J - j
j Letter representing the Maa alveopalatal voiced affricate consonant /ɗʒ/. Some speakers may have light implosion, while for others the sound is not implosive.
a-jaayá v. To regain possession of what you had given out previously. This usually happens after a dispute. You claim back what you had given out to the other person while you were good friends.
o-jálúí [Purko] Acc sg: ɔl-jálúóí. [Purko] Nom sg: ɔl-jalúóí. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨl-jalúò. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨl-jálùò. n. A Luo person. Kɛ́nyɔ́r ɛnkánàshɛ̀ áí ojálúí otoduáá tɛ̀ súkuúl. My sister likes the Luo she saw in school.
a-jáp v. To hide sth under the armpits or inside your clothes.
a-japɨjapá To be uneasy, not comfortable. See: a-isudoó ‘To hide’.
a-jár v. To extend.
a-jaraá To extend; increase; grow big.
a-jéú(n) v. 1 • To be saved. Usage: Religious. Ejéú ɛnkɛráɨ́. The child will be saved. (W). Káɨ́nyɔɔ apá éjó kélotú aɨtajéú nɨncɛ́ tɔɔ́ nyámàlìtìn? What did they expect to come save them from their problems? (Pk). This would not be used for saving a child that is in physical trouble, or for getting someone out of financial trouble, etc. See: ɔl-aitájéúnònì ‘Savior’.
2 • [North] To get food to eat.
3 • [North] To wake up healthy.
a-ɨtajéú To redeem; rescue.
en-jéúnotó n. Salvation. See: a-jéú(n) ‘To save’.
a-jeyú v.is. To swell. Áagɨrá ɛnkainá ajeyú. My arm is swelling. Étéjíá ɛnkainá áí. My arm became swollen. Eitéjìà. He will make it swell. See: a-poŋú ‘To swell (of the stomach)’.
-jî v.pass. 1 • To be named, be called. Defective passive stem of a-jó 'to say' which only occurs in relative clause formations. Éló entitó nájî Námúnyák. [éló èntìtó nádʒí námúɲák] not [nàdʒì]. The girl named Namunyak will go. Kááyóókì aɨshɔ́ entókì najî ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I am going to give you something called a cow. Sídáí taá dúóó ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání ojî Lɛmarrôn. This person called Lemarrôn is good (natured). (Pk). Kéji aá ɛnkalámù? How do you say pen? (W). Kéji aá ɛmbúkù? How do you say book? (W).
2 • To be said, be reported. néjî, etoíshe ɛnapá tɔmɔnɔnɨ́... (when) it is reported that the previously-mentioned woman has given birth... naajî isayíétà called (a) dowry (W). inkíshú naájî ɨsayɨ́ɛ́tà cows that are called bride-price. inkíshù náajî ɨsayɨ́ɛ́tà cows (nominative) that are called bride-price. See: a-jó ‘To say’.
a-jɨ́ v. To sieve (liquid); sift, strain. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât ajɨ́ ɔlturúnkì. The woman is sieving tea. (Pk). See: a-gɛ́l ‘To sift, sort’; en-jíátá ‘Sifting’; a-sɨl ‘To strain’.
en-jíán Nom sg: en-jián. [Purko] Nom sg: en-jîân. n. Swelling. Ɛtasápʉ̀kà enjîân éwúéì náàtàŋòrò ilótòròk. The swelling on my hand from the bee sting has enlarged. (Pk). See: a-jieyú ‘To swell’.
en-jíátá Nom sg: en-jiatá. n. Sifting. Ésídáí ɛnjiatá ɛ́nà kurmá. The sifting of this maize flour is good. (Pk). See: a-jɨ́ ‘To sift’.
a-jieyú [North]: jeí. v. To swell. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí ajieyú nátaŋorô ilótòròk. The child who has been stung by a bee is swollen. (Pk). See: en-jíán ‘Swelling’.
ol-jínì n. Evil spirit. Etym: < ? ‘jin’.
ol-jínjìl [North] Nom sg: ol-jínjîl. Acc pl: ol-jínjílí. Nom pl: ol-jínjilí. n. [North] Basket used to store a clay pot to keep it safe from breaking.
a-jɨ́ŋ v. 1 • To enter, go in. Ɛgɨ́rà enkínè ajíŋ atûâ ɛlɔkɛ́t. The goat is getting into the fold. (Pk). Enê ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá. This is where he entered. Enê ɛtɨ́jɨ́ŋá. This is where he entered. Enê étíjíŋíé. They went in through here. Enê etíjíŋíé. They went in through here. Enê etijíŋunyê. They came in through here. Enê etijíŋunyê. They came in through here. Ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá enkínè (atûâ) ɛmúátátá The goat entered the kraal. Néjo ájɨ́ŋ ɛnkají, nɛ́kúɛ́t ɛnkáji, When he tried to enter the house, the house ran (away). Kéudí oshî ɨnkɛ́rà kʉtɨ́tɨ́ ɔsindánó peê mɛ́jɨ́ŋ ɛntɨ́dɨ̀yàì. Children are taken to hospital for smallpox vaccine. (lit: Children are injected so smallpox doesn't enter.). Mmetumókì ɛná áyíóní atɔtɔ́nà aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́jɨ́ŋá ɔldʉ́taɨ́ ɔltúlìì This boy cannot sit well because he has a boil on his buttock. (Pk).
2 • To fit. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ ŋolé inkáyìòk mɛshɔ́mɔ́ɨ́ áàtɛ̀m isésènì peê eyiolouní ɛnɛbâ inkílaní naajîŋ. The boys went yesterday to be measured so that it can be known which clothes fit.
a-jɨŋaá 1 • To keep on entering into many places.
2 • To effect.
a-jɨŋá v.mid. 1 • To be entered. Ɛjɨ́ŋà ɛndâ ájì. That house has been entered. Ɛjɨ́ŋà It (e.g., a cave) is entered [I can see someone inside].
2 • To become mentally ill. Ɛgɨ́rà olkúóô ajɨŋá. The lamb is becoming mentally ill.
a-jiŋíé To go in through.
a-jɨŋʉ́ 1 • To enter, come in.
2 • To be in accord with. enkoitóí nájiŋunórè
a-jiŋunyé To come in through. See: ɛn-jɨ́ŋátá ‘Entering’; ɛn-jɨ́ŋárɛ́ ‘Entering’; ɛn-jɨŋɛ́t ‘That which is entered’.
a-jɨ́ŋ ají v. To give birth. Usage: polite. See: a-ishó ‘To give birth’.
a-jɨ́ŋ enkoríóŋ v.phrase. 1 • To get onto someone's back.
2 • To stand behind.
3 • To give support to someone, as in political campaigns, debates.
n-jɨ́ŋà n. Group of men or women formed to get into peoples homes for traditional performances.
ɛn-jɨ́ŋárɛ́ n. 1 • Entering.
2 • [North] The entering of many men into a house and singing until they are given food. For mk (S), when a man is going to get married, he organizes a group of his friends (maybe 30?). They find out who is rich enough to give up something, then go there all together, and sing in their house, until they give them a cow or several goats to go and eat in the bush. If there isn't enough to satisfy them, they then go to another house, and so on until they are satisfied. This ceremony can last 2 days, and the group can visit one or a few homes. The house must give them something; if not, their 'life may not be in a good condition.' This happens each time a man gets married. For km (Pk), the story is similar, but it can be done for any cultural ceremony where something is needed, and it isn't necessarily for personal consumption -- perhaps for the ol-oibónì.
ɛn-jɨ́ŋátá Nom sg: ɛn-jɨŋatá. Acc pl: ɨn-jɨŋát. Nom pl: ɨn-jɨŋát. n. Entering. Ɛnjɨ́ŋátá sídáí taá ɨnɑ̂ osínkólíó ɨnâ. The joining/entering of that song is great. (Pk). See: a-jɨ́ŋ ‘To enter’.
ɛn-jɨŋɛ́t Nom sg: ɛn-jɨ́ŋ¹t. Acc pl: ɨn-jɨŋɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨn-jɨ́ŋ¹tà. n. That which is entered. See: a-jɨ́ŋ ‘To enter’.
in-jíó Nom pl: in-jîô. [West] Nom pl: in-jô. n.pl. 1 • Sleep. Áàtotirô injô aásɨ̀shɔ̀. I fell asleep when I worked. (lit: Sleep ached me while I worked.) (W). Étótíró ɛnkɛ́ráí injîô. The child is feeling sleepy. (lit: Sleep has ached the child.) (Pk).
2 • Drowsiness. Káátà njíó I'm sleepy. (S).
a-jɨ́p v. 1 • To wedge an axe head. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât ajɨ́p entólú. The woman is wedging the head of an axe. (Pk).
2 • To wedge sth. In S, this would be used for pulling meat out of one's teeth with a toothpick.
3 • To criticize a person, on one point after another. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔltʉ́ŋání ajɨ́p ɔlɨkâɨ̂ alimú intábò naátaasá. The person is criticizing the other by saying every evil he has done. (Pk).
4 • To make sth unhealthy or sick. See: ɛn-jɨpɛ́t ‘Wedge’.
n-jɨ̂p [North] n. [North] Sunbird.
ɛn-jɨpɛ́t Nom sg: ɛn-jɨ́pɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨn-jɨpɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨn-jɨ́pɛ̀tà. n. 1 • Wedge (e.g., something that keeps a door open/shut, an axe head on its handle).
2 • Stake, skewer, spit.
ɔl-jɨpɛ́t Stick sharpened on both sides used for roasting meat. See: a-jɨ́p ‘To wedge’.
n-jɨ́pɨ́táí [North] n. [North] Mixture of fried meat and maize flour.
a-jó PF, SUBJN: -tiaaka. v.prog. 1 • To say, report. Éjó He will say it. Népùò apá ɨlɛ́wâ áàjò, "eé." The men go and say, "yes". Átéjo doí (ncɛ́rɛ̀) peê èlòtù tɛnákatá. I have said (that) he must/should come now. (Pk). Éjó áá ɛntɛ́dɛkɛnyá? Sídáí olêŋ! [éjó āā] How is the morning? Very good! (W). Áíjó aá íyie? What do you say? [polite greeting]? (W). A: Íjó áá? B: Metíi. A: What do you say? B: Nothing. (W). This is a common exchange when seeing someone familiar. The response metíi indicates that nothing is wrong.
2 • To ask. Népùò ɨlmʉ́rrân néjò "Káà taá kiâs?" The warriors went and they asked, "What shall we do?".
3 • To make the sound of (followed by an idiophone). Ejóítò ɛncán "pááâ." The rain is saying "paaa".
4 • To think sth. to be the case. Kájó kélotú. I think (believe) that he will come. (W).
5 • To try, attempt sth. Néjo áósh, nérukúnie aké isírúàì. He tried to hit, (but) elands just came out (instead of cows). Nájó adɔ́l... [nájádɔ́l] I tried to see (determine)... (W). Ɛ́táyóó ajó áár ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ nɛ́ɨ́tʉ̀ ɛ́ɨ́nɛ́pɨ̀. He went early in the morning and attempted to fight the others but did not find them. LING: Ajó indicates 'try', 'attempt', or 'intend', without an indication of accomplishment; compare the preceding example with: Néyòk aár ɨlkʉlɨ́kaɨ. 'Very early in the morning he went to fight the others'. This sentence without ajó cannot be followed by 'but he didn't find them'.
6 • To intend, plan, seem. Ágɨ́rà ajó peê ashɛtʉ́ áí. I am planning to build a house for myself. (Pk). Ekéjó peê ashukokí ɛnapá páláí. He seems to want to return the letter (to me). (Pk).
7 • To be about to. Órè ɔladúóó kúòò omúéí ɛ́taá kéjó peê aduŋó. The kid (lamb) which was sick is about to die. (Pk).
a-jɨ́ v.pass. 1 • To be named. Áajî ɔlárínkóí. I am called/I am named Olarinkoi. Nɛ́dʉmʉnɨ́ ɛnáíshó najî "ɛnkɨ́rɔ́rɛ́t". They get beer that is called "the talking one".
2 • To be said, be reported. ejî It is said. Néjî, etoíshe ɛnapá tɔmɔnɔnɨ́... And (when) it is reported that that woman has given birth...
a-jokí To say to, ask to. Ejókì... He will say to her... Áájókì "Shɔ́mɔ̀ aké níshukúnyè." I am telling you, "Go and come back". (Pk). Néjokiní, "Kéloitíkóíshí íyíéú anáa késirkôn?" He was asked, "Is it zebras you want, or donkies?". See: tiaaka(k) ‘Said (pf)’; ajó ‘Complementizer to introduce complement clauses; "that"’; a-likí ‘To report, say to’.
a-jó ŋâm v.prog. To take off running and cover some distance. Néjo ɔltását ŋâm. The old man ran away.
en-jólís Nom sg: en-jolís. n. Hedgehog. Kɛ́átà enjolís ɨlkɨkʉ́ tɛ̀ nkórìòŋ. The hedgehog has spines on the back. (Pk). See: nakonkóyò ‘Hedgehog’; n-titipayó ‘Hedgehog’.
a-jɔ́n v.s. 1 • To be raw, unripe. Kákè ɛjɔ́n ɛlɛ̂ ŋánayîô. This fruit is very raw. (Pk). Ɛtɛyɨ́ɛ́rá Kákɛ̀nyà ɛndáà najɔ́n. Kakenya has cooked food that is unripe. (e.g. green bananas) (W).
2 • To be uncooked. Ɛjɔ́n. It is not cooked. (e.g. beef that is still raw) (W). Kɛ́jɔ́n ɛndáà amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ̂n méyíárà. The food is uncooked because no one has yet cooked it. (Pk).
3 • To be immature (slang). Usage: slang. Kɛ́jɔn ɛlɛ̂ áyíóní ɛ́tɔ̂n mɛ́mʉ́rátayú. This boy is still immature he cannot be circumcised. (Pk). This may be more relevant to physical issues, than to behavioral. Ant: a-kú, a-okú ‘To ripen’. See: ɛn-jɔnán ‘Rawness’.
ɛn-jɔnán Nom sg: ɛn-jɔ́nan. n. Rawness, unripeness. Áɨ́sápʉ̀k ɛnjɔnán ɛ́nâ dáà olêŋ. The unripeness of this food is quite great. (Pk). See: a-jɔ́n ‘To be raw’.
a-jɔɔ́l v. To overtake, go ahead of s.o. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛngárrî ajɔɔ́l ɛnkáɨ́. The vehicle is overtaking the other one. (Pk). Mɛjɔɔ́l mûrt nkúé. The neck never surpasses the head. (S). See: a-murút ‘To overtake’; ɛn-jɔ́ɔ́làtà ‘Overtaking, turning point’.
ɛn-jɔ́ɔ́làtà Nom sg: ɛn-jɔɔ́làtà. n. 1 • Overtaking.
2 • Turning point. Órè aké peê ɨbáɨ́kɨ̀ ɛndâ jɔ́ɔ́làtà nɨ́lɛ̀p. When you reach that turning point, go up. (Pk). See: a-jɔɔ́l ‘To overtake’.
en-jóré Variant: enthórè. Nom sg: en-jórè. Acc pl: in-jorín. Nom pl: in-jórìn???. [Purko] Nom sg: en-joré. [Purko] Nom pl: in-jorín. n. 1 • Raid (for cattle), war. Ɛ́táárá apá ɨnjorín. Long ago he killed groups of warriors. Toó jorín apá ɛtʉ́mʉtâ ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɨlkʉlɨ́kàɨ̀. It is in wars that the Maasai killed other sectors. (Pk).
2 • War party, war group. An en-jóré includes im-púót 'advance guard' and ol-tîm 'rear guard'. See: ol-áràbàl ‘War’; ɛn-árà ‘War’; ɔl-ámàyìò ‘Lion hunt’.
en-jórríjór Nom sg: en-jorrijór. n. Dry, light and persistent cough. Ɛ́ɨ́tányámálá ɛnkɛráí kɨtɨ́ enjorriór. The little child has bee troubled by a dry, light and persisten cough. (Pk). See: ɛn-kɨ́rɔ̀kɛ̀t ‘Cough’.
a-joyíó v. To be away, spend the night away. Kátéjíyà. I stayed away for the night. (S). Eshɔmɔ́ ŋolé ɛntásât ajoyíó nɛ́akʉ imetíi áŋ. The woman went to spend the night away so is not at home. (Pk). See: a-ɨrág ‘To sleep’.
a-jú v.s. 1 • To be hairy. Kéju ɛmûrt ɛ́lɛ̀ ŋátúny. The neck of this lion is very hairy. (i.e. it has a mane). (Pk). ɔltʉŋánì ojú person who is hairy. Mol (1996:164) notes this is a nickname for a European.
2 • To be overgrown (with vegetation).
3 • [North] To have many children. Usage: Metaphorical. See: en-juan ‘Hairness’.
a-jʉjʉmá v. 1 • [North] To push with force.
2 • To squat. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláyíóní ajʉjʉmá nɛ́mɛ́ɨ́tábaɨkɨ iltulí ɛnkɔ̂p. The boy is squatting and he will not let his buttocks reach the ground. (Pk). See: a-iŋadedé ‘To squat’; a-ɨgʉtʉmá ‘To squat’.
a-jʉ́k v. 1 • To eat a lot. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláyíóní ajʉ́k ɛndáà olêŋ. The boy is eating a lot of food. (Pk).
2 • [North] To bluff. See: a-nyá ‘To eat’; a-daá ‘To eat’; a-ijukujúk ‘To bluff’; a-purú ‘To smoke, bluff’; a-itukutukó ‘To bluff’; a-ilalankúsh ‘To bluff’; a-kúsh ‘To bluff’; a-imaampút ‘To bluff’.
a-júl v. 1 • To pour a liquid back and forth (e.g., to cool it).
2 • To change color of sth. ajúl emúá To change the color.
n-julótì [North] Nom sg: n-júlòtì. Acc pl: n-julót. [Chamus] Acc sg: n-júlòt. n. 1 • [North] Fresh milk mixed with blood taken as food. This may be ingested by anyone as food.
2 • [North] Purplish-pink to light pink color. See: ɔ-sáróí ‘Milk mixed with blood’; m-púpóí [North] ‘Unstirred boiled blood’; n-carlúgì [North] ‘Unstirred blood mixed with milk’; n-tîs [North] ‘Blood mixed with milk and then stirred together’; m-póróí [North] ‘Roasted clotted blood’.
en-júlúl n. Type of club which has a rounded head and tapers down to a point at the opposite end; type of ɛ-síárɛ̂. See: ɔl-ɔpɨ́ [North] ‘Club with pointed end’; ɛ-síárɛ̂ ‘Club’.
a-jʉmaá [North] v. [North] To push sth. with force. See: a-jʉjʉmá ‘To push with force’.
e-jumaá [South] n. [South] Week. See: e-wíkì ‘Week’; sapanabô ‘Week’.
Jumáà n. Friday. Etym: < Swahili?.
Jumamósì n. Saturday. Etym: < Swahili??.
en-jún n. Hairiness. See: a-jú ‘To be hairy’.
a-júŋ v. 1 • To inherit sth. Kéjúŋ entitó inkíshú kúmòk. The girl will inherit many cattle. Ejúŋ ɔláyíóní inkíshú uní ɛ mɛ́nyɛ̀. The boy will inherit three cows from his father. (W). Néjúŋ ɔmʉrraní inkíshú ɔ́ lpayíán. i. The warrior will inherit the cows of the man. (W) ii. The warrior and the man will inherit the cows. (W). LING: This could thirdly mean 'The warrior will inherit both the cows and will inherit the man'; but that is pragmatically unrealistic.
2 • To inherit from. Néjùŋ ɔltásàt, néjùŋ kókó ɛnyɛ́. He inherits from the old man (i.e. his grandfather), he inherits from his grandmother. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔláyíóní ɔ́tɨ̂ ajúŋ olbótór otúá. The junior boy is inheriting from the senior boy who is dead. (Pk).
a-juŋishó v.apass. To inherit. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnáyíóní enetíí mɛnyɛ́ amanyɨshɔ́ peê ejuŋishó. The boy has gone to live where his father lives so that he can inherit. (W).
a-itujʉ́ŋ v.cause. To bequeath. Áaitujúŋìè pápa áí inkíshú ɛnyɛ́nàk. My father will make me inherit his cows/bequeath to me his cows. (W).
en-júŋìshò n. Inheriting. Órè enjúŋìshò náà entókì sídáí. Inheriting is something good.
en-juŋórè n. Inheritance. Néduŋo táʉ̀ ɛɛwá ɔlɛ́ ntínkí enjuŋórè. He dies when the son of the non-favorite has taken the inheritance. (KS).
en-júŋótó n. The act of inheriting.
a-júrr v. To investigate, research, scrutinize sth. Ɛgɨ́rà olkítòk ajúrr ɨmbáà naátiakakɨ́. The leader is scrutinizing the issues he was told. (Pk).
a-jurrishó v.apass. To be fickle. ɔltʉŋánì ojúrrisho a person who is fickle. See: l-kɨtarínò [North] ‘Fickle love’.
a-jurrú 1 • To explore, investigate, study.
2 • To recognize. See: a-yiolóú ‘To realize, recognize’.
a-jút [South]: a-jít. v. 1 • To rub sth. off, wipe off, clean off. Éjút. He will wipe it. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât ajút ɨnamʉ́kà naáàtà entérít. The woman is wiping shoes that have dust. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà entitó ajút entúrótó naelíékì. The girl is rubbing off the chalk painted on her. (Pk). See: a-ój ‘To rub’; a-sɨ́k ‘To rub’.
2 • To erase. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní ajút ɛmpáláí ɛnyɛ́ tɛ̀ jútèt. The boy is erasing his letter with an eraser. (Pk).
3 • To sack or fire s.o. from a job. Ɛgɨ́rà olkítòk ajút ɨltʉ́ŋńá lɛ́mɛ́ɛ́s esíáì. The officer (boss) is sacking people who are working. (Pk). The meaning is related to erasing writings in a book.
en-jutét Nom sg: en-jútèt. Acc pl: in-jutétà. Nom pl: in-jútètà. n. Eraser. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní ajút ɛmpáláí ɛnyɛ́ tɛ̀ jútèt. The boy is erasing his letter with an eraser. (Pk). See: a-jút ‘To rub, erase’.
en-jútórè Nom sg: en-jutoré. n. Erasing. See: a-jút ‘To rub, erase’.