P - p

p   Letter representing the Maa nonimplosive bilabial stop. Between vowels this may be lightly voiced [b] or, in some dialects, a bilabial fricative [ɸ]. In other environments it is pronounced as a voiceless stop [p].

a-pá   Past. See: ɛn-áɨ́shárɨ̀ past.

pa-   Noun prefix indicating a close relationship. pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ Father-in-law of a man, a relationship established by the giving of a cow (SN). pakɛ́rr Mother-in-law of a man, a relationship established by the giving of a sheep; affinal female relatives of the same age as the mother-in-law (SN). pasɨnáɨ̀ Beloved (SN).

páà   conj. So. Nétií apá, kʉlɔ́ mʉ́rràn -- páà kéjo, ɛ́máàpɛ́ enjóré. Long time ago there were these warriors -- so they said, "Let's go for raids.". See: paɛ́ So that; payíé So that.

pááâ   ideo. Sound made by rain. LING: Pááâ must be accompanied by some form of the verb ajó 'to say'. Ejóítò ɛncán pááâ. The rain is saying "paaa".

páápá   Nom sg: páàpà. voc. Father; father's brother. Emúítà Páàpà lâî néjò olekitarrí ɛtɛ́ɛ́kʉ́nyɛ̀ encotó nábo. My father is sick and the doctor said that one of his sides is paralyzed. A man cannot marry any female offspring, in any generation, whose ancestry can be traced back to páápá.

ɛm-paás [South]   Nom sg: ɛm-páàs. Acc pl: ɨm-paasí. Nom pl: ɨm-páasí. n. [South] Dam. See: ol-túrótó Dam.

a-paásh   [North]: a-paác. v.prog. To avoid by making detour; bypass. Kápáásharɛ́ nánʉ́. I will avoid coming into contact with him. Ɨ́ntapaashá ɨlashɔ́ eúlulû amʉ̂ kɛ́sʉlakínò. Prevent the calves from getting near the valley because they will fall into it.

a-ɨtapaásh   To cause to avoid. See: a-lám To move away from.

ɛm-páàsh   n. Place where people pass without meeting; detour.

-pááshà   v.mid. (It/they) is/are different. ɨmbáà naápàshà issues that are different.

a-paasharɨ́   v. 1 • To be separated.

2 • To be different, distinguished from something else.

ɨm-paashát   n.pl. Fortnight. See: ɔl-ápà Moon, month; ɨl-apaitín Months.

paáshe   n. Relationship term; used when the a-imál gift is a male calf. See: ɔl-áshê Male calf; a-imál To give a gift to a new wife.

ɔl-pááshíé   Variant: ɔl-pááshé; pááshí. Nom sg: ɔl-paashíé. Acc pl: il-paáshèn. Nom pl: il-páashén. n. 1 • Large main fence, e.g. around a kraal. ɔl-pááshíé is normally made from thorn bushes, but could be made of other bushes, wire, etc. aisúr olpááshíé metúpukú ɔlasʉráí To prod the fence so that the snake will get out (K). Kaún ɔlpááshé arɨ́sh olcáámpà láí wólè Tinkói I will put up a fence to separate my land from Tinkoi's. (K).

2 • Gap in a fence. See: ɨn-kɨkʉ́ fencing branches.

3 • Place inside the kraal where there are no houses. See: ɛn-kɨ́kárrɛ́t Fence; e-sitá Fence; kiónì Fence; úátá Fence.

a-paashɨpaashá   v. To vary.

padán   Nom sg: pádan. [West] Acc sg: pádán. adj. 1 • Having the quality of being skilled, able to perform one's job well. Ɛɨshɔɔ́kɨ̀ enkitók padán tɛ̀ yɨɛratá ó loshoró ɔlɛ́kɔ́ɨ́síááyíó. The woman skilled in cooking porridge was paid a salary.

2 • Having the quality of being a "good shot" or sharp-shooter. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔlpáyìàn pádan aŋór iŋúésì. The man who is skilled in shooting has gone to hunt wild animals. Mátòrìk ɨ́lɔ̂ mʉ́rránì ɔlárràbàl amʉ̂ pádán. [ɪ̀lɔ̀ ... àmʊ̂ pàdàn] Let's take that warrior to war because he is a sharp-shooter. (W). Ɛ́rá pádán. He/she is a sharp-shooter. (always) (W). Pádán ɛlɛ́ mʉ́rrànì. This warrior is a sharp-shooter. (but perhaps on just one occasion) (W). Pádán kʉlɔ́ mʉ́rrân. These warriors are sharp-shooters. (W). LING: Unlike most Adjectives, W (kk) does not allow either a gender prefix (*ɔlpádán) or a relative clause prefix (*ɔlɔpádán) on this stem. This suggests that it may derive from a no-longer extant stative verb root pad. .

ɔl-pádírí   Acc pl: il-padiriní, il-padriní. n. Priest, Catholic priest.

paɛ́   adv. 1 • So that.

2 • Certainly. Kálo paɛ́ arinyú nkíshú. (i) I will go so that I can bring the cows back. (SN) (ii) I will certainly go and bring be cows back. (SN). Kálo paɛ́ arinyú inkíshú. I will certainly go and bring the cows back. (Pk).

3 • Need, obligation. Kálo paɛ́ arinyú inkíshú peê elopokiní inkɛ́rà. I need to go and bring the cows so that the children can get milk. (Pk). See: payîê So that; peê So that.

l-páegî [North]   Nom sg: l-páegî. Acc pl: l-páeg. Nom pl: l-paég. n. [North] Maizecob; (one) maize seed; maize plant. Kéísúpàt alɛ́ páegî. This maize is good. (SN). Káshám lpaeg linóno I like your maize. (SN). Kóótò lpaég. The maize is ripe. (SN). See: ɔl-páékí Maize.

ɔl-páékí   Nom sg: ɔl-paekí. Acc pl: ɨl-páɛ̂k. Nom pl: ɨl-paɛ́k. [North] Acc sg: l-páegî. Variant: páègì. n. Maize. Ɛnyɛ́ɨ́tà ɛncɛ́rɛrɛ́t olpáékí. The monkey is eating the maize. (W). Ɛnyɛ́ɨ́tà ɨncɛ́rɛrɛtɨ́ ɨlpáɛ̀k. The monkey is eating the maize. (W).

págà [North]   Nom sg: págâ. Acc pl: -. Nom pl: -. n. [North] Communal restricted land where no one is allowed to graze his cows. Restriction is temporary to allow grass to grow for later consumption when there is draught; fallow land. See: ɛn-kɔ́p Land, field; ɔl-ɔkɛrɨ́ Personal restricted land.

ɛm-págâg   n. Strong thirst that requires frequent drinking of water.

l-págàs [North]   Nom sg: l-págâs. Acc pl: l-págasí. n. [North] White soil, usually used by warriors or elders on special occasions to smear on their faces; may also be used by women as a source of mineral when pregnant. See: ɛnk-ɔɨbɔtɨ́ White soil; en-túrótó Chalk.

Pagasi   n.prop. Name of a place on or near the Inkurman Escarpment, Narok District, Kenya.

l-págásíí [North]   Nom sg: l-pagasíí. Acc pl: l-pagásì. Nom pl: l-págásí. n. [North] Servant; worker hired primarily for manual laborer. This word may have colonial connotations. Kógól lpagasíí ótùrr lárîâk. The worker who digs wells is strong. (SN). Káshám kʉlɔ̂ pagásì amʉ̂ kéísupátì. I like these workers because they are good. Kéínaúrɨtâ lpágás1i olêŋ. The workers are really tired. (SN). Etym: < Swahili.

nk-áɨ́pàrr [North]   n. [North] Day after tomorrow.

em-pákà   n. Cat. Usage: See dialect variants at:. See: em-puús Cat.

ɛm-pákááí   Acc pl: ɨm-pakaaní. n. Narrow swampy area.

a-pakás   v. To flatter, coax.

ol-pákáséí   Acc pl: il-pakasi. [North] Acc sg: l-págásíí. [North] Acc pl: l-pagásì. n. 1 • Porter, someone who carries luggage.

2 • Someone who works for almost no pay.

3 • Servant. Etym: < Swahili pagasi 'porter'.

pakérr   Nom sg: pákèrr. Acc pl: ɨ-nɔɔ́ pakérr. Nom pl: ɨ-nɔ́ɔ̀ pakérr. n. n. Term of address used by a man for his mother-in-law. Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó pákérr oloinyaŋí. My mother-in-law has gone to the market. This term can be used for the age-mates of one's mother-in-law (those married by one's father-in-law's age-set).

2 • n. The woman to whom a man has given an ewe, or vice versa. Usage: rare.

pakíné   n. The term used when the a-imál gift is a goat. See: a-imál To give a gift to a new wife.

pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ   Nom sg: pákɨ̀tèŋ. Acc pl: ɨ-lɔɔ́ pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ. Nom pl: ɨ-lɔ́ɔ̀ pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ. n.voc. 1 • n.voc. Term of address for the person that one has given a cow or vice versa; very close friend. Káló ashʉlarɛ́ pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ láí. I am going to live with my friend. (Pk). Néjî ɨ́nâ ɔlɔ́ŋ pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ, amʉ̂ ɛ́táá naá eíshórétekí entíto. That day it is said [i.e. they will call each other] pakɨ́tɛ́ŋ, because they have given each other a daughter.

2 • n. The relationship established by giving a cow.

pakwó   n. The term used when the a-imál gift is a young goat or sheep. See: a-imál To give a gift to a new wife.

a-pál   v. 1 • To cease, leave off. Tápàlà entolôî. Stop being angry (wild). (Pk). Entómóníshò doí námitikí kʉlɨ́káɨ́ máréítà ɛ̀pàl inkíshú mɛ́mɨ́rà. It is because of the many children that some families cannot avoid selling cows. (lit: It is having many children that prevents other families from stopping to sell cows.) (Pk).

2 • To leave, leave alone. Káápál táatá. I will leave you now. (SN). Kápál alɛ̂ tuŋánì éítû aráré táatá. I will leave this person before I fight him now. (SN).

a-palaá   To abandon, neglect, release. Kápáláâ alɛ̂ shaní motúá katúkûl. I will let this tree die completely. (SN).

a-ɨtapál   To make s.o. leave sth. See: a-iŋuaá To leave.

a-palaá   v. To neglect, abandon.

ol-palagilagi   n. Type of wood.

ɛm-pálai   Nom sg: ɛm-paláí. Acc pl: ɨm-pálà. Nom pl: ɨm-pálâ. [North] Acc sg: m-páláí. n. 1 • n. Subcutaneous tissue on an animal hide. This is usually removed from the main animal hide/skin because it leaves a bad smell. When removed fresh, fat could be cooked out of this; otherwise it is just discarded.

2 • n. Letter, paper, book. Míntokíki kʉná kɛ́râ áàùàp inkulîê tɛ̀ níŋamáà impálà. Children stop seizing papers as you wait to receive them from others. (Pk). Tányà taá ɨŋamʉ́ ìnà páláí ɛnyɛ́. Refuse to receive that letter of his. Káatɛrɛwáka ntitó áàì mpáláí. My daughter sent me a letter. (SN). Káatɛrɛwakâ ɛntitó áí ɛmpálai. My daughter sent me a letter. (Pk). Kééwùò mpaláí é ntíto aáí ŋolé. [kééwùò mpàláí ɛ́ ntító àáí ŋòlé] My daughter's letter came yesterday. (SN). Ééwùò ɛmpaláí ɛ́ ntíto áí ŋolé. My daughter's letter came yesterday. (Pk). Kéísidai nɨnyɛ́ súkùùl amʉ̂ kɛ́sɨrɨ́ ɨmpálà. School is good because books are written (painted, drawn) on. (Pk). ɛtabáutuâ dúóó nóoshi pálâ níkìaànyɨ̀tà. The letters that we have been waiting for have arrived. (SN). Ɛtabáutúa dúóó nóòshì pálâ nɨ́kɨ̀ànyɨ̀tà. The papers that we have been waiting for/expecting have arrived. (SN). Kéísupátí kʉná pálâ naátií píshaí. These books with pictures are good. (SN).

3 • n.pl. Title deeds. Ɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ɔ́kɨ̀ ɨlpayianí ɨmpálà naáyàyìè ɨlcámpaí. The men have been given title deeds for owning the land parcels. (lit: The men have been given papers that take-with the lands.) (Pk).

ɛm-palakáì   Acc pl: ɨm-palaká. n. Nappier grass.

a-palakɨ́   v. 1 • To leave to.

2 • To forgive. Káápálɨ́kɨ̀ anâ sílè nɨ́mɨ́ndɨ̀m ataláà. I will forgive you this debt which you cannot pay. (SN).

ɛm-pálákínó   n. 1 • Forgiveness of a single offence or wrongdoing; release; forfeiture (e.g. of a contest to someone else); leaving of something for someone else to do.

2 • To abandon a contest to s.o. else; leave sth. for s.o. else to do. LING: This word form is rare for sl (SN).

ɛm-pálákínòrè   n. Forgiveness of a wrongdoing or sin.

m-pálákínotó [North]   n. [North] Forgiveness. mpálákínotó eé ŋók The forgiveness of sin (SN).

a-palarí   v. To give up.

ɛm-palarótì   Nom sg: ɛm-pálarótì. Acc pl: ɨm-palarót. Nom pl: ɨm-pálàròt. n. 1 • Bad thing.

2 • Sth. left alone.

ɛm-pálátá   Nom sg: ɛm-palatá. Acc pl: ɨm-palát. Nom pl: ɨm-palát. n. Abstention. mpálátá ɛ́nyátá ɛɛ́ nkírí The abstaining from eating meat (SN).

ɛm-páldàkà   Nom sg: ɛm-páldákà. Acc pl: ɨm-paldakaní. Nom pl: ɨm-páldakaní. n. Sore, wound.

ɛm-pálèkì   Nom sg: ɛm-pálékì. Acc pl: ɨm-palekiní. Nom pl: ɨm-pálekiní. n. Species of very poisonous plant with many large leaves, and which somewhat resembles ɛnábóóí. If cows eat it along with grass, they die very rapidly. Often grows in old abandoned homesteads. datura stramonium. Kɛ́ya ɛmpálékì inkíshú tɛnɛ́nyà. Datura will kill cows if they feed on it. See: ɛn-ábóóí Plant (sp.).

a-palɨkɨ́   v. To forgive. See: a-palakɨ́ To forgive.

ɛm-palísh   Nom sg: ɛm-pálish. Acc pl: ɨm-palishîn. Nom pl: ɨm-pálishîn. n. Vagina. See: ɛm-balísh Vagina; en-túdé Vagina.

ɛm-palúà   Acc pl: im-paluaní. n. Potato-like fruit of the ol-torotua bush, much loved by elephants.

palût   Nom sg: pálùt. Acc pl: palútì. Nom pl: pálutí. adj. Desperate.

ɔl-pámbà   Acc pl: ɨl-pámbaɨ́. n. Cotton. Etym: < Swahili pamba.

ɔ́l-pánâs   Acc pl: ɨ́l-pánásî. n. Duiker. cephalophinae.

ɔl-pánkà   Nom sg: ɔl-pánkâ. Acc pl: il-pankai. [North] Acc sg: l-pangai. Variant: l-pánkan (SN). n. Machete, panga. Kéísupátì kʉlɔ́ pánkan lɛ́ lɛdʉ́kà. The machetes from this shop are good. (SN). Káshám lpánkan lɛ́ lɛdʉ́kà. I like the pangas from this shop. (SN). See: o-sínja Machete.

pankérá [North]   n. [North] The term used when the a-imál gift is a sheep. See: a-imál To give a gift to a new wife.

a-paŋá [North]   n. [North] To have a swollen stomach (from illness or from eating too much).

m-páŋá [North]   n. [North] Ostrich. See: ɛ-sídáí Ostrich.

papâ   Variant: pápá. Nom sg: pápâ. [North] Acc sg: paápà. [North] Nom sg: pápà. n. My father; primarily used vocatively (in the Nominative). Can mean both father and "dad". Primarily vocative.

papaí   Nom sg: pápaí. n. Father. Kéruk ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɛntálɨ́pá ɛ papaí linó. Maasai scrutinize the historical background of your father. (KS).

ɨl-pápɨ́t lɛ́ nkɔŋʉ́   Nom sg: ɨl-papɨ́t lɛ́ nkɔŋʉ́. Acc pl: ɨl-papɨ́t lɔɔ́ nkɔnyɛ́k. Nom pl: ɨl-papɨ́t lɔ́ɔ nkɔnyɛ́k. n. Eye lashes.

ɔl-pápɨ́tá   Nom sg: ɔl-papɨtá. Acc pl: ɨl-pápɨ́t. Nom pl: ɨl-papɨ́t. [North] Acc sg: l-páɨ́ta. n. Hair of the body or head (of animal or human). Órè peê kɨbarnʉ́ ɨlpápɨ́t lo lmelíl, níkìdùŋùdùŋ. When we shave hair from the neck, we shall cut it into pieces. LING: The pl. is the most frequently-used form; sg. form refers to one strand of hair.

ɨl-pápɨ́t lɛ́ nkɔŋʉ́   Eye brow. See: ɨl-ɛ́nyɔ́k Tail hair of certain animals.

papú   voc. 1 • Referent term used by a man for his mother's brother's daughters; or by a woman for her father's sister's sons; cross cousin.

2 • Referent term used by a woman for her mother's sister's son. Though this woman may call her male cousin papú, this male cousin will call her sɛ́nkɛ̀.

3 • Referent term used for a man's maternal uncles. ɨlɔɔ́ papú those uncles. See: sɛ́nkɛ̀ Parallel cousin.

a-papúl   v. To be confused; be in disarray.

a-ɨtapapúl   To cause confusion to. Ɛgɨ́rà ɨltʉŋaná áàɨ̀tàpàpùl ɔlɨkâɨ̂ tɔ̀ lárrábàl. The people are throwing the other into confusion. (Pk). See: a-ɨtaalán To confuse.

par-   Noun prefix forming a term of address. Parmúàìn One of many colors; a traditional term of address for God. See: pa- Prefix for term of address.

a-pará   v. To 'borrow,' without promising to return. Káataparaná. He has borrowed from me. (S). See: a-isilén To borrow.

l-párakuní [North]   Acc pl: l-párakùò. n. [North] Rich person.

párákúóíshò [North]   n. [North] Wealth. Párákúóíshò náítulubó. It is wealth that has made him/her greedy. (SN). See: ɛn-kársísìshò Wealth.

ɔl-párákuoní   Nom sg: ɔl-parákuoní. Acc pl: ɨl-páràkùò. Nom pl: ɨl-párákùò. [North] Acc sg: l-párakuní. [North] Acc pl: l-párakùò. n. Rich man; cattle keeper.

ɨl-Parakúyò   Variant: ɨl-páràkùò; ol-Paraguyu. n.pl. Name of a Maasai section, commonly written as Baraguyu or Barakuyu. Mol writes: "The Baraguyu...are the most southern of the Maa-speaking peoples. They number about 35,000 and live spread out in various parts of eastern Tanzania. They are semi-sedentary cattle-keepers. In language, cultural traits and social organization they are closely connected to other Maasai il-óshon, sections. To their surrounding Bantu neighbors they call themselves Maasai. Their main habitat lies to the south of the Maasai area in Tanzania....The Maasai reckon them to belong to the Lokop, i.e. Maa speakers who practice a degree of agriculture. Authors like Th. Beidelman, A. Hurskainen and U. von Mitzlaff have written specifically about the il-parakuyo and aspect of their culture and social organization. Peter Rigby has given us the most complete insights into Parakuyo society.". KS:2 says this is a fairly new term (about 10 years old). They are usually called lumbwa (or i-lúmpua) 'dog-people'. LING: "Like the il-kisonko Maasai, the il-parakuyo tend to slur the l into r in many of their words.".

em-Parakuyoi   See: il-adoín Baraguyu, Paraguyu; Lokop Pastoral, Maa-speaking peoples; ol-oshô Section.

a-parán   v. 1 • To go see, travel, visit.

2 • To go visit someone to request help. Káló aparán laláshɛ̀ láí. I will go visit my brother to ask him for help. (SN). Káparánà. I have been visited to ask for help (e.g. to make a contribution to a fundraiser). (SN).

ɛm-parárìà   n. Bluishness of the sky that tends to make the hills and plains blue; haze. See: ɛn-kɨnʉkʉ́ Mist.

ɛm-páraríá   n. A lining that is caused by mist that prevents visibility.

m-paratût [North]   [Chamus] Acc sg: m-partût. n. [North] Wife. See: en-kitók Woman, wife; e-ŋóròyìònì Wife.

ɛm-párbál   n. One herd of many cows. See: bɔɔ́ Herd.

ɛm-párɛ̂t   Nom sg: ɛm-parɛ́t. Acc pl: ɨmparɛta. n. Field, garden. Kórè peê iló amɨ́r inchereretí tɛ̀ mparɛ́t, nírík ɨ́lɔ̂ dîâ sápʉ̀k. [ìlɔ̀] When you go to chase the monkies from the garden, you take that big dog with you. (W). See: ɛm-parnɛt Field.

im-páretí   n.pl. Crops. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨnkɛ́râ áàɨ̀màlmàl ɔmɛtáà nɛ́ɨ́nɔ́s inkíshù impáretí ɔɔ́ltʉ̀ŋànàk. The children have gone and played around until the cows ate people's crops. (W).

em-párìnkò   1 • n.prop. Lake Baringo.

2 • n. Lake. See: ɛ-naɨpɔ́shà Lake; ɔl-bálbál Pool, lake; ɛ-sʉ́kʉ̀tà Lake; [North] m-básù Lake; ol-túrótó Puddle, lake.

ɛm-párínkóí   n. Lake. See: ɛ-naɨpɔ́shà Lake.

a-parɨpár   v. To break, fracture, crush.

m-párkíjì [North]   Nom sg: m-paarkíjì. Variant: parkɨ́jɨ̀. n.sg. [North] Daylight, daytime. See: ɛn-dámà Daytime; ɔŋán Daytime.

parméyìàn [North]   Nom sg: pármeyíán. n. [North] Can for watering livestock; can also be used to make meat soup.

Parmúàìn   Nom sg: Pármùàìn. Acc pl: ɨlɔɔ́ parmúàìn. Nom pl: ɨlɔ́ɔ parmúàìn. n.prop. A traditional name for God: "One of many colors", or the one who owns, or is in control of, many situations, seasons, circumstances of life. Usage: vocative. Órè ɛnKáí náà kéjì Parmúàìn. God is called "The one of so many colors.". This name refers to the multi-faceted nature of the traditional view of God: (S)He can bring rain and blessing, can bring death, can bring punishment, can be kind and compassionate, can bring trouble and be mean, and knows all things and all situations. Keswe Mapena writes: Parmúàìn indicates that God is able to cause anything of any colour to happen or to come to existence. God is in charge of all seasons: dry season mostly signified by dry brown bushes, grass and trees that have shed all their leaves and the animals that are poor in health; the wet season signified by green grass, bushes and flowering shrubs, trees that have green leaves, and animals that are generally healthy and giving birth to new animals. In all situations, the people are simply telling God that "You are in charge of everything, and have the power to change every shade/colour of life." The people are asking for God's help, for example, especially to change a bad situation. This term is never used with reference to people. See: e-múá Color.

a-parnát   v. To make permanent home at.

ɛm-párnàt   Nom sg: ɛm-párnât. Acc pl: ɨm-párnatí. Nom pl: ɨm-párnatí. n. Permanent village. M-Párnàt is also a place-name in the north Samburu area.

ɛm-parnɛt   n. Field, garden. See: ɛm-parɛt Field.

l-párò   Nom sg: l-párô. n.sg. Type of song and dance characterized by jumping. The dancing is performed only by morans, though young women will sing and provide the rhythm. lpárò is for entertainment, done at dances and weddings.

m-parpár [North]   n. [North] Mud. See: ɛ-sarŋáb Mud; o-sordó Silt; ol-okídoŋóì Mud.

parsaí   n.prop. One of tradational Maa names for God: The one who is to be worshiped, prayed to, beseeched, sacrificed to. See: a-saí To pray.

parsaláàsh [North]   Nom sg: pársaláàsh. n. [North] Buffalo. See: ol-ósòwùàn; ol-ósòkùàn Buffalo; ɔl-árrɔ̀ Buffalo; l-máàcà Buffalo; l-núnukó Buffalo.

ɔl-Partimaroi   Acc pl: Il-Partimaro. n.prop. 1 • Name of a sub-clan of the Il-Aiser clan.

2 • Place name along the road from Aŋata Taik towards Meto at the junction, Kajiado District, Kenya. This name could be derived from the plural form of the name of the ɔl-Partimaroi sub-clan of the Il-Aiser clan.

m-partút [North]   voc n. [North] One's wife; wife of one's age-mate. Mpartút, ówénì! Wife, come here! mpartút ɛnyɛ́ his wife. Usage: m-partút is a very traditional name for a married woman, though it might possibly be rude for a young person to use it with reference to one's mother or an older grandmother. n-kitók is possibly more polite.. Syn: en-kitók Woman.

a-parʉ́ [North]   v. [North] To remember. See: a-damʉ́ To remember.

m-pârr [North]   Nom sg: m-pârr. n. [North] Day (24 hours). ínîâ pârr [ìnìà pâr] that day (SN). Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-par- 'day' (Vossen 1989:198), from Proto-Eastern Nilotic *-paran 'day(time)' (Vossen 1982:352).

anapârr [North]   Today, this day.

nk-áɨ́ pârr   Day after tomorrow. Kópuonú nkáɨ́ pârr. They will come the day after tomorrow. (SN). See: [North] m-párrí Day; ɛnk-ɔlɔ́ŋ Day, sun; ɛn-dáma ɔ́ ɛn-kɛwaríé Day.

párrà [North]   [North] Stunted, born prematurely.

a-parrapárr [North]   v. [North] To smear sth. (e.g. ochre) on s.o.'s body.

m-párrí [North]   [North] Nom sg: m-parrí. [North] Acc pl: m-perót. [North] Nom pl: m-perót. [Chamus] Acc sg: párrɨ́. n. [North] A day (usually including both the hours of sunlight and dark). Káshám aná párrí. [àná pàrì] I like this day. (SN). Kéísúpàt aná parrí. This day is good. (SN). Kéísupátì kʉná perót. These days are good. (SN). Mayíólò mpárrí nálótú. I don't know the day that I will come. (SN). See: ɛnk-ɔlɔ́ŋ Day.

párrɨ́màŋàt   Nom sg: parrɨ́màŋàt. n. Newness, state of being new or temporary, e.g. the first few days of being in a new place, the first few days of a job, the initial period with a new leader. Párrɨ́màŋàt has a sense of uncertainty, as aspects of the situation may not yet be totally clear.

a-parrɨpárr   v. 1 • To smash, crush, fracture. Nɛ́parrɨ́par ɔlórika. He destroyed/splintered/smashed the chair. [e.g. by throwing it against the wall].

2 • To break.

a-parrʉ́ [North]   v.prog. [North] To remember. Kátápárrúá ŋolé. I remembered it yesterday. (SN). Kápárrɨ́tà. I am remembering it (e.g. I am in the act of doing it). (SN). LING: The simple form *a-párr does not occur without some suffix. See: [North] l-kɨparrʉ́ Remembrance; memories. Syn: a-damʉ́ To remember.

l-parruâî [North]   Nom sg: l-párrùàì. Acc pl: l-parrúá. Nom pl: l- párrùà. n. 1 • [North] Doum palm. Hyphaene coriacea. This is the only palm which is branching.

2 • [North] Non-branching palm. Kɔ́ɔdɔ́ alɛ́ párrùàì. This palm tree is tall. (SN). Kádɔ́lɨ́tà lparrúá ɔɔ́ɔdɔ̂. I am seeing the palm trees that are tall. (SN). Mol 1996:327 lists ɔl-paruai/ol-piruai as the term for cycad, a palm-like tree. encephalartos hildebrandtii.

Pasaɨ́   Variant: Parsayé; Pasayé. Nom sg: Pásaɨ́. n.sg. God; the one to be beseeched. Usage: endearment. See: a-sáí To pray; ɛnk-áí God.

pasɨná áí   Nom sg: pásɨná áí. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔɔ́ pasɨná áí. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɔ̀ pasɨná áí. [North] Acc sg: pasɨnáɨ́. voc. Address form of endearment; Beloved! Usage: endearment. Pasɨnáɨ́ óú enê. My beloved, come here. (SN). Primarily used by morans and girls. Some theologians hold the theory that Maasai's migrated from the Middle East; they are a section of the Jews. So they claim that the expression pasɨná áí referrs to the Maasai endearment for "Mt. Sinai", lit. "Oh Sinai". See: pasaɨ́ The one to be beseeched; God.

m-pasíòn [North]   n. [North] Deserted home. See: ol-muáátɛ̀ Deserted home.

ɛ́m-pasô   n. Lake. See: ɛm-pasô Lake.

m-pásò [North]   n.prop. [North] Traditional name of Lake Turkana.

ɛ́m-pásô   Nom sg: ɛm-pásô. n. 1 • Lake; large pool of water. Eturukúnyè oréyìèt ɔmɛtáà ɛ́mpásô tì oŋatá The river flowed until it formed a large pool of water on the plain.

2 • Low-lying rain clouds that normally look like mist; snow. See: ɛn-ampásò Lake; m-básù Lake; ɛ-naɨpɔ́shà Lake.

l-pástáí [North]   Nom sg: l-pastáí. Acc pl: ɨl-pastaní. Nom pl: ɨl-pástaní. n. [North] Pastor.

l-páshátá [North]   Nom sg: l-pashatá. n. 1 • [North] Tributary which connects with a larger system of potential water-courses, and which may or may not permanently contain water.

2 • [North] Hole in a cloth.

3 • [North] Series of problems a person experiences.

l-pashátì [North]   Nom sg: l-páshàtì. Acc pl: l-pashát. Nom pl: l-pashát. n. [North] Tributary. See: l-kʉrán Delta.

a-pashɨpásh   v. 1 • To be proud and haughty.

2 • [North] To repeatedly attempt to go through a fence or enclosure. [mbɔɔ́ láshê míncó eitokí apashɨpásh wúátá. Prevent the calf from going through the fence. (SN). See: a-ŋɨdá To be proud; a-masón To be proud.

ɛm-pátà   Nom sg: ɛm-pátâ. Acc pl: ɨm-pátaí. Nom pl: ɨm-pátaí. [North] Acc sg: m-bátà. n. Duck.

patáwó [North]   n. [North] The term used when the a-imál gift is a female calf. See: a-imál To give a gift to a new wife.

l-pátírí [North]   n. [North] Catholic priest; father.

pau   ideo. Sound word indicating a hard hit. Páà kéítèjò ɔlárínkóí tiáborí ɛnkalʉ́ɛ́nà. Pau! So he did to [whacked] Olarinkoi below the ear. Pow!

l-páùt [North]   Nom sg: l-paút. n. [North] Meat mixed with blood and fat. See: ɨ-mʉnɔnɔ́ Meat mixed with blood and fat.

a-payáŋ [North]   v. [North] To be obsessed for something.

m-páyápáyàn   Nom sg: m-payapáyàn. n. 1 • [North] Enemy that is ready to attack but are sighted before they do that.

2 • Fleas.

3 • Playful.

payé   See: eé (payé) Yes (of course).

ɔl-payíán   Nom sg: ɔl-páyìàn. Acc pl: ɨl-payianí. Nom pl: ɨl-páyianí. n. 1 • Man past warrior-hood; middle-aged to elderly man. Kélotú áŋ ɔlpáyian. The man will come home. Káányɨ̀t lpayíán. I will wait for the elder. (SN). This term refers to a man who is past the stage of being ɨl-kaɨrɨ́sh, and technically one who is married. The typical implication is that the man is advanced in age (40's-50's). The term may also be used by a young wife for her young husband as a sign of respect.

2 • Husband. LING: The Nominative form may be used after lɔ́ as a vocative by a woman to a man or her own age set (as determined by marriage): Lɔ́ páyìàn, ôû ené. Husband/one of husband's age-set, come here!

ɛm-payíán   A belittled middle-aged to elderly man. Usage: derog. See: en-kitók Woman; ɔl-mórùò Husband.

payîê [North]   conj. [North] So that, enabled result. Shɔ́mɔ̀ atúá nkíshú payîê elotú nɨ́nyɛ̀. Go to the cows so that he [the person taking care of them now] can come. (SN). Kálo arinyú nkíshú payîê elotí nɨ́nyɛ̀. I will go and bring the cows so that the children can get milk. (SN). Táàsà ntókì náájókì payîê ipók. Do what I tell you so that you may survive. (SN). Etym: --. See: peê So that.

a-pɛ́   v.s. 1 • To be wild. Ɛpɛ́. It is wild. Ɛpɛ́ ɛndá kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. That cow is wild. (W).

2 • To be troublesome.

3 • To be jittery. ɔtʉŋánì ɔpɛ́ person who is wild, troublesome, jittery.

a-peyú   To become wild.

peê   conj. 1 • So that. Wóu ɛnkáŋ âŋ tááisérè peê áányʉ́. Come to our home tomorrow and so I will wait for you. (i.e. I am specifically waiting at home for you to come.). Ɨ́roríékì ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂ peê ayíólòù. Speak to me in the Maasai language so that I learn. (W).

2 • When. Ɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ɔ́ apá ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́yà entíto ɔlapʉtánì ɛnkáshê peê erík entíto ɛnyɛ́. The bridegroom gave his in-law a heifer before marrying his daughter. (Pk).

3 • If. LING: Peê imposes a Low tone on a following verb, which spreads either over the entire verb, or over the initial portion depending on what morphemes the verb contains.

órè peê   See: payîê So that; paɛ́ So that.

m-pɛɛ́ [North]   Nom sg: m-pɛ́ɛ̀. Acc pl: m-pɛɛ̂n. Nom pl: m-pɛ́ɛ̀n. n. [North] Outcropping of black volcanic rock hills, perhaps of the height of a high fence. Kéísupátì kʉná pɛ́ɛ̀n olêŋ. These hills are very good. (SN).

a-pɛɛk   v. To tear. Syn: a-pɔlɔ́s To tear. See: a-kɨ́j To tear.

m-péépèèn [North]   Nom sg: m-peepéèn. n. [North] Sign to show the presence of an enemy, e.g. sighting of footprints.

a-peepeenó [South]   v. [South] To loiter.

a-péj   v.prog. To roast, bake, burn, burn down, burn up. Épéj. He will burn it. Épéj. He will burn it. (W). Epéjò. It is burning. (W). Kepejí inkírí tɛ̀ olpejet. Meat is roasted at the meat-eating-place. Áíŋúáyìè esoŋoúnà ɔ́ɔ́ nkírí naápejitóì. I smell the aroma of meat that is being roasted. (Pk). Etápéjókì ɛnaɨgárà áàtùmòkì. The ɛnaɨgárà has been roasted nicely. (W). Ɛ́tápéjo ɨláyìòk ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá énkine áànyà. The boys have burnt the goat's head for eating. Epéjisho ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. The sun burns. Usage: a-pɛ́j 'to burn, roast' implies a much greater degree of heat than does a-irowúá 'to heat, to warm'.. LING: etépéjó wuataníɛ́ layénì sounds humorous in SN as it seems 'The grill-stick has [intentionally] burned the boy.'. Etym: Proto-Ongamo-Maa *-pej- 'burn, roast (v.)' (Vossen 1989:196). See: em-péjótó Burning; ol-pejét; ol-pûl Meat-eating place.

ol-pejét   Nom sg: ol-péjèt. Acc pl: il-pejétà. Nom pl: il-péjèta. n. Temporary meat-roasting place, used for a day.

em-pejét   Instrument for roasting. See: l-ɔɨkárr meat-eating place; ol-pûl meat-eating place.

ol-pejótì   Nom sg: ol-péjòtì. Acc pl: il-pejót. Nom pl: il-péjòt. n. Roasted meat.

em-péjótó   Nom sg: em-pejotó. Acc pl: im-pejót. Nom pl: im-pejót. n. 1 • Burning.

2 • Burned pastureland.

pénèù [North]   adv. [North] Little bit, a bit. Ńtáshó pénèù; mayíéù. Wait a little bit; let me come.

a-pɛ́ny   v. To pierce the ear.

ɛm-pɛnyɛ́t   Nom sg: ɛm-pɛ́nyɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨm-pɛnyɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨm-pɛ́nyɛ̀tà. n. Earring.

pɛ́nyɔ̀1   adv. 1 • In a small degree, less, slightly. Kɛ́jɨŋ aké ɔlkɨrɔbɨ inkíshú némueyu pɛ́nyɔ̀ néíshiu. Cold just enters cows and they become a bit sick and they recover. Kɛ́jɨŋ aké némueyu pɛ́nyɔ̀ néíshiu. It just entered them and they became a bit sick and they recovered.

2 • Unlikely. Pɛ́nyɔ̀ doí nɛ́tɔ̀n ɛɛtáɨ ɔltʉŋánì láayíéu náaboitarê amʉ̂ atɔ́ŋúáà apá nanʉ́. It is unlikely there will be a person who wants to stay with me because I am rotten. (Pk). See: akɨ́tɨ̀ Slowly.

ɛm-pɛ́nyɔ̀2   Nom sg: ɛm-pɛ́nyô. n. Pierce.

ɔl-pepédòì   Nom sg: ɔl-pépedóì. Acc pl: ɨl-pɛpɛ́dɔ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-pɛ́pɛ̀dɔ̀. [North] Acc sg: l-pépédôî. n. Scabies. Usage: sg. LING: Plural is the normal form.

ol-pepédôî   1 • Scaby.

2 • Nuisance.

a-pér   v.prog. 1 • To sleep. Epérítò ɔlákúíyìà lâî tɔ̀ lóíp. My grandfather is sleeping under the shade. (W).

2 • To lay down. Kápérítò. I am sleeping. /I am laying down. (SN). See: a-ɨrʉrá To sleep; a-iraga To sleep.

a-pɛrá   v.mid. 1 • To run hopping, leaping and springing very fast; pronk. Ɛgɨ́rà enkóílií apɛrá aɨŋatá ɔlŋátúny. The gazelle is running away very fast from the lion. (Pk). Ɛtɛpɛ́rɛ̀ aɨŋataá ɔlŋátúny. He ran pronking away from the lion. (Pk).

2 • [West] To bend or lean self; be in a prone position. Ɛtʉ́kʉ́tá ŋolé olárí ɨlpáɛ̂k ɔmɛtáà nɛ́pɛ̀rà. The rain blew the maize until they are bent. (W).

a-pɛrdɛ́d   v. To tear into shreds. apɛrdɛ́d ɛnkɨlâ To tear the cloth.

em-perdédì   Nom sg: em-pérdèdì. Acc pl: ɨm-pɛrdɛ́d. Nom pl: ɨm-pɛrdɛ́d. n. 1 • Remnant; a torn cloth, group of people. Kɛ́tɔ̀n apá ɛatáî ɛmperdédì ɛ́lɛ̀ órèrè? Are there still remnants of those people?

2 • Shreds, tatters. Usage: plural. See: e-siapírdì Tattered cloth.

ɛm-pɛ́rɛ́   Nom sg: ɛm-pɛrɛ́. Acc pl: im-perríá. Nom pl: im-pérrìà. n. Spear.

ɛm-pɛ́rɛ́ sérò   A spear with a long spear head used by warriors for raids, lion hunting etc.

ɛm-pɛ́rɛ́ ɛ́ pápá   Small spindly plant with fine needle-like "leaves"

n-catá ɛ́ mpɛ́rɛ́   Spear shaft. See: e-remét Spear; ɔl-ŋɛrrɛ́mpɛ̀ Short-blade spear; l-búnàt [North] Very heavy metal spear; pʉnat Metal spear, Metal arrow with barbs; a-rém To spear.

ol-péreré   Nom sg: ol-pereré. Acc pl: il-pererení. Nom pl: il-pérerení. n. 1 • Structure constructed in a tree to store meat away from animals, used by warriors in the bush; arboreal meat cache.

2 • Grill constructed of sticks for roasting meat.

ol-pérésí   Nom sg: ol-peresí. Acc pl: il-pérès. Nom pl: il-pérês. n. Long "flowering" stem of various types of grass. See: ɛn-aimúrrúàì; nk-amúrruakî Star grass; ɔl-gʉ́rmɛ́ Bumper grass; ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass; l-áráá Type of grass on banks of a river; n-dálankúánì Type of grass on sides of hills; l-ɔ́lɨ́lɨ́ Type of grass on abandoned homes.

ol-perét   Acc pl: il-perétà. Nom sg: ol-pérèt. Nom pl: il-pérètà. 1 • War monger; troublesome person.

2 • [North] Man getting married before the stipulated time.

ém-pérî   Nom sg: ém-pérî. Acc pl: im-pérìn. Nom pl: im-perín. n. Famine. See: ɔl-áméyú Famine, hunger, drought, long dry season.

m-perít [North]   n. [North] Resting place for sheep away from their pen, normally outside the big kraal. See: sûm sheep pen.

peró [North]   [North] Mouldy. Kóŋòù peró. It smells mouldy. (SN).

m-perót [North]   n.pl. [North] Days. Etórónô nkíshù mperót uní. The cows have gone without water for three days. (SN). See: párrî Day.

m-pérótó   n. Lying down, sleeping.

pɛ́rpɛ̀r   Nom sg: pɛ́rpɛ̂r. n.sg. 1 • Grazing around home.

2 • Grazing in the early morning and then bringing animals back home for milking in the mid-morning for milking. See: línkà The driving or herding of cattle at dawn to eat the grass when it is still dewy, and then bring them back later for milking.; n-aulélèn Grazing around home.

m-pésaí [North]   n. [North] Money. Usage: For SN, m-pésaí is not as common as silinkiní..

pɛ́shɔ̀   [North]: péshòù. adj. adj. No good, for nothing, to no purpose. Pɛ́shɔ̀ doí íntáyù íyíé ɛná sayíɛ́t inó amʉ̂ imɨ́kɨ́patá kíní ɛntábóí naáíjó ɛnâ. It is useless for you to give your gift of appeasement, because you cannot be forgiven for such an evil. (Pk). Míntókì aɨtabúák oldíá tɛ̀ woshotó ɛ́pɛ́shɔ̀. Stop causing the dog to bark by unnecessary beating. Ɛnyaáká oshî táatá enturoré ɔ́ ngumót asapukú péshò. There is an increase in the digging of holes with no apparent cause. (Pk). Pɛ́shɔ̀ ɛndáà. That food is useless. (Pk). Péshòù aná dáa. This food is useless. (SN).

2 • adj. [North] For nothing, free. ntókì péshou (i) something useless; (ii) something free.

ɛ-nɛpɛ́shɔ̀, lɛpɛ́shɔ̀   1 • That which is useless.

2 • That which is free. LING: In SN, nepéshòù is similarly ambiguous between 'worthless' and 'free'. However, context may clarify the intended meaning: Nepéshòù njéúnotó ɛ́ NKáí. (i) God's salvation is free. (SN) (ii) God's salvation is worthless. (SN).

a-pét   v. 1 • To plaster cow's udder with mud or dung (to keep the calves from sucking milk). Épét. She will plaster it. Etápétó. She smeared it. Kepétò. It is plastered with dung. (SN).

2 • [North] To falsely accuse s.o. The meaning of 'falsly accuse' is associated with the image of s.o. heaping sth. on another. LING: The Nairragie Enkare dialect (also Il-Keekonyokie section) uses a-pɛ́t for 'plaster'. This is confirmed by morphological forms including Progressive and Perfect/Perfective.

a-petipét   1 • To plaster repeatedly.

2 • To make a scar with a branding iron.

a-petokí   To stick sth. somewhere (e.g. a piece of paper on the wall).

a-pɛ́t   v.prog. 1 • To keep close to.

2 • To lie on, lean on. Áapɛtɨtá. It is leaning on me. (S). Kápɛ́tɨ́tà. I am lying/leaning on sth./s.o.

3 • To side with s.o. (e.g. in a difficult situation). Etym: From Proto-Ateker, borrowed from Western Nilotic *-pɛt 'to spread'. (Ehret 2003:148. "Language Contacts in Nilo-Saharan Prehistory." Language Contacts in Prehistory, Studies in Stratigraphy, ed. by Henning Andersen, 135-157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.).

a-pɛtaá   To lie on. Ɛpɛtáà. He will lie on (sth). Ɛpɛ́táà. He will lie on(something). (W). See: a-iricakinoó To lean close to.

ɔl-pɛ́tɛ̀   n. Finger ring. Káátà ɔlpɛ́tɛ̀ tɔ̀ lkímojínò ɔ́sʉ̀jɨ̀tà ɛnkɨ́lintâ áí. I have a ring on the finger that follows my small finger. See: ol-gísòì Finger ring.

a-pɛtɨkɨ́   v. To hold down. Ɛpɛtɨ́kɨ̀. He will hold it down. Ɛpɛ́tɨ́kɨ̀.

em-peút   Nom sg: em-péút. Acc pl: ɨm-peutí. Nom pl: ɨm-péutí. n. 1 • Ditch.

2 • [Purko] Trough. See: poút Ditch, trough; árao.

m-peút [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Species of plant.

peyíê   conj. So that.

pî   adv. Completely; quite. Nɨ́kɨ̀ɨ̀shʉ̀ pî pî. We will finish completely. .

a-pɨ́(j)   v.s. 1 • To be pointed, sharp. Ɛpɨ́. It is sharp/pointed. Kɛ́pɨ́ ɛnkalɛ́m. The knife is sharp/pointed. (W). Epíjù. It becomes sharp. Ɛ́tálépó apá enkálépóní ɨlashɔ́ mɛtɨ́pɨ̀jà irkúrúmì. The milkers milked (thin) the calves to the point where the hind part was pointed (i.e., nothing but bones, tendons and skin). [i.e., The mother cows were milked dry, so the calves had nothing to drink.]. Képíjù olêŋ. It will become very sharp. (SN). Káɨ́tɨ́pɨ́jɨ́tà. I am sharpening it. (SN). LING: For sl, the /j/ of [képíjù] is (alveo)palatal though hardly affricated. LING: *kápɨ́jɨ́tà (SN).

2 • To be brave, fierce, fearless, courageous (humans, lions, dogs). Órè ɛlɛ̂ mʉ́rránì, náà kɛ́pɨ apá olêŋ. Now this warrior, he was very brave. Kɛ́pɨ́ olóíŋóní lâî olêŋ. My bull is very brave, fierce, strong. (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔpɨ́ person who is brave, fierce, fearless.

3 • To be strong-tasting, with deleterious effects (eg, strong brew, strong snuff). Ɛpɨ́ ɛnáɨ́sʉgɨ́ olêŋ. The snuff is strong. (W).

a-pijú   To become brave, sharp, pointed. Ant: kurêt Cowardly. See: ɔl-ɔpɨ́ lɛ́ ntákùlè Elbow.

a-píák   v.s. 1 • To be mean.

2 • To be stingy, selfish. Ádɔ́l ɔlɔpiák. I see the one who is selfish. Elotú entitó nápìàk. The selfish girl will come. Ɛnyaáká apianú. He has become selfish again. Ápíákù. I will become selfish.

3 • To be greedy. ɔltʉŋánì opíák a person who is mean/stingy/greedy. For the sense of 'to be greedy', this can still only be applied to humans.

m-pɨ́ásɨ̀ [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Potato.

a-pɨdɨ́l   v. To provoke.

a-pɨdɨlarɛ́   To compete, struggle with, be provoked by.

ɨl-pɨ́dɨlá   n.pl. Fleas. Áàyàkɨ̀ ɨlpɨ́dɨlá tɛ̀ síàŋàù. Bring me fleas in a calabash. See: ɔl-oisúsúì.

ɛm-pɨ́dɨ́ŋ   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨdɨ́ŋ. Acc pl: ɨm-pɨdɨŋá. Nom pl: ɨm-pɨ́dɨ̀ŋà. [North] Nom pl: m-pɨ́dɨŋá. n. Back side of the neck including the depressed part on the back side of the head at the upper end of the spinal cord; nape. Kógól mpɨ́dɨŋá ɛ́ncɛ̀. The backs of their necks are strong. (SN). The depressed spot on the back of the neck is pierced when an animal is killed. See: ol-kódónyó Back of head.

píì   adv. Completely. Káɨ́dɨ́pà píì ŋolé. I finished it completely yesterday. (SN).

a-piikí   v. To go back on a decision.

ɛm-pɨján   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨ́jàn. n. 1 • Sharpness.

2 • Courage, bravery.

ɛm-pɨ́játá1   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨjatá. Acc pl: ɨm-pɨját. Nom pl: ɨm-pɨ́jàt. n. 1 • Point.

2 • Corner (of a house). See: a-pɨ́ To be sharp; l-cukét lɛ́ nkají Corner of a house.

ɔl-pɨ́játá2   Nom sg: ɔl-pɨjatá. Acc pl: ɨl-pɨját. Nom pl: ɨl-pɨ́jàt. n. Corner.

a-pɨ́k   v.prog. 1 • To put sth. in, on, at somewhere; insert. Ɛ́pɨ́k. He will put sth. (in) somewhere. Ebukú enkítòk ɛnkárɛ́ apɨ́k oltóò The woman will pour the water to the water-container. Ɛgɨ́rà airopijíé oloshoró apɨ́k kʉlɛ́ náɨ́rɔ̀bɨ̀. She is cooling the porridge by adding milk that is cold. (Pk). Ɛ́ncɔ̀m ɛ́ntɨ̀pɨ̀k enteré ɛmakát peê ɛ́nyâ ɨntárè. Go put salt in the trough for sheep and goats to lick. Kɛ́pɨkɨ́tà sukárì shâî. He/she is putting sugar into the tea. (SN). Ágɨ́rà atúr engúmótó nɨkɨpɨ̂k isúùt. I am digging a pit that we will put put rubbish in. (Pk). Kɛ́bɛbɛ́k kʉná lɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́pɨ́kákɨ̀ ɛnkárɛ́. [kʊ̀ná lɛ̀] This milk is diluted because water has been added. (W). Ɨ́ncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɔsɨkɨráì lápɨ́k ɛnâ kúkúrí. Give me a cowry shell which I will put on this calabash. (Pk). Típíkà ɛnkalámù ɛmɨ́sà. Put the pen on the table. (W). Tákèdò shʉ́márotó ɨ́ntayú nɛ́nâ shɨpɨ́shɨ̀p nátɨ́pɨ́kà. Go to the roof of the house and get me those slender branches I have put (there). Tɛ̀ nɛ́ɨ́rʉ̀rà oshî ɔltʉ́ŋání náà ɛndápásh ɛ́pɨ́k ɨnkɛjɛ́k. When a person sleeps, he puts his legs at the feet of the bed. Ɛpɨkákɨ̀ enkitók enkijíkò enkikómpè. She will put the spoon in the cup for the woman. (W). LING: Enkitók can be moved to some other position in the sentence, but the order here appears to be most natural with the Dative form. Ɛnáíshó aké ɛyaʉ́nɨ, nɛ́pɨ́kɨ́ olkúkúrí. The beer is just brought, and it is put into a calabash. Ɛ́ísídáí oshî tɛ̀ nɛ́pɨ́kɨ́ ɛncúmpì ɛndáà. It is good to have salt in the food. (Pk). Nɛ́ɨ́shɔ̀rɨ̀ ɨnkɛ́rà pɔɔkɨ́n ɛsʉkárɨ̀ áàpɨ̀kàkɨ̀ ɨnkáɨ́k peê émêj. All the children are given sugar to put on their hands in order to lick it. Áapɨ̂k enkopíyìà. They will put a hat on me. (W). Áapɨ̂k ɛntásât ɔlcaní ɛnkɔŋʉ́. The woman will put medicine on my eye. (W). Órè taá amʉ̂ ɛ́kɨpɨ́k ɛmbɛ́nɛ́yíó enkóítóí Because we are going to put a leaf on the route, [you will be able to follow us].

2 • To carry out an event. Ɨ́nâ kátá ɛpɨkɨ́ entúmò enê. That was the time they held a meeting here.

3 • To assign s.o. to do sth. Nɛ́pɨkɨ ɨlashɔ́. She [a child] is put on (the herding of) calves. Nɛ́pɨkɨshɔ́ ɔláyíóní *ɔlálɛ́ / *ɨlashɔ́. The boy put sth. somewhere (* in the pen/ *calves). (W).

a-pɨkʉ́   To pour out. See: a-irragié To lay down; a-ɨtɛlɛɨkɨ́ To put on top of.

ɛm-pɨ́kás   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨkás. Acc pl: ɨm-pɨkasîn. Nom pl: ɨm-pɨ́kasîn. n. Raiding force, warrior posse. See: [North] l-kátérr Raiding force.

ɛm-pɨ́kátá ɔɔ́ lkatarrí   n. Wearing of bracelets by a deceased man's sons. See: ɔl-katáàrr Bracelet; a-pɨ́k To put.

pɨ́lɛ̀1   Nom sg: pɨ́lɛ̂. Acc pl: pílèì. adj. Red-related warm colo pale-red, pink, purple, violet. Etií ɔlashé pɨ́lɛ̂ olálɛ́. The pink calf is in the pen. (Pk). Ɛ́ɨ́pɨ̀lɛ̀ oshî osaróí Milk-mixed-with-blood is always pink. (Pk). Eishopítò enkítòk ɛnkɨlâ pɨ́lɛ̀. The woman is wearing a purple dress. See: ɔ-sárgɛ́ Blood.

em-pílílí   Nom sg: em-pililí. Acc pl: -. Nom pl: -. n.sg. n.sg. The first green grass to grow after rains or the old grass is burned.

2 • n.sg. Bottle top. See: ɛnk-ásʉ́ʉ́dáí Bottle top; sɔ́rɔ̀ Green grass; en-dîs green grass.

ɔl-pɨ́lɨ̀s   Nom sg: ɔl-pɨ́lɨ̂s. Acc pl: il-pílìsì. Nom pl: il-pílísì. n. Mongoose.

m-pɨ́lpɨ́l [North]   [mpɪ́lɪ́pɪ́l]  Nom sg: m-pɨlpɨ́l. n. [North] Tin can. Kɛ́ɨ́pɨlpɨlɨ́tà mpɨlpɨ́l. The tin is flickering (flashing, e.g. in the sun). (SN). See: a-ɨpɨlɨpɨ́l To flash.

a-píó   [North]: a-pé. n. 1 • To wipe off, dust off. Tépìò lconí. Dust the hide. (SN).

2 • To smear or brush (e.g. with oil, ochre).

ol-pipí [South]   n. [North] Spider. See: ol-kédì Spider; e-súrùsùrì Spider; [North] n-apɔrsaɨnɨá Spider.

a-pír   v.s. To be fat (of living things). Kátípóro. I have grown fat. (SN). Tópìrò. Be fat! ɔltʉŋánì opír a person who is fat.

a-pirú   To grow fat, become fat.

a-pirunyé   To grow fat on. See: sápùk Fat.

ɛm-pɨ́rà   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨ́rà. Acc pl: ɨm-pɨ́raɨ. Nom pl: ɨm-pɨ́raɨ́. n. Anything made of plastic: ball, hose pipe, plastic bracelet. Kɛ́nɛnɛ́ŋ kʉlɔ́ pɨ́raɨ́. These balls are light. (SN).

ɔl-pɨ́ránkásh   Nom sg: ɔl-pɨrankásh. Acc pl: ɨl-pɨrankashí. Nom pl: ɨl-pɨ́rankashí. n. The upper arm above the elbow. See: ɛnk-áɨ́ná Arm; ɛn-tákùlè Forearm.

a-pɨrɨ́k   v.s. To be narrow. Ɛlɛlɛ́k ɛ̀ɨ̀mɨ̀ kishómì nálálá aláŋ ɛnápɨ́rɨ́k. It is easier to pass through a wide gate than one that is narrow. Mɛ́ɨ̀m entókî dapásh kʉ́tʉ́k ají napɨrɨk. Something broad cannot pass a narrow door. (Pk). Either a-pɨrɨ́k or a-ɨrɔ́nkáí could be used for a path. a-pɨrɨ́k could be used for a small mouth, for hollow things, pipes, a calabash mouth. Ant: a-lalá Wide; Syn: rɔ́nkáí Slim, narrow.

ol-pírírí   Nom sg: ol-pirirí. n. Type of ornament.

a-pɨrɨrɨ́ŋ   v. To roll. nɛ́pɨ́rɨrɨŋárì ɔlárìnkòì. Olarinkoi rolled down.

a-pirís [North]   v. [North] To eat small food. See: em-pírìs Grace; lack of appetite for food.

em-pírìs   Nom sg: em-pírîs. n.sg. 1 • Grace; mercy. Tè empírîs ɛ́ Nkáí By God's grace. LING: Though at least SN speakers recognize this word, they consider it a Maasai borrowing.

2 • [North] No appetite to eat; inability to eat a lot of food.

l-piríyeét [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Broom. Etym: Compare with Proto-Teso-Lotuko-Maa *-piet- 'broom' (Vossen 1982:340). Vossen did not consider Maa (or Camus) piríyeét in reconstructing this PTLM form, but did consider forms like Turkana pɪɛt. If Maa piríyeét is related to PTLM *-piet-, it is curious that Maa would have innovated the syllable /ri/. (It seems more likely that sister languages would have lost the /ri/ syllable by means of haplology.). See: e-orét Broom; ol-áràò Broom.

l-píróí [North]   Nom sg: l-piróí. Acc pl: l-pirôn. Nom pl: l-pirón. n. [North] Piece of stick used to make fire by rubbing against a flat wood. Kɛ́taárràrrà alɛ́ píróí. This firestick is old. (SN). Kɛ́taarrárrɨtâ kʉlɔ́ pirón. These firesticks are old. (SN).

m-píróí   [North] An age-set that advises, trains and presides over the ceremonies and all rituals of a younger age-set. Kópuonú mpiróí. The firestick elders will come. (SN). See: ol-pirón Fire-stick; age-set in charge of a younger age-set.

em-pirón   Nom sg: em-píròn. n. Fatness. Kéísúpàt mpíròn. Fatness is good (e.g. for cattle).

ol-pírón   Nom sg: ol-pirón. Acc pl: il-pírónìtò. Nom pl: il-pirónìtò. n. 1 • Piece of stick used to make fire by rubbing against a flat wood.

2 • Age-set that advises, trains and presides over the ceremonies and all rituals of the age-set below the next contiguous one (i.e. the age set about 30 years younger than the elders in question). Cf. Paul Spencer. 1993: 140-156. LING: In Central Maa, both singular and plural forms have senses 1 and 2. Compare North Maa m-píróí. See: [North] l-píróí An age-set in charge of a younger age-set.

m-pírrián [North]   n. 1 • [North] Bundle of arrows.

2 • [North] Name young initiates call each other after exchanging bundles of arrows. See: ɛm-báɛ̀ arrow.

ɛm-pɨ́rrɨ̀sh   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨ́rrɨ̂sh. Acc pl: im-pírrìshì. Nom pl: im-pírríshì. n. 1 • Opening in the fence for people to pass to get into the kraal when all the other big gates are closed. This gate is usually made in such a way that cows or sheep can not pass through, but only human beings. Ɛ́ɨ́má ɨnkáyiok ɛmpɨ́rrɨsh amʉ̂ kéíkéno kíshomi. The boys have passed through the small gate because the big gate is closed.

2 • Gap between trees. See: e-lúsíé Hole, gap; en-dúŋórotó Sub-fence.

ɛm-pɨ́sáí   Nom sg: ɛm-pɨsáí. Acc pl: ɨm-pɨ́saí. Nom pl: ɨm-pɨ́saí. n. 1 • Coin.

2 • Money, cost. The plural form typically refers to many coins or notes; or may refer to some abstract quantity of money. Ɨmpɨ́saí ímíèt. That is five shillings. Ɨmpɨ́saí ajá ɛsʉ́kàrì? How much is sugar? ɛnɔɔ́ mpɨ́saí tɔ́mɔ̂n It (feminine.sg)is for ten shillings (W). ɨlɔɔ́ mpɨ́saí tɔ́mɔ̂n It (Masculine. pl) is for ten shillings (W). Etym: < Swahili ?. See: e-ropíyìà Money; ɛn-kɔ́shɔ́láí Money; en-cilinkínì Money; ɛ-núsù Money.

ol-pisiâî   Acc pl: il-pisiá. n. 1 • Small chain used as an ornament.

2 • Cows or people that are left; remnant.

písikíshù   [North] Acc sg: l-Písikíshù. Variant: l-Písikícù. Nom pl: l-Písikíshù. n.prop. Name of a Samburu clan, "of the grey cattle" Kárá lɔɔ́ lPísikíshù. I belong to the lPisikishu clan. (SN). Kópuonú lPísikíshù. The lPisikishu came. (SN). See: pʉ̂s Gray, blue.

a-pɨsɨ́ŋ   v. 1 • To cover, close a container with a lid (hole, pot, well, etc.).

2 • To suffocate (an animal, person). Mɨ́pɨsɨ́ŋ nkɛ́ráí. Don't suffocate the child [e.g. don't cover the child with too many cloths, especially implying the child's head]. A-pɨsɨ́ŋ has the idea of covering a hole. It is extended to covering an animate being such that it cannot breathe. It would not be used for covering s.o. in bed to keep them warm, for covering a child with clothes generally, or for covering a pile of garbage. See: a-itoíp To cover; a-pukur To cover; a-isiáp To cover.

ɛm-pɨ́sɨ́ŋɛ́t   n. Lid for a pot.

a-pishaná   v. To be odd, improper, incorrect, bad; usually with reference to a specific action or behavior. Aanyɔ́ paɛ́ kílíkì lomón ɔɔ́pìshànà? Why are you telling me incorrect, untruthful information? (Pk). Képishánà kʉná ámʉ̀kà áinén. These shoes of mine are improper (i.e. one is different from the other). (SN). Képishánà nkíshopó ínò ana-párr. Your dressing is improper today. (SN). This word would not usually be applied to a person's character as a whole.

naá-pishana   num. Seven. Use of the root pɨshana 'to be improper' for the concept of 'seven' may be motivated by a sense of unequalness, or something that is poorly divided.

oó-pìshànà   Seven. See: a-pɨshaná To be odd, improper; sápâ Seven.

em-píto1   Nom sg: em-pitó. Acc pl: im-pít. Nom pl: im-pît. n. 1 • Tendon, ligament.

2 • Thread or string made from animal tendons or sinew twisted together; string made from sisal; bow string. Ɨ́yaʉ́ empíto nárípíé ɛnâ kɨlâ natɔpɔlɔ́sɛ̀. Bring me a thread which I will use to sew this cloth which is torn. (Pk). Táwùàrà taá enconí peê itúm eníímíè empítò. Slash out the skin so that you get a place to pass string through. (Pk).

píto2   [North]: pító. adv. Absolutely nothing. Mmɛátà píto. He/She has absolutely nothing (i.e. is extremely poor). (Pk). Mikíyioló pító We know absolutely nothing. (SN).

a-píú   v. 1 • [North] To be revived, rejuvinated. Etipíwua dúó nkɛráí náíterríá nanî. [ètìpíwá] The child who fainted a while ago has come back to consciousness. (SN). Etipíwua lcánì. The plant revived. (SN).

2 • To be resurrected, rise from the dead. Usage: Christian.

a-pɨyáɨ́   Variant: a-pɨyáɨ̀. [North]: pɨyɛ́ɨ́. Variant: a-pɨyáɛ́. v.prog. 1 • To twist, roll up (a hide, cloth, paper, etc.).

2 • To plait, weave, twine (the way a string or rope is made by rolling it on the thigh). Kápɨ́yáyɨ́tà. I am weaving/twisting it (by rolling). (SN). Kátɨ́pɨ́yà ŋolé. I wove it yesterday. (SN). Képiyáyà lgíitâ. The rope is woven. (SN).

3 • [North] To lose weight.

a-pɨyayakinó   To wedge or converge into. Ɛ́tɨ́pɨ́yáyákínè ɔlasʉráí engúmótó. A snake has meandered/crawled into a hole. (Pk).

a-pɨyayarí   1 • (In combination with a movement verb) To run very fast, vanish. The image is that the one moving contracts itself or is streamlined to the point of vanishing. Ɛkuɛtá enkóílií apɨyayarí aɨlány oldîâ. The gazelle has run so fast away from the dog. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ apɨyayarí ɨmeékure einepunóyù. The has run so fast he cannot be reached. (Pk). See: a-nunúk To twist; a-mɔnɨ́r To twist; a-ɨɨ́rn To twist; a-shɛ́t To plait; a-ɛ́n To plait.

l-pɨ́yáyoi [North]   Nom sg: l-pɨyáyoi. Acc pl: l-pɨ́yáyò. Nom pl: l-pɨyáyò. n. [North] Small thread, typically made from cloth (rather than gut or tendon). Átɨ́pɨ́yáyà lpɨ́yáyoi. I have woven the thread. (rolled a single thread from several strands). Átɨ́pɨ́yáyáka lpɨ́yáyoi lpápɨ́t. I have twisted the thread around the hair. (SN). Kógól lpɨyáyoi. The thread is strong. (SN). Ɛ́ɨ́mɨ́nâ lpɨyáyɔ̀. The threads got lost. (SN). Lpɨ́yáyò oótudúŋòtè. It is the threads that got cut. (SN).

m-piyíòn [North]   Nom sg: m-píyìòn. n. [North] Story telling; discussion of historical events. See: ɛnk-atiní Story; tale; ɔl-aigéetíáì Tale; ɔ-lɔɔ́nkukuuní Tale; story.

a-pɔɨ́pɔ́ɨ́   v. To nurse, take care of well.

a-pɔ́k   PF: -tɔpua, -tɔpɔkua. v.prog itr. 1 • To survive (as in the context of war, punishment, famine, etc.). Ɛ́pɔ́k. He will survive. Táàsà ntókì náájókì payîê ɨpɔ́k. Do what I tell you so that you may survive. (SN). Atɔ́púà. I survived. (W). Atɔ́pɔ́kùà. I survived (e.g. I was faint for an extended period of time, but revived). (W).

2 • To revive, rejuvinate, be strengthened after being severely stressed (e.g. after being very hungry or thirsty, after receiving shocking news and then good news which relieves the stress, after drought and famine). Ɛpɔkɨ́tà. It is beginning to grow. / It is surviving. (W). Etópúá. It has already taken root/survived. (W). Átópúà. (i) I have survived. (ii) I have been rejuvinated. Kétopua ɛnkɔ̂p. The grass has revived. (PK). Etópúá ɔlcátá láátuunó ɔlápà ɔshɔmɔ́. The tree that I planted last month is reviving. (W). Ɛpɔ́kɨ́tà ɔlcátá láátuunó ɔlápà ɔshɔmɔ́. The tree that I planted last month is reviving. (W). Kɛ́tɔ́pʉ́a nkɔ́p. The grass has become green again. (S). ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́pɔk person who is strengthened after stress. LING: This verb is pragmatically odd in a first progressive form: ?ápɔ́kɨ́tà 'I am surviving/rejuvinating.'.

a-ɨtɔpɔ́k   To give health. See: puaán Survive, life; a-ishú To be alive.

pokírà   Nom sg: pókìrà. [North] Acc sg: pɔkʉ́rà. [North] Nom sg: pɔ́kʉ́rà. num. All. Etíí ɨnámuka luát pokírà aré. There are two pairs of (identical) shoes. Tɛ̀ nínkɛ̀n ilkimojík lɔɔ́nkáɨ́k pokírà nɛ́rà tɔ̀mɔ̀n nɛ́gɨ̀rà. If you count the fingers of both hands, they are just ten. Ɛshɔmɔ́ pɔ́kʉ́rà ókùnì. All three (of them) have gone. (SN). Kádɔ́lɨ́tà pɔkʉ́rà (tɔ́mɔ̂n). [pɔ̀kʊ́ɾà tɔ̀mɔ̀n] I see all (ten) of them. (SN). Kópuonú pɔ́kʉ́rà (tɔ́mɔ́n). [pɔ́kʊ̄ɾà tɔ́mɔ́n] All (ten) of them will come. (SN). Usage: Pokírà may be used with count nouns, and may co-occur with a specific number. In contrast, pɔɔkɨ́ may be used with count or mass nouns, and may not be used along with a number to quantify a noun.. See: pɔɔkɨ́(n) All; pɔɔkɨ́ All.

pɔkʉ́ráárè [North]   quant. [North] Both; the two. Káyíéú námɨ́r nkíshú pɔkʉ́ráárè anapârr. I want to sell both cows/the two cows today. (SN). Nkíshú pɔkʉ́ráárè kʉná. These are both of the cows/These are the two cows. (SN). Kópúó nkíshù pɔ́kʉráárè anapârr. Both cows will go today. (SN). Etym: pɔkɨ́rà-aré [all-two]. There is some native-speaker sense that this combination of quantifier and numeral may is a single word..

l-pólè [North]   Nom sg: l-pólê. Acc pl: l-pólèì. Nom pl: l-póléì. n. [North] Young bull. See: ɔl-ɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ Bull.

Pɔ́lɔ́lɨ̂k   n.pl. Pololik.

a-pololó   n. 1 • To be torn.

2 • To abort. Abortion is not common, is a matter for investigation, and is not considered good. It is believed that a woman can eat certain things to PREVENT abortion; and that if she refuses to do it, abortion may result. Or, the woman could take certain herbs or drugs to cause abortion.

ɛtapolólè ɔlpáashe   To loose a wife in death (lit: 'The fence fell apart').

a-pɔlɔ́s   v. To tear (eg, paper, cloth). Ɨ́yaʉ́ empíto nárípíé ɛnâ kɨlâ natɔpɔlɔ́sɛ̀. Bring me a thread which I will use to sew this cloth which is torn. (Pk). See: a-ŋɛ́r To tear; a-kɨ́j To tear.

ɛm-pɔ́lɔ̀s   Nom sg: ɛm-pɔ́lɔ̂s. Acc pl: ɨm-pólòsɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨm-pólósɨ̀. n. 1 • Middle, centre of the inside area of sth. (e.g. classroom, middle portion of a cup, middle seats of a car, portion of tree between roots and where branches divide, (middle pages of a book). Tábòlò ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s ɛ́ mbúkù! Open to the center of the book! (W). Etíi olówuarú márâ ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s ólóítíkó ɔ́ lásʉ́ráí. The leopard is between the zebra and the snake. (W). Mátɔ̀ɔ̀r tɛ̀ mpɔ́lɔ̀s. Let's divide it by halves. (Pk).

2 • centre-mark of an elongated object (e.g. person, pen); waist. ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s ɔ́ ltʉŋánì the middle (waist) of the person. ɛmpɔ́lɔ̀s could not well be used to refer to the "middle" of a cow.

3 • Loin, area of a person below the most narrow portion of the waist.

4 • Belly. See: ɛnk-ɔ́Cɔ̀kɛ̀ Belly; éndúŋótì. Portion; a-itorís To divide equally.

ol-pólósíé   Nom sg: ol-polosíé. n. Boundary. Órè táatá ɛnâ tókì najî ɛnkɨ́páátá náà entókì naɨtɔ́dɔlʉ olpólósíé lɔɔ́lpòròrì. And now this thing called the initial ceremony shows the boundry between age groups. See: ɛ-rɨshata Boundary; ɛm-bákà Boundary; l-kɨr(r)ɨɛ Boundary; nɛwɔ́rɔ̀rɛ̀ Boundary.

ɔl-pɔ́lpɔ̀l   Nom sg: ɔl-pɔ́lpɔ̂l. Acc pl: il-pólpolí. Nom pl: il-pólpolí. n. Penis (typically for animals, but can also be used for humans though rarely).

em-pómpò   Nom sg: em-pómpô. Acc pl: im-pómpoí. Nom pl: im-pómpoí. n. Pump used to spray domestic animals with insecticides. Etym: < English pump.

a-pón   v. To cut or nick the ears of animals. Kápónítò nkíné. I'm making a mark on the goat's ear. (SN).

a-pɔ́n   v. 1 • To add more, increase sth. by adding more to it. Kápɔ́nɨ́tà. I am increasing it. (SN). Kétaŋásúá yéyîô apɔnaá nkají âŋ. Mother has begun to increase our house. (SN). apɔnaá iropiyianí To add more money. Usage: You could apɔ́n cows by buying or stealing more, but not by them giving birth, because you cannot control their giving birth. You do not use this word for math..

a-pɔnɨkɨ́   To add more of the same kind of thing for or to s.o. or sth. Tóponikíákɨ̀ sháì. Add more tea for me. LING: In the imperative, the ATR changes due to dissimilation when /a/ is added.

a-pɔnʉ́   [North] To add up.

a-pɔnarí   v itr. To increase. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlmaréí lâî apɔnarí. My family is increasing. (i.e. more children are being born).

ɛm-pɔnaroto   Acc pl: ɨm-pɔnarót. n. 1 • Addition, increase, bulk.

2 • Appendix (e.g. of a book). Usage: pl. See: a-pɔ́n To increase sth..

ol-pónótó   Nom sg: ol-ponotó. Acc pl: ɨl-ponót. Nom pl: ɨl-pónòt. n. Marks cut into the ears of cattle to identify ownership. See: a-pón To cut the ear.

a-póŋ   v.prog. 1 • To miss (way, direction). Ítópóŋò nkóítéí katʉ́kɨ̀l. You have missed the way completely. (SN). Etorikókì ɔltʉŋánì módóónì peê mépóŋ enkóítóí The blind person has been led so that he will not miss the path.

2 • To deviate around or from. Kápóŋítò údótó tɔ̀ lbárabárà. I am dodging the hole in the road. (SN). apóŋ ɛnkÁí to go away from God.

a-poŋorí   1 • To miss or lose one's way; go astray. Ágɨ́rà autaá peê méló aké apoŋorí. I am directing him so that he does not loose the way. Ítópóŋórì olêŋ. You have gone astray. (SN).

2 • To miss the point; misunderstand; be mistaken. Ítópóŋórì tɛ̀ iníá kirorotó. You have gone wrong in that speech. (mistaken in your ideas) (SN).

3 • To make a mistake. Ítópóŋórì olêŋ aɛ́m nkitók naɨ́làsh. You have gone wrong by marrying a proud wife. (SN). See: a-ɨmɨ́n To get lost.

ɛm-pɔ́ŋɨ̀t   Nom sg: ɛm-pɔ́ŋɨ̂t. n.sg. Swelling of the stomach due to over-eating.

a-poŋú   v. To swell (of stomach), from eating too much or from sickness. See: a-jeyú To swell; a-arʉnyɛ́ To protrude.

a-pook   v. To pull the foreskin back.

pɔɔkɨ́(n)   Nom sg: pɔ́ɔkɨ(n). Variant: pɔ́ɔ́kɨ(n). adj. 1 • adj. All, every, the complete amount or quantity of, the whole of. Sidaín táá dúóó táatá imbaâ amʉ̂ ínótó pɔɔkɨ́ tókì níyíéú. Things are good today because you have gotten all things that you wanted. (W). Kákè órè ɨlɔɔ́tɨjɨŋá pɔɔkɨ́, mɛ́ŋámákíno, nétuatâ ilkumók. All those who caught it [=the disease], when they were not innoculated, many of them died. Etóókó ɛnkárɛ́ pɔɔkɨ́. He has drunk all the water. Néíturrúrro pɔ́ɔkɨ. They all gathered together. Néípot ɨnkɛ́rà pɔɔkɨ́n. They call all the children. osésèn pɔɔkɨ́ the rest of the body (W).

2 • adj. Each, every; any. Ɛákʉ́ ɔlmʉrraní pɔ́ɔkɨ ɔlkáíríshí tè nébarnɨ. Every warrior becomes a junior elder when he gets his hair cut. (Pk). Kéíshú ɔltʉ́ŋání pɔ́ɔkɨ ɔ́ɨ́rɔ̀. Every person that speaks is alive. (Pk). Éíyiolótì ɔltʉ́ŋání pɔ́ɔkɨ sídaîn inkíaasîn ɛ́nyɛná. Any man is well-known for his good deeds. (Pk). LING: See usage note at pokírà.

3 • pro. All. ɨmbáà ɛ́ mpúrrórrè, elótóítò ɛsákʉ́tòrè, márâ ɔ pɔɔkɨ́ natanyá ɛnkaí issues of stealing, adultery, witchcraft, and all that God has refused. See: pokírà All.

ɛm-pɔ́ɔpɨât [West]   Nom sg: ɛm-pɔ́ɔpɨât. Acc pl: ɨm-pɔɔpɨatí. Nom pl: ɨm-pɔ́ɔpɨatí. n. Mushroom (any species). Kórè ɛmpɔ́ɔpɨât náà ɛnkɨtɨ́ shaní. A mushroom is a small (kind of) tree. (W). Ɛmɛ́lɔ́k kʉná pɔ́ɔpɨatí. These mushrooms are delicious. (W).

ɛm-pɔ́ɔ́rr   Nom sg: ɛm-pɔɔ́rr. Acc pl: im-póórrí. Nom pl: im-poorrí. n. 1 • Large flat semi-porous stone on the ground.

2 • Salt lick. Ɛtɛrɛwákɨ̀ inkíshú ɛmpɔ́ɔ́rr. Cows have been driven to the salt lick. The salt lick may or may not be at a stony or eroded place.

3 • Stony place.

4 • Eroded land. See: o-sóít Rock; ɛn-dápɨ́dápòì Large flat imporous rock.

em-póóshóí   Nom sg: em-pooshóí. Acc pl: ɨ́m-pɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂. Nom pl: ɨ́m-pɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂. Variant: pɔshɔ́. n. Bean. Ɛ́tányá empooshóí ɛbʉlʉ́. A bean has refused to germinate. (Pk). Áatagoró empooshóí. I have been choked by a bean. (lit: A bean has choked me.) (Pk). Ɛ́gɨ́ráɨ áàtùr ɛnkɔ́p peê euní ɨmpɔɔshɔ́. The ground is being dug so that beans can be planted. (Pk). Áaɨtamoyíá ɨ́mpɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂ néméyíárà esidáí. [áàytàmòyyá ɪ̀mpɔ̀ɔ̀ʃɔ̀ néméyyáɾà] The beans that are poorly cooked have made me sick. Ɛ́ɨ́nɔ́sá olkéresúré ɨ́mpɔ́ɔ́shɔ̂ naátií ɛ́ mʉ́kʉ́ntâ. The guinea-fowl has eaten the beans in the garden. (Pk). See: ol-marágwɛ̀ Beans; e-sikɔ́riɔ Beans.

ɛm-pɔ́pɨát   Acc pl: ɨm-pɔpiatí. n. Mushroom. Etym: Kimeli suggests this may be a borrowing from Kalenjin or Nandi, but it is the word used in his area. kk has no sense of this; reacts to it as a Maa word.. See: ɔl-ápà Mushroom.

ɛm-pɔ́pɔ̀k   Nom sg: ɛm-pɔ́pɔ̂k. Acc pl: im-pópokí. Nom pl: im-pópokí. n. Body of a dead animal; carcass. Kéísámìs alɛ́ pɔ́pɔ̂k. This carcass is stinking. (SN). Kéísámìs lokúá pópokí. Those carcasses are stinking. (SN). Kádɔ́lɨ́tà lókûâ pópokí. [lòkùà pópòkí] I see those carcasses.

ɔl-pɔ́pɔ̀k   1 • Large carcass.

2 • [North] Carcass. LING: In Pk, the feminine is the most frequent form. The masculine implies a particularly large carcass.

ɛm-pɔ́pɔ̀ŋ   Acc pl: ɨm-pɔ́pɔŋí. n. Carcass, corpse.

ol-pópóŋí   Nom sg: ol-popoŋí. Acc pl: il-pópóŋ. Nom pl: il-popóŋ. n. Species of cactus with five-sided long "branches" with wavy crinkles on the edges of each side. euphorbia candelabra. Kɔ́ɔdɔ́ alɛ́ popoŋí. This euphorbia tree is tall. (SN). Kɔ́ɔdɔ́ɔ̀ kʉlɔ́ popóŋ. These euphorbia trees are tall. (SN). LING: *Kɔ́ɔdɔ́ kʉlɔ́ popóŋ. for sl. Kɛ́adɔ́ kʉlɔ́ popóŋ. These euphorbia trees are tall. Kɛ́adɔ́ɔ̀ kʉlɔ́ popóŋ. Each and every one of these euporbia trees is tall.

a-pór   v.prog. 1 • To go over, creep. apór ɛnkárɛ́ To float. Kóporítò nkúús mabátiì. The cat is walking over the roof. (SN). Káídìm atoporôî anâ dápdápoi. I can climb/creep over this rock. (SN). Káàpòrìtò lkúkuû. An insect is creeping on me. (SN). Alɛ̂ gíitâ ápórórie anâ ŋɛ́rɛ́m. This rope is what I will use to creep/climb over this precipice. (SN).

2 • To make a mark on the skin; brand.

3 • To be related to s.o.

a-poroó   To move on top of; walk over.

a-porú   To approach the point of reference.

a-pór ɛnkárɛ́   v. To swim, float. See: a-ár ɛnkárɛ́ To swim; a-ɨsɔmpɨrá To swim; a-sʉjarɛ́ To swim; a-lɔ́p (ɛnkárɛ́) To swim.

porkoríò [North]   n. [North] Hyena.

m-póróí [North]   Nom sg: m-póròì. n.sg. 1 • [North] Roasted clotted blood after stirring a mixture of milk and blood. Ncɔɔ́kɨ̀ mpóróí nánya. Give me clotted blood to eat. (SN). In S, this is given to dogs.

2 • [North] Very small child, up to 2 days old. See: ɔl-pɨ́lɛ̀ A pale red liquid from meat; ɔ-sáróí A mixture of blood and milk; [North] l-ɔdɔ́ Blood; [North] n-julótì milk mixed with blood; [North] m-púpóí unstirred boiled blood; [North] n-carlúgì unstirred blood mixed with milk; [North] n-tîs blood mixed with milk and then stirred together; ɛnk-albúálì Clotted blood.

il-pórórî   n.pl. Age sets. See: ɔl-pórrôr Age set.

ɛm-pɔrɔ́rɔ̀   Acc pl: im-pororoní. n. Ugly, uncared-for calabash. See: en-kúkúrí Calabash; em-pósoô Ugly, uncared-for calabash.

ol-pórótó   Nom sg: ol-porotó. Acc pl: il-porót. Nom pl: il-póròt. n. Bare ground where there is no grass for cows to eat.

l-pórr [North]   n. [North] Small depression produced by water and erosion; gulley.

m-porro [North]   n. [North] Necklace worn exclusively by married women, traditionally made from giraffe tail hairs, but more recently from doum palm frond fibers.

em-porrôî   Nom sg: em-pórròì. Acc pl: ɨm-pɔrrɔ́. Nom pl: ɨm-pɔ́rrɔ̀. n. Beads ornaments sewn in a thin thread worn by women across their bodies, hanging from one shoulder to the hip on the opposite side of the body. See: ɨnk-ɔɨpɨlaní Beads ornaments sewn in a thin thread and coiled together in groups of four worn by warriors across their bodies, that is, hanging it from one shoulder to the hip on the other side of the body.

ol-pórrôr   Nom sg: ol-porrór. Acc pl: il-pórórî. Nom pl: il-pórórî. [West] Acc sg: ol-pórrór. n. 1 • [North] Age set comprised of men from the same clan.

2 • Half an age set; circumcision group. Each ɔl-ají, or age set, has two ol-pórrôr, or circumcision groups of warriors. These circumcision groups are each called by various names. Only males belong to these groups (though girls are also circumcised). See: ɔl-ají Whole age-set, including both "right" and "left" hand; n-towúó Age set from different clans.

em-pósoô   Nom sg: em-pósoô. Acc pl: im-posooní. Nom pl: im-pósooní. n. Calabash lacking the necessary decoration and cleaning, as required; ugly, uncared-for calabash. See: en-kúkúrí Calabash; ɛm-pɔrɔ́rɔ̀ Ugly, uncared-for calabash.

em-poút   Nom sg: em-póùt. Acc pl: im-poutí. Nom pl: im-póutí. Variant: peút. n. 1 • Ditch, trough.

Pronouns-Demonstratives   Demonstrative Pronouns.

Pronouns-Demonstratives   Demonstrative Pronouns. See: Possessive pronoun paradigm; Interrogative pronoun paradigm; dúóó Previous(ly mentioned).

Pronouns-Indefinite   LING: According to TM (p. 207), the Nominative àɨ̀ is used after words ending in High tone, while the Nominative áɨ̀ is used after words ending in Low tone. Both behaviors are predictable from the underlying phonological form /ây/. Bótór àɨ̀. The other (fem) is old. Súpat áɨ̀. The other (fem) is good.

Pronouns-Indefinite quantifiers   Indefinite quantifying pronouns. LING: As quantifiers, all these forms (except for pɔ́ɔkɨn) always precede another noun. Thus, Falling and Down-step tones always surface as High. However, underlying tone patterns are revealed in the pronominal forms (see Indefinite Pronominal Paradigm).

Pronouns-Interrogatives  

Pronouns-Possessives   Possessive pronouns. Kɛ́báɨ́kɨ́ olpolosíé láŋ ìnè. Our boundary reaches there.

em-púàà   Nom sg: em-púáà. Acc pl: im-púaaí. Nom pl: im-púaaí. n. 1 • Nata red duiker. Ɛtáŋóró Múítà olpúàà ŋolé tɛ̀ nkáwûô. Muita shot an antelope with his bow yesterday. (W).

2 • Bush buck. See: n-dérí Blue duiker; n-kisín Common duiker.

em-puaán   n. 1 • Survival.

2 • Life. Syn: en-kishón Life. See: a-pɔ́k To survive.

áà-pùàyà   v.pl. 1 • To go around aimlessly, with no real purpose.

2 • To go to different places. See: a-lotoó To go around aimlessly (sg).

a-pʉ́d   v. To bind together, pin together. Túpʉ̀dà mpálà. Bind the papers together. (SN).

a-pʉdarɛ́   1 • To be bound or pinned together. Kɔ́pʉ́dárɛ́ nanká lpʉrankétì. The cloth/bed sheet is together with the blanket. (SN).

2 • To live very close to another person. Kápʉ́dárɛ́ alɛ́ payíán. I live very close to this man. (SN).

ɔl-pudúkì   Nom sg: ɔl-púdùkì. Acc pl: ɨl-pʉdʉ́k. Nom pl: ɨl-pʉdʉ́k. n. Tapeworm. See: n-túmúáí Tapeworm.

m-pûî [North]   Nom sg: m-pûî. Acc pl: im-puin. n. Mass of things, many things. Kɛ́átà mpûî ɛɛ́ nánkân. He/she has many clothes. (SN). Kétíi mpûî ɛ́ɛ̀ nánkân enê. There are many clothes here. (SN).

a-púk1   v. 1 • [North] To transform into sth. else. Mɛɨdɨ́máí payîê èpùk ntawúó aakʉ́ lmɔ́ŋɔ́. It is not possible for a heifer to change into an ox. (SN).

2 • To abort, abandon an idea. Usage: informal.

3 • [North] To germinate, grow. Kɛ́táá kópúk lpayág. The maize is about to germinate (grow). (SN).

a-pukokí   To come out to, appear to. Etupukóka iyíóó nkɨ́ŋasíá. A strange thing has appeared to us. (SN).

a-pukú   To get loose (as of a strap); come out. Ɛtɔ́tɔ́ná dúóó ɛngárrɨ́ auló ɔmɛtʉ́pʉkʉ́ tɛ̀ nkoitóí. The vehicle kept swerving until it was out of the road. (Pk).

em-púkai   Nom sg: em-pukáí. Acc pl: im-púkà. Nom pl: im-púkà. n. Vegetables: cabbage, sukuma wiki, etc. LING: The plural may include meat. The singular refers to one leaf, or one bundle of vegetables (e.g. one bundle of sukuma wiki).

im-púkì   Nom pl: im-púkî. n.pl. Raiding groups. See: en-jóré Raid; ol-wúámpá Raiding group.

a-pukoó   v. 1 • To go without food, sleep hungry. Kátúpúkóyìè ŋolé. I slept hungry yesterday. (SN).

2 • To starve. Kɛ́asɨshɔ́ aashʉ̂ kipukóò. We will work or we will starve. (W). See: a-rón To go without water.

pukótì   Acc pl: pukót. adj. Blend of black and white, so well blended that the whole appears blue or gray. Ɛ́ɨ́kɨ́ncɔɔ́yɔ̀ enkashê pukótì áàlàkìè orkítéŋ. We will give away the heifer that is a blend of black and white in payment for the ox. Éípukótì apá olashé ótalakíékì orkíné. The calf that was used to pay for the castrated he-goat was a blend of black and white in color. The term may apply to a variety of animals such as olárrò 'buffalo', oinkát 'wildebeest', olásúráí 'snake', as well as to cattle. A portion of an animal's body may possess this color, e.g. the mouth. See: sámpù Striped.

a-pukú   v. 1 • To emerge, come out, appear. Epukú. It will come out. aisúr olpááshé metúpukú ɔlasʉráí To prod the fence so that the snake will go out (Pk). Túpukú wóù bɔɔ́. Come on outside. (SN). Ɛ́tɔ́n doí mɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ ɛncalán ɨ́nâ kitók epukú tiájì. The weakness of that woman does not allow her to come out of the house. aɨtamán ɨnkɨkʉ́ ɛnkáŋ peê mépúkú inkíshù to surround the kraal with thorny branches so as to prevent the cows from coming out (Pk).

2 • [Chamus] To begin. See: a-púk To transform; a-ibíl To come off.

em-púkúnotó   Acc pl: im-pukunót. n. 1 • Type, sort, species, kinds. Ɛtanárèyìà nɛ́ɨ́ŋɔ́r ɨltʉŋaná átɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pʉ́tá entórroní ó mpukunót pɔɔkɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p. People should take care of themselves because the world is full of all kinds of evil/bad feeling/trouble. (Pk). empúkúnotó ɔ́ ltʉŋánì type(s) of people.

2 • Physical appearance (with reference to something inherent in the body; not outer clothing). Q: Káà píkúnotô ɛátà ɛná tánkì? A: empúkúnotô tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. Q: What is the nature of that chameleon? A: It's nature/appearance is ugly.

3 • Character, personality, custom, behavior. Náà kɛ́átà taá doí ɛná áyíóní ɛmpúkúnotó ɔltʉ́ŋaní ɔʉ́tà. This boy has a behavior of someone who has been cursed. (Pk). Mpúkúnotó ɛnyɛ́ aná. This is just his/her nature. (SN). Q: Káà píkúnotô ɛátà ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání? A: empúkúnotô tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂. Q: What is the nature of that person? A: His nature (physical appearance or personality) is ugly/bad.

a-pukúr   v.prog. To cover; stop up (a container). Kápukur málà. I will put a lid on the gourd. (SN). Kótupukuro; ɛ́ɨ́tʉ́ eikén. She capped it; she didn't close it. Usage: a-pukúr indicates placing a cap or lid on something, such as a pen or container, or putting a plug in the top of a gourd. a-ikén would be used for screwing a lid on a water bottle, or closing a door. a-isiáp is used for closing a pot, covering a sleeping person, papers, etc.. See: a-itoíp To cover; a-pɨɨ́ŋ To cover; a-isiáp To cover.

em-púkúròtò   Nom sg: em-pukúròtò. Acc pl: im-pukurót. Nom pl: im-púkuròt. n. Depression, valley, ditch. See: en-gúmotìshò Depression.

ol-pûl   Nom sg: ol-pûl. Acc pl: íl-púlî. Nom pl: íl-púlî. [North] Acc pl: l-púlì. n. n. An outdoor place where men slaughter and roast large quantities of meat, and might stay for over a month. Nɛ́ɨ́shɔ mɛnyɛ́ ɔlkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ɔshɔmɔ́ áayɨɛŋ tɔ̀ lpûl. Their father gave them a bull to slaughter in the slaughtering place. ol-pûl is a retreat-like place in the forest where only men go. The men may stay for several days to eat meat together. mk refers this to a location of eating meat for a day. Kóbórèkì lpûl. The meat-eating place is full (of people). (SN).

2 • n. Huge fire place (the stones, firewood, fire) where a lot of meat is roasted, especially during ceremonial feasts. See: l-ɔɨkárr A meat eating place where men can stay for over a month; not near home; ol-pejét A meat-roasting place.

m-púlîâ [North]   n. [North] Very fine dust, often thrown up by whirlwinds. Múntókì ainyoyíé mpúlîâ. Stop throwing up (disturbing, causing) dust. (SN). Mpúlîâ aná kɔ̂p pɔ́ɔ̀kɨ̀. The whole of this place is dust. (SN).

ɔl-pʉ́lpʉ̀l   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉ́lpɨ̀l. Acc pl: il-púlpulí. Nom pl: il-púlpulí. n. Penis of an animal. See: ɔl-pʉ́rkʉ̀l Penis of animal.

ɛm-pʉ́lʉ́ŋ   Nom sg: ɛm-pʉlʉ́ŋ. Acc pl: ɨm-pʉlʉŋá. Nom pl: ɨm-pʉ́lʉ̀ŋà. n. Back of the head just before the neck.

ol-pulutâî   Acc pl: il-pulutá. n. Nerve.

ol-púmpúí   n. Big spherical bead. See: ɔ-saêî Bead.

pʉnat   n. Metal spear, metal arrow with barbs. See: ɛm-pɛ́rɛ́ Spear.

m-púnìt [North]   Nom sg: m-punít. n. [North] The sting of a bee.

pʉnʉ́kà [North]   Nom sg: pʉ́nʉká ??. Acc pl: pʉ́nʉkaní ??. Nom pl: pʉ́nʉkaní ??. n. [North] Town, large village, shops. See: ɛnk-anasá Large village; ɔl-dʉ́kà A shop.

ɔl-pʉ́nʉ́ká   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉnʉká. Acc pl: ɨl-pʉ́nʉ́k. Nom pl: ɨl-pʉnʉ́k. n.f. One of the stomachs of a cow. It contains a green smelly substance. It is put whole into the soup. On the last day of the soup it is opened, the green substance is roasted, and then eaten. See: a-ɨpʉnʉká To be full; ɛnk-ɔnyɔ́rɨ̀ One of the stomachs of a cow.

a-pʉ́ny   v. 1 • To be early.

2 • To be previous.

3 • To hurry. Múntókì apʉ́ny. Stop being in a hurry. (SN).

a-pʉnyaá   To hurry toward.

a-pʉnyʉ́   To come too early.

a-ɨtʉpʉnyʉ́   To bring nearer.

em-punyûâ   Nom sg: em-púnyûâ. Acc pl: ím-púnyúâî. Nom pl: ím-púnyáâî. n. Powder made from the ashes of certain leaves, used to treat open wounds by hastening the formation of a scab.

áà-pùò   [North]: pua. Variant: áà-pò(n). In some suffixed forms: puon. PF.PL: e-étuo. SUBJN.PL: óotú. 1 • To move to or toward a goal; move away from a point of reference: go, go to. Restrict: pl subj. Népùò áàtɔ̀nɨ̀ pókìrà. They will go and stay together. (W). Básì népuoi ɛnkapʉtɨ́. Then, they went to the engagement. (W). Ɛɨtʉ́ kípûô. We did not go. LING: [ɛ̀ɪ̀tʊ́ kìpùò]. Nónokûâ ntamesí náàpùò nkárɛ́. There are the camels going for water. (SN). Ɛ́ŋʉrakɨ́ ɛnkayíónì tárrùsh entirmá ɛnyɛ́ peê kipuoópùò. Get the lame boy his walking stick so that we can go slowly together. (Pk). Kópuonú áàpùòyìè aná árrì. They will come to go via this vehicle. (SN).

2 • Future action (used together with a following pl. infinitive verb). Képuoi taá apá áàsàì. She [a baby girl] will be betrothed. kɛnyá ɛnkɔlɔ́ŋ napúóí áàbàrn a day that they are going to be shaved. See: a-ló(t) To go (singular).

áà-pùònù   Variant: áà-pònù. To move toward the point of reference; come (plural). Kópuonú nkáɨ́pàrr. They will come the day after tomorrow. Néyiolouní áàjò eétùò ɛnadúóó áŋ... It will be known that the previously-mentioned home [has come to look for a girl]. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá Jôn olóírirúá, nériki enetíi ɔláɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rání peê epúóí áàɨ̀tɔ̀bɨ̀r. Jon became mad (crazy); then he was taken to the healer so that he could be healed.

áà-pùòpùò   To go about, move to and fro. Émuntókì áàpùòpùò, nákɛ́râ. Stop moving about, children. (SN).

áà-pùàyà   To go forth. Íkípuayá lálɛ́wâ. Gentlemen, we will go forth. (SN).

im-púót   Nom pl: im-pûôt. n.pl. Forward group of a raiding or war party. Ɛshɔmɔɨtɔ́ impûôt áàìtùrùk peê ɛsʉjʉ́ oltîm. The forward group of the warriors is leading, followed by the rear-guard. (Pk). See: en-jóré Raiding party.

a-púp [North]   v. [North] To flake off an outer skin or covering by rubbing between palms of the hand (e.g. dry skin, the skin of groundnuts).

a-pupú  

púpóí [North]   n. [North] Boiled blood. See: m-púpùò [North] Heated dried blood.

m-púpùò [North]   Nom pl: im-púpûô. n. Heated blood mixed with sugar and often some milk, then dried to preserve it for a few days. When dry, it may then be crushed. It is given to children as a treat when their mother gives birth, and as a way for them to "receive" their new sibling. It may also be taken by women who have just given birth or who are newly initiated. It is not taken by older men or warriors. Im-púpùò is generally not used in the singular. But the singular (perhaps em-púpuoi?) would be interpreted as referring to one block or piece. See: ɔ-sárgɛ́ Blood; ɔ-sáróí Curdled milk mixed with blood; naɨláŋà Fresh milk mixed with blood; n-julótì [North] Stirred blood mixed with milk; n-carlúgì [North] Unstirred blood mixed with milk; n-tîs [North] Blood mixed with milk and then stirred together; m-póróí [North] Roasted clotted blood; púpóí Boiled blood.

ɔl-pʉrâ   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉ́rà. Acc pl: ɨl-pʉ́raí. Nom pl: ɨl-pʉ́raí. n. Bare ground with no grass. See: dɔ́rɔ́tɔ́ Bare ground; n-kurréì Bare ground.

ɔl-pʉrâ lɛ́ nk-omóm   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉ́râ lɛ́ nkomóm. Acc pl: ɨl-pʉraí loó nkomòmì. Nom pl: ɨl-pʉ́raí lóo nkómòmì. n. Forehead. Ant: ol-kódónyó backhead. See: enk-omóm face.

l-pʉráí [North]   Acc pl: l-pʉrá. n. [North] Red ant. See: l-oisúisúì Black ant.

l-pʉrankétì [North]   Nom sg: l-pʉ́rankétì. n. [North] Blanket. See: ɔl-mʉrankétì Blanket.

a-pʉ́rd   v. 1 • To smash, crush, destroy, break. Tódùàà mʉ́pʉ́rd mbolbólì. Be careful not to break the egg. (SN). Tʉ́pʉrdakɨ́ lpílipílì atúà ndáà. Crush the pepper into the food. (SN).

2 • [North] To reveal secrets.

a-pʉrdʉpʉ́rd   To crush or destroy thoroughly. Kápʉ́rdʉ́pʉ̀rd katʉ́kɨ̀l. I will crush it thoroughly. (SN).

a-pʉrdá   v.mid. 1 • To be smashed, crushed.

2 • To be torn, worn out to the point of being soft to the touch and disintegrate when touched (as of cloth, hide). Kɛ́taŋásúá nanká apʉrdá. The cloth has begun to wear out. (SN).

3 • To be exceedingly proud.

a-pʉ́rd ɛ̀ n-kʉ́tʉ́k   To talk proudly. Syn: a-rɨ́ny To talk proudly.

ɔl-pʉ́rdá   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉrdá. Acc pl: ɨl-pʉ́rdân. Nom pl: ɨl-pʉrdân. n. Meat preserved in fat; especially given to postpartum women and newly-circumcised girls. See: l-akulí [North] Meat preserved in fat; ɛn-tɔ́mɔ́nɔ́nɨ̀ Postpartum woman.

m-pʉrdátì [North]   Acc pl: m-pʉrdát. n. [North] Rag.

ol-púrkél   Nom sg: ol-purkél. Acc pl: il-púrkélí. Nom pl: il-purkelí. n. Dry place, desert, dry steppes; lowland. Lpúrkél ɛmányà. He lives in the lowland. (SN). This can also be used to refer to wet season pasture, i.e. a place which is normally dry, but which serves as pasture during the wet season.

ɔl-púrkóí   Acc pl: ɨl-Purkó. n.prop. Name of a Maasai section. Átɔ́dùàà ɔlwúásínkíshúí ɔbɔ́ɨ́tà ɔ́ lpúrkóí. I have seen a Wuasinkishu person and a Purko person together. (Pk). See: ol-oshô Section.

ɔl-pʉ́rkʉ̀l   Nom sg: ɔl-pʉ́rkʉ̂l. Acc pl: il-púrkulí. Nom pl: il-púrkulí. n. 1 • Penis (of animals). lpʉ́rkʉ̀l lɛ́ laɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ penis of a bull (SN). Kɛ́yá lpʉ́rkɨ̀l lɛ́ laɨŋɔ́nɨ̀. The penis of the bull is infected.

2 • Penis of human, with implication that it is infected with veneral disease. Usage: colloquial.

m-púró [North]   Nom sg: m-puró. n. [North] Smoke. Kɔ́rʉ́mʉ̀ mpuró. Smoke is visible. (SN).

em-purpul   n. Bladder; a type of meat.

púrpùr   adj. To be boged down by weight; sluggish, lazy, slow. ɔltʉŋánì púrpùr A sluggish person (i.e the person can not walk fast because of body weight). See: yietût Slow, sluggish.

a-pʉrpʉraná   Variant: a-pʉrʉpʉraná. v.mid. 1 • To be spherical; round. Kɔ́pʉrpʉránà alɛ́ soít. This stone is round. (SN). Ɛpʉ́rpʉ́ránà. It is round/spherical.

2 • To be complete. See: a-manaá To be round; a-loloŋa To be round.

a-purú   v. 1 • To smoke (of a fire). Kópúrù nkɨ́mà. The fire is smoking. / Fires smoke. (SN). Kótupúro nkɨ́mà. The fire was smoking. Mɨ́ncɔ́ nkɨ́má epurú. Don't let the fire smoke. (SN). LING: Subject raising.

2 • [North] To bluff; talk but with empty words. See: a-jʉ́k To bluff; overeat; a-ijukujúk To smoke, bluff; a-itukutúkó To bluff; a-ɨmaampút To bluff; a-ilalankúsh To bluff; a-kúsh To bluff; a-mát To smoke (cigarette).

a-purúg [North]   v. [North] To rot, get mouldy. Kótupúrùgò lcánì. The tree is rotten. (SN). Kópurúgu lcánì. The tree will rot. (SN). See: a-purúk To rot; a-ɨsamɨ́s To stink.

a-purúk2   [North]: a-purúg. v. To last for a long time? To be rotting - as of a piece of wood? Képurúk ɛldɛ́ shani olêŋ. That wood has lasted very long.

púrúk   ideo. Sound of hooves.

púrúk1   Nom sg: purúk. Acc pl: púrúkí. Nom pl: purukí. adj. 1 • With horns pointing upwards and forwards, with tips inward.

2 • Prominent. .

em-púrúó   Nom sg: em-púrùò. [North] Acc sg: púró. n. Smoke. Ɛ́ɨ́sápʉ̀k empurúó. There is a lot of smoke. (lit: The smoke is big.).

a-purupúr   v. To waddle, lumber, go heavily.

a-pʉrʉpʉraná   To be round; spherical; complete. See: a-pʉrpʉraná To be round, spherical; complete.

a-púrr   v.prog. 1 • To steal from, rob. Ééúò apúrr iyíóó. He/she has come to steal from us. (SN). Népùrr ɔláyíóní mɛ́nyɛ́. The boy stole from his father. (W). Ápúrrítò oldúkà. I am stealing from the shop. (W) He will steal for me. Áápúrrókì entíto. i) I will steal the girl for you. (W) ii) I will steal from the girl, all that she has, for you. (W).

2 • To take ornaments from dying person. To take ornaments from a dying person is a terriable thing.

3 • To cheat. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá olmalimúí ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ épúrrítô ɛntɛ́mátá. The teacher has caught a child cheating in the exam. (W). LING: [èpùrrìtò] with low fallinɡ or stress on final mora.

a-purroó, a-purrú   v.dir. To steal sth.; kidnap. Épúrróò ɔlmʉrraní iropiyaní. The warrior will steal the money. (W). Népurróò ɔláyíóní ilmósòrr. The boy stole eggs (and went away with them). (W). Áapurróò ɔlmʉrraní. The warrior will kidnap me. (W). Ápúrrú ɛnkalámù. I will steal a pen (and bring it towards where we are). (W). Áapurroríé ɔlmʉrraní ɨmbɛníá. The warrior will steal the bags from me. (W). Ápúrrú ɛnkalámù tɔ̀ ldúkâ. I will steal a pen from the market. (W). Epúrrúno entánkìlè. The woman is stolen. (Eg. The woman came to live in this homestead by having been stolen). (W).

a-purrishó   To steal (as a habit). Kópúrríshó aná kɛ́ràì. This child does steal. (SN).

a-purríé   Étúpúrróyìè ɔlaimónkònì inkíshú ó lpayíán. The cheat/liar stole the man's cows. (W). See: áayiat To steal. LING: perhaps archaic, even in W.

ɛm-pʉ̂rr   n. Lizard. See: ol-mokûâ Lizard; ol-oirrírrì Lizard; l-karripô [North] Lizard; l-mɛlɛlɛ [Chamus] Lizard.

purrishó   n. Stealing, thievery ? Tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ taá ɔlkúààk ó purrishó ɨnkɛ́râ. The habit of children stealing is bad. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn aturú ɨlɔmɔ́n lɔɔ́rpúrrishó ɔɔ́waitâ inkíshú. The man is finding out information about the thieves who stole cows. (Pk).

ol-púrríshóí   Nom sg: ol-purrishóí. n. Thief. Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàdàm ɔlpúrríshóí ɨsɛdɛ́rɨ tɔɔ́ nkàɨ̀k. The thief is being slapped (on) the cheeks with the hands. (Pk). Ɛtabáíkia taá táatá ɔlpurrishóí oitiŋí Today the thief has reached the ultimate end. [i.e. he is dead]. (Pk). See: ɔl-apúrrònì Thief; a-púrr To steal.

ɛm-púrrórrè   n. Theft. See: ɛ-nyámù Theft.

pʉ̂s1   Nom sg: pʉ̂s. Acc pl: púsì. Nom pl: púsî. adj. 1 • Blue (of any degree of saturation and brightness); color of the sky, of water mixed with milk, of grass that is drying and losing its deep-green color, pale green, light lavender. ɛnkárɛ́ pʉ̂s blue water. ɛnâ búkù nárɔ́k ɔ ɛ́ndà pʉ̂s this black book and that blue one (W). Mɛɛ́kʉ̀ áíkátá ɔltʉ́ŋání pʉ̂s lɛ́mɛ́ oloitáá kɛwɔ́n. A person does not become unpopular unless he makes himself unpopular. (lit: A man does not become blue unless he makes himself that way.).

2 • Gray. LING: It is likely that the earlier meaning for pʉ̂s was 'desaturated hue', designating the color of light-gray/blue sky, drying grass, etc. Development of pʉ̂s as a basic color term for 'blue' is then a later development, apparently restricted to certain dialect areas. However, for some Central and Western Maa speakers its prototype now appears to be 'light-blue' to 'blue', rather than a highly desaturated ('gray') color.

3 • [North] Having 3 or more colors. lk (K) and mk (S) clearly disagree on what this color term means, though both include grey. For both, it seems to include a variety of colors. See: e-sírùà Blue, white.

pʉ̂s-kií   n. Blue whetting stone.

ɛm-pʉ̂s2   Nom sg: ɛm-pʉ̂s. Acc pl: im-púsì. Nom pl: im-púsî. n. Shoulder. See: o-rôny Shoulder.

pʉ̂s ɔ́ŋʉ̀   v.phrase. To have a bad, diseased eye. Kɛ́ɨ́pʉ̀s-ɔ́ŋʉ̀ ɛlɛ̂ tʉŋánì. This man has an eye problem/has a bad eye. (SN). The eye problem is likely permanent and is visible to others. LING: 'Eye' is in the Nominative, suggesting an External Possession construction.

m-pʉsɛk [North]   n. [North] Flour. See: en-kurmá Flour; ɛn-tapá Flour.

ol-pusekény   n. Testicle.

Il-púsì moru   n.prop. Place of the blue stones.

il-pusi-kineji   n. Samburu people. See: ol-oiborrkínèjì Samburu person.

a-pʉ́sh   v. 1 • To be in an excitable or energetic state. Ɛpúshù. He was enraged / He will become enraged. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɔ́tɨ̀ apʉ́sh aɨrɨ́sh ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ. The young bull is getting aroused to fight the others. Kórè peê èràpòshò olóíŋóní ɔ́tʉpʉshá náà kɛ́shɛ̀r. When a bull which is proud is satisfied/fed up (and wants to fight), it will "grunt". (W). ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́pʉsh person who is excitable. See: a-ɨtʉpʉ́sh To put into an emotional state.

2 • To be rutting (of an animal). Ɛ́tʉ́pʉ́shá ɛlɛ́ ɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́; ɛgɨ́rà aitiamakɨ́ inkíshú. This bull has been rutting; it is mounting on cows.

3 • To shake with anger. Restrict: warrior.

4 • [North] To multiply and propagate in an area, through birth or migration. Usage: people.

5 • [North] To propagate so extensively in an area to the point of dominating that area. Usage: plant.

a-pʉshʉ́   v. 1 • To be in a period or stage of rutting or sexual arousal; to want to fight (of animals). Kɔ́pʉshʉ́ alɛ́ áɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ kʉná naátɛɛná. This bull will get sexually active very soon. (SN).

2 • To be energetic, active (as a young bull might be); show off. ɨtʉpʉ́shʉ́á kʉná péròt. [ɪ̀tʊ̀pʊ́ʃwá] You are showing off these days. (SN). This usually refers to a temporary stage rather than a long-term characteristic. It is typically applied to a bull though may also be applied to people. With reference to people, the concept is not negative, and often results from someone doing well and being happy.

3 • [North] To gossip negative information about s.o.

4 • [North] To dominate others.

pʉshʉ́kà   n. November (lit: flower buds). See: ɨl-apaitín Months.

m-pʉshʉ́nà [North]   n. [North] Energy, excitement. Kɛ́átà mpʉshʉ́nà. He/she is excited/energetic. (SN).

pushunótì [North]   Nom sg: púshunótì. Acc pl: pushunót. Nom pl: púshùnòt. n. [North] A young warrior or bull who is getting strong and fierce but still under leadership of other senior warriors or bulls. See: ɔl-barnótì Young warrior.

a-pút   v. 1 • To pluck (feathers). Kápút nkɔ́kɔ́. [kápút ! ŋkɔ́kɔ́] I will pluck (feathers from) the chicken. (SN). Kápút nkɔ́kɔ́ aorú nkopírr. I will pluck the chicken to remove the feathers. (SN). Kápútú nkopírr ɛ́ nkɔ́kɔ́. I will pluck the feathers of/from the chicken. (SN). LING: *Kápútóò.

2 • To pick, choose. Épút. He will pick / pluck / nominate. Mmeputokiní aɨkatá ɔsʉ́nàsh inkíshú. Cows are never given a bull with a single testicle as the "accepted" bull of the herd.

3 • To nominate (s.o.).

3 • To ordain. Néputíékì ɔlaigúɛ́nànì ɛnkáshê ɔ́ lɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀. The age-set leader is ordained with a heifer and a bull. Mátùpùt mɛtʉ́sʉ̀jà ɛlɛ̂ kerérì lɛ̀ mɛ́nyɛ̀. Let's annoint him to follow this line of his father (i.e., be the leader like his father was). (KS).

3 • To non-violently take sth. from s.o. who is in a less powerful position, against the will of the person from whom the item(s) is taken. Usage: euphemistic. Etúpútó laláshɛ̀ lɛnyɛ́ kiní aorú saên. He has taken (stolen) strings of beads from his younger brother. (SN).

a-putó   To be annointed, ordained.

l-pútàpùt [North]   Nom sg: l-putapút. Acc pl: l-putaputí. Nom pl: l-pútaputí. n. [North] Mattress.

em-putét   Nom sg: em-pútèt. Acc pl: im-putétà. Nom pl: im-pútètà. n. Tweezers, tongs.

a-putorí [North]   v. [North] To run fast after sighting danger. See: a-kúɛ́t To run.

a-putú   v. To suddenly wake s.o. up. Káatuputuakɨ́. I was suddenly woken up. (SN). Múputí lmʉ́rránì! Don't awaken the warrior! (SN). Kátúpútúnyè. I suddenly woke up (SN). Etuputúnyè lmʉrraní. The warrior has suddenly woken up. (SN). Kápútú nkɔ́kɔ́. I will wake the chicken up. (SN).

em-putúàì   Nom sg: em-pútùàì. Acc pl: im-putúá. Nom pl: im-pútùà. [North] Acc sg: m-butúàì. n. Pectoral muscle, located above the ribs (of men only). This term is not used with reference to women or animals. See: ol-goó Chest; ɛ́m-bútúà Pectoral muscle, breast.

em-puús   Nom sg: em-púus. Acc pl: im-puusîn. Nom pl: im-púusîn. n. Cat. See: em-pákà Cat; em-búrrà Cat; n-kuús [North] Cat; kúrà [Chamus] Cat; e-nyaú [South] Cat.

ɛm-pʉ́yà   n. 1 • Soft material made from plastic, e.g plastic bag. ɛmpʉ́yà é nkurmá A plastic bag containing maize flour.

a-puyiapúí   v. To be soft to the touch, smooth. Képuyiapuy ɨlpapɨ́t lɔ́ɔntaré aláŋ ɨlɔɔ́nkìnèjí. Sheep fleece is softer than goats' hair. Képuiyápùì alɛ́ pʉ́rankétì. This blanket is soft and smooth. (SN). See: a-sɨpá To be smooth; a-naná To be soft.