that ate my shoes is white with a red head. (Pk). Orkítéŋ rírí ŋolé étéyíáŋákakɨ́ nkúyìàà. It is an oxen that had a red head and white body that was slaughtered yesterday for my grandfather. (Pk). Ɛɨnyaŋákakɨ́ Sénéwà ɛnkɨlâ rírí. Senewa was bought a tunic (cloth) that is red at the top and white at the lower part. (Pk). See: o-rírí Termite; kúrrúkúr Having a random red and white pattern.

ríríóí   Nom sg: riríóí. n.sg. 1 • Sticky sap or substance from a tree (e.g. a gum tree).

2 • Honey without wax. Ríríóí námélók aná. This is the sweet honey. (SN).

o-risásì   Nom sg: o-rísàsì. Acc pl: i-risasiní. Nom pl: i-rísasiní. [North] Nom sg: form above.. n. Bullet, cartridge. Ɛɨmɨ́ná rɨ́sàsì óbò. One bullet is lost. (SN).

áà-rìsìò   v.mid.pl. 1 • To be equal, be the same. Kérísìò kʉná ámʉ́kà. These shoes are the same. (SN).

2 • To be level. See: a-itorís To equalize.

a-risioré   v.appl. To be equal with or to.

a-rɨ́sh   v. 1 • To separate, divide. Káun olpááshíé arɨ́sh olcámpà láí ɔ́lɛ̀ Tinkói I will put up a fence to separate my land from Tinkoi's. Tɨ́rɨ̀shà lɛ́lɔ̂ tʉ́ŋánák! Separate those people! (e.g., when fighting). Tórìshìè inkíshú enkurmá Keep the cows away from the garden!

2 • To settle a dispute; judge. Átɨ́rɨ́shà lɛ́wà. I have (helped) settle the dispute between the men. (SN).

3 • [North] To be difficult 'to the point of cutting'. This could be said of a time/place where there is hunger, and people say it is cutting them off, 'like a tight belt.'.

a-ɨtɨrɨ́sh   To cause s.o to choose from a number of alternatives. See: a-igúén To judge; a-ikumu To judge; a-ɔ́r To divide; a-gɛ́l To divide, sort out.

a-rɨshá   v.mid. To be divided.

ɛ-rɨ́shátá   Nom sg: ɛ-rɨshatá. Acc pl: ɨ-rɨshát. Nom pl: ɨ-rɨ́shàt. n. 1 • Boundary.

2 • Space between.

3 • Interval of time. Etushúkè kʉ́rʉ̀m tɛnâ rɨshatá aló ajó abayíé. He is behind (e.g., in his class) at this time, to almost the last one. (Pk). Nɛ́bàʉ dúóó ɛrɨshatá náyieu nɛ́yamɨ́shɔ̀. And a time comes when he wants to marry. Eyéwùò ɛnkɔ́jɔŋánì aishiaakinoré ɛrɨ́shátá ɛncân. The coming of mosquito has come to correspond to the rainy season. (Pk). See: ɛn-kátá Time; ol-pólósíé Boundary; ɛm-bákà Boundary; l-kɨr(r)ɨɛ Boundary; nɛwɔ́rɔ̀rɛ̀ Boundary.

a-rishíé   v. 1 • To stop s.o. from doing sth. harmful or shameful.

2 • To reach ahead of s.o. else.

3 • To snatch before s.o. else gets sth.

ɛ-rɨ́shɨná   Variant: rɨ́shɨ́nâ. Nom sg: ɛ-rɨ́shɨná. Acc pl: ɨ-rɨshɨnaní. Nom pl: ɨ-rɨ́shɨnaní. n. Main supporting sticks supported by l-ŋápɛ́, forming the ceiling of a Maasai or Samburu house. A house has at least two which cross each other, themselves supported by the upright l-ŋɔ́pɛ́. (SL). See: em-bókíshìi Verticle construction posts; l-ŋápɛ́ Supports; ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀m Horizontal construction sticks.; enk-opitó String.

ɔ-rɨtɛ́t   Nom sg: ɔ-rɨ́tɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨ-rɨtɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨ-rɨ́tɛ̀tà. n. Back of the leg between buttocks and knee.

a-rɔ́   In some suffixed forms: a-rɔ́r. PF: -torua. v. To kick, step on. Ɛ́rɔ́. He will kick. Etórúá síkírìà nkíné nɛ́gɨ̀l múrt. The donkey kicked the goat and broke its neck. (SN). Tórùà mpɨ́rà. Kick the ball. (SN). See: a-rɔrɔ́ To stand on.

a-rɔgɔ́ny   v.prog. To disfigure sth. (e.g. of metal). Ɛtɔ́rɔ́gɔ́nyákɨ̀ subúrìà aáí. My sufuria has been disfigured. (SN). Mayíólò ltʉŋánɨ̀ ɔtɔ́rɔgɔnyɔ́ saánì ááí. I don't know the person who disfigured my plate. (SN). Árɔ́gɔ́nyɨ́tà. I am crumpling it up/disfiguring it. (W).

a-rɔ́j   v.prog. 1 • To signal secretly by touch or eye. Ɛ́rɔjɨ́ metúpurróí inkíshú. He will be signalled to steal the cows. Ɛ́tɔ́rɔ́já metúpurróí inkíshú. He signalled him to steal the cows. Tɔ́rɔ̀jà olcoré linó mélò enetíi ɔlárrábàl. Signal your friend not to go to where there is war. Shɔ́mɔ̀ tɔ́rɔ̀jɔ̀ sútúó linó meéù bɔɔ́. Go and signal your friend to come out. (SN). See: a-káld To becon.

2 • To nudge. Káɨ́bá náarɔjɨ́. I hate being nudged. (SN).

a-rɔjá   v.mid. To be signaled. Ɛ́ɨ́páŋá ɔlmʉrraní amʉ̂ ɛrɔ́jà The warrior went out because he was signalled.

a-rɔjaá   1 • To secretly signal away.

2 • To betray.

ɛ-rɔ́jà   Nom sg: ɛ-rɔ́jâ. n.sg. A signal.

a-rɔ́k   [Chamus] Acc sg: rokú. PL: rɔɔ́k. v.s. 1 • To be black. Erókù. It becomes black. Kɔ́rɔ́k alɛ́ áɨ́ŋɔnɨ. This bull is black. (SN). ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́rɔ́k Person with a black complexion. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́rɔ́kɛ́nà enkúkúó Person with charcoal-black skin. Etíi ɛnkátampôî nárɔ̀k ɛnkáɨ́. A black cloud is in the sky. Laɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ ɔ́rɔ́k óéuó nkáŋ. It is the black bull that came home. (SN). LING: Unlike most stative verbs, in K and W (but not SN) the plural root contains a long vowel a-rɔ́ɔ́k. Thus, in some dialects it has some properties more characteristic of nouns and adjectives. kʉnâ búkuí aré naárɔɔ́k sidaîn these two good black books (W).

2 • Having no light; gloomy. Kɛ́rɔ́k olóìp. The shade is black.

3 • To be devoid of, be poor. Kááɨ́tɔ́rɔ̀k. I will make you poor. (lit: I will make you black.). Átɔ́rɔ́kà. I have become poor.

4 • (As of water) To be pure; spotlessly clean.

a-rɔká   To be blackened.

a-rɔkayú   Able to be blackened.

em-pesho na-rɔk   Uselessness, vanity, empty nothings.

ɔl-tʉŋánì lo lɔrɔk   A covetous man.

ɛ-rɔ́k   Nom sg: ɛ-rɔk. Acc pl: ɛ-rɔ́ɔk. Nom pl: ɛ-rɔɔ́k. n. Black one.

a-rɔ́k ómòm   v.s. 1 • To be unfortunate, unlucky, unsuccessful. Usage: metaphor. Ɛrɔ́k ómòm Pita amʉ̂ ɛtáláíkínè ayámà ɨ́nâ títo. Pita is unfortunate because he was not able to woo that girl. (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́rɔ́k ómòm person who is unfortunate, unlucky. In W, this may have the connotation of not being cheerful.

2 • To have a black face. Usage: lit. LING: Though a-rɔ́k 'be black; is lexically intransitve, this phrase occurs in an "External Possession" construction, with 'face' as the nominative subject and the "possessor" of face as the accusative object. Additionally, in the idiomatic meaning, 'face' occurs without its usual gender prefix.

a-rɔ́k ɔ́ŋʉ̀   v.s. 1 • To be unable to identify things, e.g. unable to identify one's own cows, or recognize which cows are missing.

2 • To be envious.

3 • To have a black eye. Usage: lit. LING: This phrase occurs in an "External Possession" construction, with "eye" in the nominative and the "possessor" of "eye" as the accusative object. In the idiomatic sense, "eye" must occur without its normal gender prefix.

ink-onyek o lorok   Envious eyes.

a-rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   v.s. 1 • To be hard-hearted, unkind, unforgiving, uncaring, stingy, selfish, unsociable, stubborn. Káarɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. I am hard-hearted. Kɛ́rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ ɔlpayíán. The man is unkind, heard-hearted. Kɨ́rɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. We are unforgiving/selfish. (W). An individual like this does not greet others even if he knows them, does not respond or does so only curtly. The person does not help others when they are needy, and is unfeeling. The behavior may be temporary or permanent, but the individual is this way for no reason. LING: This phrase occurs in an "external possessor" construction, with "stomach" as the nominative subject, and the "possessor" of stomach as the accusative object of the sentence. In the idiomatic meaning, "stomach" occurs without its usual gender prefix.

2 • To have a black stomach. Usage: lit. Káarɔ́k ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. My stomach is black (e.g. it is covered with charcoal). LING: Note that when 'stomach' carries a gender prefix, the literal meaning results. Ant: a-ɨbɔ́rr ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ Merciful.

a-rɔ́k táʉ̀   v.s. 1 • To not show any feelings, neither positive nor negative.

2 • To have a black heart. Usage: lit.

ɛ-rɔkán   Nom sg: ɛ-rɔ́kàn. n. 1 • The state of being black, blackness. Éísápʉk ɛrɔkán ɛ́nkɔ́p tenédoyio ɛnkɔ́lɔŋ Blackness becomes greater on the ground when the sun sets.

ɛ-rɔkán e-omóm   Unluckiness. Enótó Jois ɛnkɛ́ráí oeŋwán náishúnyìè. Mayíólò ajó káà rɔkán eomóm ɛná náàtà. Jois gave birth to her fourth child, but she passed away. I don't know which kind of unluckiness it is that Jois has! (W). See: a-rɔ́k ómom To be unlucky.

a-rokú   In some suffixed forms: rokun. v. 1 • To become black.

2 • To become very angry. Etym: *rɔk (cf. Vossen's Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-roku or *-rɔkʊ 'become black' (1989:195); but even in POM this must have been a sequence of the root *rɔk plus the Inceptive morpheme *-un or *-ʊn.).

a-rokú ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   v.phrase. To become angry, glower.

ɛ-rɔ́kwɛ́ɛ́t   n. Rope. See: ɛn-kɛɛnɛ́ Rope; ol-gosôî Rope; ɔl-kɨ́ɨ́tà Rope.

o-rómpó   Acc pl: i-rómpoí. n. Two-kilogram tin. When empty, the tin is used for measuring maize, beans, etc.

i-Rómpoí   n.prop. Name for age set formed in 1992. In Il-Wuasinkishu, this age set started in April 1992. This name was applied to them by an older age set and is perjorative. As a result, members of the age set gave themselves the name il-Meiseyíékì 'the untouchables'. Etym: o-rómpó, from Swahili word for 'two kilogram bag of maize'.

a-rón   v. To go without water for a time. This is typical for livestock during the dry season and is planned by their owners for up to three days at a time. Etórónô nkíshù mperót uní. The cows have gone without water for three days. (SN). See: [North] a-itoroníó To be thirsty or hungry; a-pukoó To stay without food.

róncó   Nom sg: roncó. n. 1 • Driving of cattle to a distant place for a period of months; looking after cows in a far land. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ ɨlkaɨrɨ́sh áàɨ̀rrɨ̀tà inkíshú tɛ̀ róncò. The junior elders from warriorhood have gone to look after cattle away from home. See: ɔ-lálɛ́ Cattle camp.

rɔ́nkáí   Nom sg: rɔnkaí. Acc pl: rónkéní. Nom pl: ronkení. adj. Slim (of people, possibly animals if referring to genetic makeup); narrow (path, road, narrow plain); thin (of materials such as glass or wood, comparing two trees). Ɛ́ɨ́rɔnkai ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́nyà ɛndáà kɨtɨ́. A person who eats little food is slim. Kɛ́ɨ́rɔ́nkáí aná oitéí. This path is narrow. (SN). Sobúá rɔ́náí etudúŋua. It is a thin herding stick that he cut (from a tree). (SN). See usage note at a-pɨrɨ́k 'to be narrow'. See: sâs Emaciated; a-pɨrɨ́k To be narrow.

ɛ-rɔ́nkáí   Nom sg: ɛ-rɔnkáí. Acc pl: ɨ-rɔ́nkɛ́nà. Nom pl: ɨ-rɔnkɛná. n. Piece of defatted meat; piece of fried meat. LING: Plural is the unmarked form.

ɨ-rɔ́nkɛ́nà   Nom pl: ɨ-rɔnkɛná. n.pl. Meat left after extracting fat by cooking; fried meat. This kind of meat is a delicacy. See: ɛ-rɔnkáí Piece of defeated meat; [North] n-káwà Defatted meat; en-kiriŋó Meat.

ɛ-rɔ́nkɛ́nɔ́   n. Slimness. Mmíkíncɔ ɛrɔnɛnɔ́ íncòp ɨ̀nà kɨlâ. (Your) slimness will not permit you to wear that piece of clothing (e.g., it will be too baggy). See: rɔ́nkáí Slim.

a-ronkenú   v. To grow slim (of people or animals). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛ́ráí nágɨ́rá abʉlʉ́ aronkenú. The child who is growing is getting slim. (Pk).

ronkó   Nom sg: rónko. Acc pl: ronkón. Nom pl: rónkòn. n. Dik-dik. madoquinai. Ɛkwɛ́tá rónko aisudorí. The dik-dik has run away to hide. (SN). Ronkó deí ɛtárá. It is a dik-dik that he/she killed. (SN).

o-rôny   Nom sg: o-rôny. Acc pl: i-rónyì. Nom pl: i-rónyî. n. 1 • Shoulderblade.

2 • Shoulder. See: ol-bóítáí Shoulder, shoulder blade; dápásh Broad, wide; ɔl-ɔɨlɨ́lâî Shoulder; ɛm-pʉ̂s Shoulder; ɔ-sɨ̂p Shoulder.

a-rɔ́ny   v.prog. Shave s.o. Shɔ́mɔ̀ tɔ́rɔ̀nyɔ̀ nkɛ́ráí. Go and shave the child. (SN). Nkɛ́ráí narɔnyɨ́táɨ́ náɨ́shɨ̀rɨ̀tà. It is the child who is being shaved that is crying. (SN). In some Maa sections the word a-rɔ́ny 'to shave' is used in the place of a-bárn 'to shave' at night, as the latter is said to have some spiritual implications when mentioned at night. See: a-bárn To shave.

a-roó   v. To make sth. fall. See: a-úr To fall.

áà-rɔ́ɔ́k óipí   v. 1 • To be obscure or hard to identify; this might be because the item is hard to distinguish from its environment, or because its color blends into the background. Kɛ́rɔ́ɔ́k óipí olósòkùàn. The buffalo is hard to see.

2 • To be ungrateful. LING: This phrase occurs in an "External Possession" construction, with plural "shades" as the nominative subject and the obscure item as the accusative object. "Shades" occurs without its normal gender prefix. See: a-rɔ́k To be black.

a-rɔ́p   v. To bribe, appease. Ɛtɔ́rɔ́pá lpáyìàn látíá ɛnyɛ́ aishó ntáré payîê mélíkóò áàjò nɨnyɛ́ ɔ́tarúá nkíshú. The man has bribed his neighbours by giving them goats so that they may not report that he raided/stole[lit: beat toward the pt. of reference] the cows. (SN).

e-ropíyìà   Nom sg: e-rópíyíá. Acc pl: ɨ-ropiyianí. Nom pl: ɨ-rópiyianí. [Chamus] Acc sg: ropɨ́yà. n. 1 • Money. Íncoóí iropiyianí meshómoi áàiɨ̀nyàŋʉ̀ ɛndáà. Give away money so that food can be bought. (Pk). Áayewûô ɛldɛ̂ páyìàn aisilén iropiyíán áinéí. That man has come to borrow money from me. (Pk). Kɛátà rópiyaní tɨ́pàt. Money has worth. (S).

2 • Two shilling piece. Imeékúré doí apá áâ eropíyìà ɛnkʉjɨtá ɔ́ɔ̀ lmánkàì. One string of beads is no longer a two-shilling piece. (Pk). Usage: km (PK) suggests that i-ropiyaní is the most generic word for 'money'. For sl (SN) the singular is rare, and any sense of the source for this term in rupee is lost; ropiyianí simply means 'money'.. See: ɛm-pɨ́sáí Money; ɛn-kɔ́shɔ́láí Money; en-cilínkì Money; e-núsù Money.

a-ropocó [North]   v. [North] To have enough of sth., be satisfied with it. Kátoropócò ndáà. I've had enough food. (S). Syn: a-imís To be satisfied.

o-róréí   Nom sg: o-roréí. Acc pl: ɨ-róreí. Nom pl: ɨ-róreí. [North] Acc sg: réréí. n. 1 • Word. Iyíólò oróréí lé emúá. [lémúá] Do you know the word emúá? (W). Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛnkardásì náígérìè kʉlɔ̂ róreí. Give me a paper to write these words. (Pk). Ɔlairúkònì Kónené ó róréí lɔ́ lpayíán. Konene is a believer in the word of the man. (W). Tábòlò inkííyaa inónók; máíniŋinó oróréí lɛ́ nKáí. Open your ears; let's listen to the word of God. (W).

2 • Words said over and over that indicate how disatisfied and annoyed the speaker is, which are intended to annoy the hearer so that the hearer will take action of some kind; spoken "noise", blather, complaint. Usage: esp. singular. aósh oróréí to make noise (i.e., to complain. lit: to hit the word).

3 • Noise of any sort which is irritating to the hearer. Usage: rare. See: ɔ-lɔlɛpɨlɛpí Noise; [North] l-oilɛmɨlɛmɨ́ Noise; ol-buaá Noise; a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p To talk a lot, make noise.

e-rórêt   Nom sg: e-rorét. Acc pl: ɨ-róretí. Nom pl: ɨ-róretí. n. Lawn, place of short grass.

a-rɔrɔ́   v. To step on, tread on, trample. Ɛtɔ́rɔ́rɔ́ nkíshù úátá. The cows thave trodden the fence. (SN). Míntókí doí arɔrɔ́ ɛnkɔ́p tɔɔlkímòjìk aké tóròròyìè siî nɨnyɛ́ entútúnyó. Stop standing on the ground with your toes alone; but also stand with your heel. (Pk).

e-rórúátá   Nom sg: e-roruatá. Acc pl: i-rorúát. Nom pl: i-rorúát. n. Footprint, step. See: n-tápáníé Footprint.

a-rót   v. 1 • To have diarrhoea, dyssentry, defecate. Ɛshɔmɔ́ arót. He is really sick with dyssentry. (lit: He has gone to diarrhoea.) (SN). Kóròt aná kɛ́ráí. This child is having diarrhoea. (SN).

2 • [South] To be punished.

a-royíé [Chamus]   In some suffixed forms: a-royíék. v. Néroyíékì aké áàrà. And people just fought. (C). Néròyìè mɛtáà ɛ́tárá ɨltʉ́ŋáná lɛ́nkáɨ́ cótó. It happened that they have killed people of the other side. (C). níroyíé apɨ́k mpɛ́rɛ́ nɨnyɛ́ you go ahead and spear (C).

a-rú   v. To make a sound as of a cow, donkey, sheep, goat, cock, crow, etc. This sound is mostly made by animals. It includes some bird calls, but excludes chirping and warbling. Kéru nkɨ́tɛŋ. The cow is mooing. (S). Etoruéítò ilkúrrúkì. The crows are cawing. Erû olkúkû. The cock crows. Álótú ɛ́tɔ̂n ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ erú olkúkû. I'll come before the cock crows (i.e. very very early in the morning).

-rua   v.pf. Imperative or subjunctive form of a-rɔ́ 'to kick'. See: a-rɔ́ To kick.

a-rúá   v. To be hysterical. See: a-dokú To be hysterical.

e-rúát   Acc pl: i-rúátìn. n. 1 • Bed. Kákè egól ɛná rúát ilónìtò. This bed matress is hard.

2 • Partioned area of a house where a bed is.

ɛ-yɨ́kátá ɔɔ́ rúátìn   Raising of the beds.

ruat kitok   Public bed for all people in the house.

ruat kini   Mother's bed.

a-rʉ́b   v. 1 • To join end to end.

2 • To set a bone. See: a-rʉbarɛ́ Accompany.

a-rʉbarɛ́   v. To accompany; go with. Verb is neutral with regard to means of movement, whether walking, in a vehicle, etc.

a-ɨtʉrʉbarɛ́   To make it follow. See: a-rʉ́b To set a bone.

ɛ-rʉ́bátá   Nom sg: ɛ-rʉbatá. Acc pl: ɨ-rʉbát. Nom pl: ɨ-rʉbát. n. 1 • Joint.

2 • Portion; part of sth.

ɛ-rʉ́bátá ɛ́ nkɛjʉ́   Nom sg: ɛ-rʉbatá ɛn-kɛ̀jʉ̀. Joint of the leg; ankle, knee, toe joints, hip joint, etc. See: e-múrt ɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Ankle; ol-ouré kokóyò Ankle; [South] ol-aidólòkì Ankle; [North] l-aibelâî Ankle.

a-rugɔmá   v. To vomit.

a-rʉ́j   v. 1 • [North] To pile up things.

2 • To insert several items forcefully into a container.

a-rúk   v. 1 • To thread, string beads. Túrùkò saé. Make a string of beads. (SN).

2 • To put meat on a stick; skewer.

3 • To pass through an area; patrol. a-rúk ntîm To patrol in the forest.

4 • To flow. Néínepuní ɔlkɛjʉ́ orúkò. They came to a flowing stream of water.

5 • To scrutinize. Kéruk ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɛntálɨ́pá ɛ papaí linó. Maasai scrutinize the historical background of your father. (KS).

ɛ-rʉkɛnyá   n. Mist. See: ɛn-kɨnʉkʉ́ Mist; ɛn-cán Rain.

ɛ-rʉkɛnyɛ́   n. Mist, fog.

rukét [North]   Nom sg: rúkèt. Acc pl: rukétà. Nom pl: rúkètà. n. [North] Stick sharpened on both ends for roasting meat; skewer. See: a-rúk To skewer; ɔl-jɨpɛ́t Stick sharpened on both ends for roasting meat.

e-rúkò   Nom sg: e-rúkô. n. Column on the march.

rúkórét [North]   Nom sg: rukorét. Acc pl: rúkórètà. Nom pl: rukórètà. n. [North] Ox for slaughtering at the day of initiation of the girl to be married off. Certain criteria must be met, such as color and shape of horns. Képírr alɛ́ rukorét olêŋ. This wedding-ox is very fat. (SN). Kɛ́tálákɨ̀ rúkórét (lɛ́ nkɨyamá). The wedding-ox has been missed. (i.e. An appropriate one cannot be located so will have to be found at another place). (SN). This ox is donated by the husband-to-be at the day of initiation. It is part of the bride-wealth that the groom's family must bring. See: ɔl-mɔ́ŋó; ɔl-kɨ́tɛ́ŋ Ox.

e-rúkótó   Nom sg: e-rukotó. Acc pl: i-rukót. Nom pl: i-rúkòt. n. 1 • Flowing.

2 • Safari.

e-rúkúnotó   n. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn airiamakí erúkúnotó é nkitók ɔ́ ɛncátátá ɛ́ nkají. The man is marrying and building his house at the same time. (Pk).

a-rʉkʉnyɛ́   v. To descend towards the point of reference. Máɨ́tʉrʉkʉnyá áàòmòn. Let's close our eyes and pray.

a-ɨtʉrʉkʉ́ny   To close one's eyes. Máɨ́tʉrʉkʉnyá taá Let's close our eyes. (C).

ɛ-rʉkʉnyɛ́   n. Mist.

a-rúm1   v. 1 • To prod.

2 • To pierce.

3 • To poke a person, usually with the finger (as children might do). Káaturumó. He poked me. (SN). Kóturumo nɨnyɛ́. He poked him. (SN). For sl, this does not mean 'pierce'. See: a-rrúm To push.

a-rúm2   v. To barely rain, incipient precipitation. Kórum. Rain will just begin to form. Kóturumo ncán. The clouds are beginning to show signs of rain; it has just barely begun to drizzle. (SN). It could be that a-rúm may take place, but that no rain may actually fall.

a-rʉ́m   v.prog. 1 • To peep at; look through an opening. Ádɔ́lɨ́tà enkitó tókì sápʉ̀k narʉmɨ́shɔ́ tɔ̀ sánag. I see some kind of big thing that is peeping from a bush. (I don't really know what it is.) (W).

2 • To visit a sick person. Ɛ́rʉ́m. He will visit a sick person / peep at someone.

3 • [North] To ask s.o. sth.

4 • [North] To go and check for sth. somewhere.

a-rʉmɨshɔ́   1 • To peep.

2 • To sprout. See: a-saayá To visit a sick person.

rʉ́mà   adj. With no horns.

a-rʉmʉ́   v. 1 • To stick out, project. Ɛrʉmʉ́. It will stick out. Ɛrʉ́mʉ̀. It will stick out. (W).

2 • [North] To be visible. Kɔ́rʉ́mʉ̀ mpuró. Smoke is visible. (SN).

o-runkú   Nom sg: o-rúnkù. Acc pl: i-runkûn. Nom pl: i-rúnkùn. n. 1 • The space under the bed.

2 • Space between the foot of the small bed and the wall, used for storing honey beer. See: kushíiní Under the bed.

rúnkú [North]   Nom sg: runkú. Acc pl: rúnkûn. Nom pl: runkún. n. [North] Club, wooden or metalic. Rúnkú etóóshíé. He hit him with a club. (SN). See: o-rinká Club.

rúó   v. To be spoiled ? To spoil? ...etarúóítìè dúóó aké ɨmbáà. ...things were already spoiled. (Pk).

a-ruoyó   v. 1 • To be ruined, spoiled. Míntókì ayíét ɛnkɨlâ amʉ̂ kérúóyò. Stop stretching the cloth because it will be spoiled. (Pk).

2 • To abort.

a-rúp [North]   v. [North] To bewitch. This is very serious, and is only done by ol-oibónì. See: a-irúp To bewitch; a-sakút To bewitch livestock.

a-rʉ́p   v. 1 • To heap up, put together in a heap.

2 • [South] To puff up s.o.

a-rʉpayú   v.mid v.incep. To become heaped up.

ɨ-rʉpárɛ̀n   n.pl. Weapons.

ɛ-rʉ́pátá   Nom sg: ɛ-rʉpatá. Acc pl: ɨ-rʉpát. Nom pl: ɨ-rʉ́pàt. n. 1 • Heap.

2 • Joint.

a-rʉ́s   v.prog. To hit over a large surface area; bang into, collide. Árʉ́sɨ́tà ɛmotokáà. I am colliding with a car. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlárɛwání lɛ́ gárrì aaraá encótó ɛ́ táéné ɔ́ lgwɛ̂ peê mɛ́rʉ́s inkíshú. The driver of the car is keeping/fighting to the right side of the road so that he doesn't hit the cows. (W).

a-rút   v. 1 • To collect wild honey.

2 • To fleece; obtain an unfair amount of money from. Usage: Metaphorical.

a-rutó [North]   v.mid. [North] Navel infection occurring when the umbilical cord is cut wrongly.

í-rúújî   n.pl. Sessions of drizzling.