A - a

a   Letter representing the Maa low back unrounded vowel phoneme /a/. LING: The phoneme /a/ is neutral with regard to Tongue Root Harmony and may occur in words with vowels that are either Advanced Tongue Root (+ATR): enkolópà 'poisonous centepede'; or Non-Advanced (Retracted) Tongue Root (-ATR): ɔpá 'long ago'. /a/ blocks leftward spreading of the +ATR feature from +ATR vowels to its right, and remains /a/: ɛnyámù 'cattle theft'. However, when vowels to its left are +ATR, /a/ in suffixes (cf. a-sʉj-akɨ́ [INF.SG-follow-DAT] 'to follow s.o.') is replaced by +ATR /o/: a-bik-okí [INF.SG-wait-DAT] 'to wait for s.o.' This argues that it patterns as a back vowel. In some words, /a/ in suffixes is replaced by -ATR /ɔ/ when the preceding vowel is /ɔ/; a-ɨrɔr-ɔkɨ́ [INF.SG-say-DAT] 'to greet s.o.' Also see note at -án Nominalizer for stative verbs.

a- (+ replacive LH tone)   inf. Singular infinitive prefix, indicative mood. Indicates that the subject of a string of verbs is singular. Káɨ́tókì alotú. I'm coming back. (lit: I will repeat to move back to the point of reference.) (S). Ɨ́gɨ́rà aló adúŋ inkírí apéj. You are going to cut meats to roast. LING: The singular infinitive generally imposes a LH tone pattern over the entire verb, regardless of any other affixes on the verb. It links to the right-most edge of the verb and spreads left, resulting in a L(L)H pattern. However, there are some infinitive verbs which do not have H just on the end, such as atʉdʉ́mʉ̀ 'to jump up and down (subjunctive).' Hamaya (1993) analyzes a string of finite + infinitive verb forms as a serialization construction. This construction expresses a wide range of semantic relations. Two especially prominent semantic relations are Purpose: Ɛshɔmɔ́ aɨtarɛ́. 'He has gone to escort s.o.' (W); and and Aspect: Ɛgɨ́rà aɨtarɛ́. 'He is escorting s.o.' (W). See: áà- Plural infinitive prefix.

a-1   nmlz. Nominalization prefix. LING: Generally co-occurs with a nominalizing suffix, as in ɔl-a-rány-ànì [MSG-NMLZ-sing-NMLZ.AG] 'singer'. But compare ɨl-a-ŋen-i [MPL-NMLZ-clever-PL] 'wisemen'.

a-2   Variant: e-. Nom sg: á-. pn.b. Third person singular verb prefix for relative clause; 'that', 'which', 'what', 'who'. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aiseyieseyíé ɛnkáɨ́ n-a-ɨrʉ́rà. The child is shaking the other one who is sleeping. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí aɨrrʉŋʉrʉ́ŋ n-á-ɨ́rʉ̀rà. The child who is sleeping is snoring. (Pk). LING: Prefix tone agrees with case of the head noun. However, if a relative clause modifies a subject head noun but is displaced from that noun, it may take the Accusative tone. Compare (i) and (ii): (i) Ɛgɨ́rà ɛndáà nátií emotí aisamisú. 'The food that is in the cooking pan is getting rotten.' (ii) Ɛgɨ́rà kʉ́lɛ̂ áàìsàmìsù natíi olkúkúrí. 'The milks are going bad that is in the calabash.' (lit: It is going the milks to become bad that is in the calabash). Further compare third person relative clause [èntókì nàjò] 'something that says' (W), with first person: [èntókì nájó] 'something that I say.' (W). See: aá- Plural pronominal prefix in relative clause; n- Relativizer for feminine nouns; l- Relativizer for masculine nouns.

á-1   pn.b. Dialect variant of third person bound pronominal prefix. Kákè áɨ́tɔrrɔ̂k nɨ́ncɛ̀. But they are bad. (C). See: ɛ̀- Third person bound pronominal prefix.

á-2   pn.b. First person singular verb prefix, indicating no object (if verb is intransitive), or a third person or plural object (if verb is transitive). Ásɨ́ŋɨ́tà. I am sneezing. (W). Áɨ́pótítò. I am calling him/her/it. (W). LING: Rasmussen (2001) analyzes the first person singular prefix as underlyingly toneless a-. However, a High tone typically appears on this prefix due to High-spreading from the right.

á-3   inf. Singular infinitive prefix, subjunctive mood. Used following a-jó when it has sense 'to try'. Néjò á-ɨ́rɔ́rɔ́kɨ. He tried to greet him. Órè ɛnâ nàjò á-ípidoki ajó áɔ́ny When it tried to jump to bite. See: má- Subjunctive mood prefix.

á-4   mood. Marker of politeness, preceeding the second person pronominal verb prefix ɨ-. (A) examples with á- are polite, regardless of intonation. Á-ɨ́-dɔl ajó (k)áɨ̀m ɛntɛ́mátá. You will see that I will pass the exam. [polite] (W). Á-ɨ́-rá ŋáí? (May I ask) who are you? [polite] (W). LING: Preceding examples with á- are polite regardless of intonation. By contrast, the following are either neutral in politeness, or are threats, challenges, commands, meant to shame s.o., or responses to opposing presuppositions. For example, if the addressee had previously said the speaker would amount to nothing, the speaker might respond: Ɨ́dɔ́l ajó áɨ̀m ɛntɛ́mátá. 'You will see that I will pass the exam' [neutral or rude]. Ɨ́rá ŋáí? 'Who are you?' [neutral or rude]. Ɨ́rá ŋáí íyìè peê kímpááya? 'Who are you to send me to get it?' [rude]. (W) The politeness prefix does not occur on non-second person forms: *áɛ́dɔl. See: má- Subjunctive mood prefix.

-a1   Variant: -o. voi. Nonperfective Middle voice suffix. Derives an intransitive verb, typically with Patient as Subject. The primary uses are:

1 • Where the Agent is not conceptualized as part of the process or action. Ɛgɨ́rà taá nɨnyɛ́ ɔlcánì aun-ó. The tree is getting planted.

2 • Resultant state. Néjò "Eé, kɛ́sɨ́p-à taá." He said, "It is true.".

3 • Reflexive action.

4 • Reciprocal action. Usage: pl subject. áààsàkìn-ò To cooperate, work together. LING: This non-perfect(ive) suffix can co-occur with the plural subjunctive (identical to the plural perfect(ive)) suffix -at/-ot in subjunctive contexts: Nɨ́mɨ́kɨ́ncɔ̂ aké nɨnyɛ́ méínepunotó. 'We don't let them meet each other.'. See: -ɛ̀ Perfective Middle suffix.

-a2   Variant: -o. nmlz. Nominalizer, with Middle sense. en-túm-ò [FSG-find-NMLZ] meeting.

-a3   num. 1 • Singular or singulative suffix for certain nouns. Compare ɛm-búátá 'gap between front teeth' vs. ɨm-búát 'gaps between front teeth'.

2 • Plural suffix for certain nouns. Compare ɛ-máál 'dewlap' vs. ɨ-maalá 'dewlaps'. LING: See Dimmendaal (2000) on number suffixes in Nilo-Saharan languages.

-a4   Variant: -o; . In some suffixed forms: -ak, -ok. asp. 1 • asp. Perfect/perfective aspect suffix, used with singular subject. In some contexts it yields the sense of past time, though it is not a tense affix (König 1993). LING: For Class I verbs, -a(k) co-occurs with prefix tV- (V represents any vowel). Class II verbs take -a(k) but omit tV-. The variant -o(k) occurs with +ATR roots: Átóókò kʉlɛ́ naaɨ́sʉkʉ̂t. 'I drank the milk that is sour.' (W). The variant -a(k) occurs with underlyingly -ATR verb roots like bʉl 'grow', though in the following there is dissimilation to +ATR due to the /ʉ/+/a/ combination: Nɨ́dɔl ajó etubúlua inê. 'You see that the child has grown there.' If the stem vowel is -ATR /ɔ/, -ɔ(k) may occu Áatɔnyɔ̂ ɨláɨ́sʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ́. 'The black ants bit me.' (W).

2 • mood. Subjunctive mood suffix. Used in imperatives, after modal auxiliaries (Hamaya 1993), etc. LING: The subjunctive suffix co-occurs with a tV- prefix on for Class I verbs, parallel to its use in the perfect/perfective aspect function: Táŋàsà tóòrò oltírén linó. 'First sweep your own floor.' Class II verbs lack the tV- prefix, and instead have distinct imperative person prefixes: Ɛ́yakákɨ̀ kʉlɛ́ naɨ́tɔkɨ́tɔ̀k. 'Bring milk that is still bubbling.'.

-a5   Variant: -o. In some suffixed forms: -ar, -or. dir. Verb suffix indicating direction away; thither. Néshuko, nélò aké, fu:nɛ́ʉtarɨ́. He went back, he just went, and he was shown the way. See: -áà Away.

a kɨ́tɨ̀   Plural repeated action: áá kʉ́tɨtɨ́. adv. Slowly. Shɔ́mɔ̀ a kɨ́tɨ̀. Go slowly. (W). Táàsà esíáàì inó a kɨ́tɨ̀. Do your work slowly. (Pk) [The work is done just once.]. Táàsà esíáàì inó áá kʉ́tɨtɨ́. Repeatedly, do your work very slowly. (Pk) [The work is done multiple times, each time slowly.]. Téjò áá kʉ́tɨtɨ́. Say it slowly repeatedly. (Pk).

aá-   Nom pl: áa-. Variant: aa-. pn.b. Third person plural prefix in a relative clause which modifies a feminine noun in the accusative case; Class I verbs. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛntásât ajút ɨnamʉ́kà naáàtà entérít. The woman is wiping shoes that have dust. Ámaâ kɛ́kʉlɛ́ naáropîl íyíéú anáà kɛ́kʉlɛ́ naáɨ́sʉkʉ̂t? Do you like fresh milk, or unfresh milk? (lit: Well, (is it) milks that are frothing you like or milks that are sour?). Ekébikóò intókìtìn pɔ́ɔkɨ náaramát ɨlɔ́ɔpɛ̂ny. All things that their owners care for last long. Nónokûâ ntamesí náàpùò nkárɛ́. There are the camels that are going for water. (SN). Ɛgɨ́rà kʉ́lɛ̀ náatií ɔlkúkúrí áàìsàmìsù. The milk that is in the calabash is going bad. LING: When tone on the verb stem is Falling, then the tone on aa- is Low: Ɨnkɨláni naagôl enkínyaŋá eishopítò ɔlkársîs. 'It is expensive clothes that the rich man is wearing.' Nílo arɛʉ́ inkíshú naarâ uní 'And you go and find about three cows.' (lit: And you go and drive here cows that are three.) Other instances of Low tone include: ɨnaajó iróreí ɔ́ɔ̀ɨ̀kɛ̀nà 'what the numbered words say'. Nélo atúm ɨrɔ́nkɛ́nà naayɨ́ɛ́r átɛ́ 'He went and found fried (pieces of) meats that were cooking themselves.'. See: a- Singular third person relative clause pronominal prefix; ɔɔ́- Masculine third person plural in a relative clause; n- Feminine or Place relative clause prefix.

áa-   pn.b. Pronominal prefix on verbs indicating third person subject and first person object (inverse). Áapɨ̂k ɛntásât ɔlcaní ɛnkɔŋʉ́. The woman will put medicine in my eye. (W). LING: See Payne, Hamaya & Jacobs (1994) for discussion of the Inverse nature of Maa bound pronominal prefixes. If the subject is 3PL and the aspect Perfect(ive), a HLF replacive tone pattern occurs on the verb: Áatɔɔnyɔ̂ ɨláɨ́sʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ́. 'The ants (sp.) bit me.' (W) Áatɨpɨkâ oreyíét. 'They put me in the river.' (W).

áá-   pn.b. Pronominal verb prefix for first person sg. subject plus second person sg. object (inverse). Á́áɨ́rɔ́rɔ́kɔ ŋolé. I greeted you yesterday.

áà- (+ replacive HL tone)   inf. Plural infinitive prefix, indicating that the subject of a string of verbs is plural. Máapɛ́ aké níkìpùò áàdùŋùdùŋ ɨlɛ́nyɔ́k lɔɔ́ ɨlkɨdɔŋɔ́ lɔɔ́ isirkôn. Let's just go to cut into pieces the donkeys' tail hair. LING: The plural infinitive is used following an impersonal passive, demonstrating that the "passive" comes from the third plural impersonal subject suffix -ɨ́ (Greenberg 1959): Etooshóki ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá áàrɛ̀ʉ̀ atûâ enkúé. 'He was hit so that his skull was bashed in.' Etápéjókì kʉnâ naaígàrà áàtùmòkì. 'The rib-meats have been nicely roasted.' (W) The plural infinitive generally imposes a HL tone pattern over the whole verb regardless of any other affixes on the verb (a few suffixes do trigger a non-Low tone at the end of the word). The HL word pattern links at the left-most edge of the verb and spreads Right, resulting in a HL(L) pattern. See: a- (+ replacive LH tone) Singular infinitive prefix.

-áà   Variant: -óò; -ɔ́ɔ̀. dir. 1 • dir. Motion-away verb suffix; thither. Órè peê ɛakʉ́ kɛ́báɨ́kɨ ɛnkáŋ, nɛ́ɨ́lanyáà ɛnkâŋ. When he was just about to reach the home, the home went (running) away (from him). See: -a Direction away; -árì Away plus Middle; -óyìè Away.

2 • asp. Distributive or iterative action verb suffix. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní aɔrɔɔ́ ilkuóò. The boy is feeding the lambs. Áasʉjáà. It follows me every day. (W). Ábíkóò tené i. I'll be staying around here (e.g. for the holidays). (SN) ii. I'll live forever. (K Pk). LING: The Bari 'motion away' suffix is -ara/-oro (TM 1955:150), suggesting that Maa -áà has deleted an /r/. The form -ɔ́ɔ̀ occurs after roots with -ATR vowel ɔ.

áâ1   v.s. Be, is. Ɛ́tɔ̂n áâ ɛnɔɔ́ lɔɔ́ɨ́bɔr ɛnkɔ̂p... (When) the land was still for the Europeans... Nɛ́dʉmʉ́nyɛ̀ áàpùò ɛnadúóó áàyà enáíshó najî ɛsɨrɛ́t ɛ́ nkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀, áâ kʉnâ lɛ́ .... They rise up to go to that home to take beer that is called marker-of-the-stomach, and it is these milks [introduced earlier] .... Ɛ́táá doí apá tásàt ɛldɛ̂ áyíóní imeékure áâ bíyòtò. That boy is disabled, he is no longer healthy. (Pk). Órè oshî táatá nɛ́taá intáirí eishopí, imeékure áâ ɨnamʉ́kà oólonítò anáá apá. These days people wear tire sandals, not leather sandals like before. (Pk). LING: áâ surfaces as [àà] within a phrase. It occurs in cleft constructions in n-áà or n-aá form. See: a-rá To be; a-akʉ́ To become (Inceptive); taá Became (Perfect(ive)); naá Cleft particle.

áâ2   Variant: áà; aá. inter.dem. Feminine singular interrogative determiner; which, what. Áâ kɛ́ráí? Which child? Ɛshɔmɔ́ inkíshù árè ɛmpárɛ̂t kákè mayíólò ajó áâ taá nabô náshɔmɔ́ atúà olêŋ. Two cows have gone to the shamba, but I don't know which one has gone way inside [the shamba]. LING: When initial within its clause, áâ (or its predictable tonal variant àà) occurs. When initial but prefixed with the connective k[H]-, which has a floating H, the form káà occurs: (K)áà kɛ́ráí ɛná? 'Which child is this?' Káà íló ajó? 'What will you go and say?' When following the verb (e.g. as in an echo question), aá occurs: Ítéjò aá? What did you say? [e.g. I did not hear you clearly] (W). Íjó aá íyie? What's up? (lit: You say what?) (W). See: álɔ̂ Which (masc sg)?; ákúâ Which (pl)?; Pronouns-Interrogatives.

áà ŋáí   Who?

áâ áɨ́nyɔ peê   [West]: aaínyɔ peê. inter.adv. 1 • Why? Áâ áɨ́nyɔ peê iyeúó ɛnkají áí? Why did you come to my house? Aaínyɔ peê iyeúó ɛnkají áí? Why did you come to my house? (W). Áâ áɨ́nyɔ peê ɨshɔmɔ́ Karen? Why did you go to Karen? See: áɨ́nyɔɔ What, Why?; ɨnyɔ́ɔ́ What?.

áá kʉ́tɨtɨ́   adv. Slowly (of plural or repeated actions). See: a kɨ́tɨ̀ Slowly; máákʉ́tɨtɨ̀ Slowly.

l-aá lasá [North]   n. [North] Termite mound. See: [North] l-asá Termites; [North] l-cuú Termite mound.

áâ taá   [àà tàá] That is, in other words, "i.e." Einósua ɔláyíóní ajó e émúóyíáà inkíshù, áâ taá emoyíán oó mbénék. The boy has reported that the cows are sick, that is, (by) the disease (caused by eating) of leaves. (W). Emúóítà olóíŋóní, áâ taá ɨ́lɔ̂ láréú sikónì tááisérè. The bull is sick, that is, the one I will take to the market tomorrow. [Implies there are several bulls.] (W). LING: There are two homophonous expressions áâ taá [àà tàá]. The first, 'in other words', shown in this entry, does not vary for gender or aspect; compare the preceding examples. In this expression, taá is apparently not syntactically necessary. Its inclusion implies that there is a set of items, out of which one is relevant. The second, 'which has/which was', contains the perfect(ive)/subjunctive form taá 'be' plus the feminine interrogative demonstrative áâ. In this second expression, áâ alternates with the masculine interrogative demonstrative álɔ̂.

ááí   Nom sg: aáí. pn.psr. My. motí ááí [mòtí ! ááí] my pot (SN). Átúmò rrarrátì é motí aáí natarrárrɛ̀. I obtained a piece of my pot that got shattered. (SN).

ɛn-áàì   Mine. Ɛɨtʉ́ étûm ɛnkɛráí áí ɛndáà; ɛátà ɛnáàì ɔlɔɨrɔ́bɨ̀ My child did not get food; mine has a cold. (KS). See: áí My.

aáɨ́nyɔ   See: áɨ́nyɔɔ Why?.

áàjò   [South]: áájó. comp. Form of complementizer used after a plural-subject main verb; that. Nɨ́kɨ̀dɔ̀l áàjò oróréí lɛ́ tɨ́pàt. We saw that it is an important (valuable) word. (C). LING: The complementizer form ajó, which derives historically from the singular infinitive a-jó 'to say', may also be used in plural contexts. See: ajó That; a-jó To say.

áákʉ́tɨtɨ́   adv. Slowly (of plural or repeated actions). See: áá kʉ́tɨtɨ́ Slowly (of plural or repeated actions); máákʉ́tɨtɨ́ Slowly.

l-aamáràtɛ̀ [North]   [North] Nom sg: l-áámáràtɛ̀. n. [North] Wall inside the house that partitions rooms. See: ol-iaatúà Wall that partitions rooms in a house.

l-aánkamíníŋì [North]   [North] Nom sg: l-áankamíniŋí ??. n. [North] Wiseman. See: ɔl-áŋéní Wiseman.

n-aápò [North]   [North] Nom sg: n-áàpò. [North] Acc pl: n-aaponí. [North] Nom pl: n-áaponí. n. [North] Small area in the center of l-orórà for the old men to rest, discuss concerns, and pray. Ideally a fire is kept burning there day and night. See: bɔɔ́ Area outside of the house; l-orórà [North] Village; o-sínkírá Hut for girls.

ɔl-aárànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áarani. Acc pl: ɨl-aarák. Nom pl: ɨl-aarák. [North] Acc sg: l-aaránì. n. 1 • Beater, attacker.

2 • Murderer.

3 • [South] Defender, soldier. In A this word generally has a bad connotation, implying a pugnacious person. See: a-ár To beat, kill; ɔl-árànì Murderer; ɔl-arábànì [South] Beater, attacker.

aárè   Variant: ɔárè; ɔáárè. Nom pl: ááre. [North] Nom pl: wáàrè. num. Two (masculine). Ɛátà enkínè ɨláɨ́rákúj aárè. A goat has two kidneys. Órè ɛ́ɨ́rrɨ́tâ inkíshú népónú ɨlmʉ́rrân ááre. When they are looking after the cows, two warriors came. ɨlŋatunyó ɔáárè two lions (W). Kɔ́ɔdɔ̂ kʉlɔ́ párrùà wáàrè. These two palm trees are tall. (SN). Etym: PN *aRe 'two' < Kir-Abb *àré 'two' < PNS *a 'n/adj deriv pref' + *ré or *re 'cut in two'. See: aré Two (feminine).

ol-aásànì   Nom sg: ol-áásání. Acc pl: il-aasák. Nom pl: il-aasák. [North] Acc sg: l-áásànì. [North] Nom sg: l-áàsànì. [North] Acc pl: l-áàsàk. [North] Nom pl: l-áàsàk. n. Worker, doer, one who does. Olaásànì ɔ́âs ɨnyɔ́ɔ́? Ólóyíèr ɛndáà. What does this worker do? He cooks food. Ɨ́ra olaásànì otíi kʉnâ kíshú, anáà ɨ́ra ɔlɔpɛ́ny? Are you a worker herding these cows, or are you their owner? This term does not necessarily imply that the worker is paid, but the worker is clearly not working for himself. See: a-ás To do; ɔ-sɨnká Servant; ɔ-rrɨ́ndɨ̀k Slave; ɔl-áɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rànì One who makes.

ɔl-aasɨ́   n.sg. Job. Usage: slang. This word originated when Maasai people began looking for paid jobs. See: ɔl-kásì Job; en-kiás Work, deed.

aashʉ̂   [South]: arashʉ̂. conj. 1 • Alternative conjunction: or. May join noun phrases or clauses; often follows ɔ. Tɛ́gɛlʉ́ enkishúì ɔ̀ aashʉ̂ kɛɛ́yà. Choose between life or death. Tɛ́gɛlʉ́ enkishúì aashʉ̂ kɛɛ́yà. Choose between life or death. (W). Shɔ́mɔ̀ áŋ ɔ̀ aashʉ̂ ɔlɔɨnyaŋɨ́. Go home or to the market. Shɔ́mɔ̀ áŋ aashʉ̂ ɔlɔɨnyaŋɨ́. Go home or to the market. (W). Áításhe ɔ̀ aashʉ̂ atɔ́n. I will stand or sit down. Shɔ́mɔ̀ ɔ̀ aashʉ̂ ɨtɔ́n. Go or stay.

2 • At least.

aashʉ̂ aké   Unless (as in a threat). Aashʉ̂ aké teníló sukúùl nɛ́mɛ́àpòk. Unless you go to school, I will cane you. (lit: Unless you go to school, I will not cane you.) (W). Syn: arakɨ́ Or. See: arashʉ̂ Or; aná Or; anáà Or else.

aauí   Variant: áuûî. interj. Exclamation for help, especially used by women and children; help!

ɔl-abáàì   Nom sg: ɔl-ábaáì. n.sg. [North] Species of tree with a very bad smell. The leaves are boiled to make a tea for washing newborns. The sap is used to remove chiggers. The tree has bright green leaves and crimson-colored flowers. It is common in Samburu, but is also known by some in Arusha.

ɔl-abáai ɔ́ɨ́bɔr   ɔl-ábáì that has grown in the bush with tall trees, allowing less sunlight and thus giving a lighter color. compositae; microglossa pyrifolia.

ɔl-abáai ɔ́rɔ́k   ɔl-ábáì that has grown in the open areas, where lots of sun makes them dark. compositae; psiadia punctulata (DC) Vatke.

ɔl-abáai lɛ̀ partulo   Subspecies of ɔl-ábáì. compositae; conyzanewii, or microglossa Eliotii.

ɔl-abáànì   Nom sg: ɔl-ábáání. Acc pl: ɨl-abaák. Nom pl: ɨl-ábáák. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-abaák. [North] Acc sg: l-ábáání. n. 1 • Male healer or doctor for people or animals. He may perform surgery, may pray for people to get well, and may undo witchcraft. Traditionally he works from his home, waiting for those who come for treatment. He has acquired his position by virtue of effectively doing such work, and his work is life-long. Ɛ́tábáá ɔlábáání ɛnkɛ́ráí namúéí. The doctor has treated a sick child. Ɔlabáànì ŋolé láaɨshɔɔ́ lɛ́lɔ̂ keék. It is the doctor who gave me those medicines.

2 • God, as 'the Spirit who heals my soul'. Usage: Christian. Ɛ́támáyíáná ɔlábáání iyíóók aɨshɔ́ ɛncán sápʉ̀k tɛlɛ́ árî. God has blessed us to give us a lot of rain this year.

3 • [North] Ceremonial leader who goes first in letting people know how a ritual is done.

ɛnk-abáànì   1 • Female healer or doctor; she may bless women in order to conceive and bear children. She works from her home, waiting for those who come for treatment. She is believed to have acquired her skills from God, and thus has a high position in society.

2 • Female nurse who helps in a hospital.

3 • Unqualified doctor; "quack" Usage: contemptuous.

4 • Young doctor. See: e-sístáí Nurse; ol-oibónì Diviner; ɔl-kʉ́yántíkí Self-proclaimed healer; enk-aitóyìònì Midwife; enk-áíkònì Medicine woman; a-ishíú To recover, heal; ɔl-dákɨ́tárrí Doctor.

ɔl-abáì   Variant: ɔl-abaai. Acc pl: ɨl-aábàì. Variant: ɔl-abaa. n. 1 • Type of plant with shiny green leaves and yellow flowers. Mol (1996:2) notes there are several subtypes of this plant, including:

ɔl-abáì ɔɨbɔr   compositae, microglossa pyrifolia.

ɔl-abáì ɔrɔk   compositae; psiadia punctulata.

ɔl-abáì lɛ partulo   Sth. that is not enough. compositae, conyzanewii, or microglossa Eliotii.

abárànì   Nom sg: ábárání. Acc pl: abarák. Nom pl: ábárák. adj. 1 • The quality of a person who does things in the correct or perfect, ordered way. Ɛ́ɨ́rɔ̀ ɔltʉ́ŋání ábárànì. The correcting person talks. (W). Ɛɨrɔ́ ɔltʉ́ŋání ábárání. The careful person talks. (W). Ɔltʉŋánì abárànì ɛnarikíno néyìèŋ enkérr. A very careful person should be the one who slaughters the sheep. [S.o. skilled at slaughtering is very careful in dividing the sections of meat according to the muscle and connective tissue lines.].

2 • The quality of being highly observant and noting details; able to distinguish things (particularly physically); careful, thoughtful. This implies some kind of intellectual "brightness". Kéyíólou ɔltʉ́ŋání ábárání ɨntaré ɛnyɛ́na. The observant person will be able to identify his sheep. Kákè abárànì oshî olójî Kishoyíán keyíólou inkíshú ɛmɛ́nyɛ. But the one who is named Kishoyian is well-able to distinguish his father's livestock from others. (Pk).

ɔl-abárànì   n. 1 • A patient, careful person who does things with perfection; a highly observant person who pays attention to details.

2 • [North] A person that keeps a large group of animals perfectly, so none have escaped or been killed.

3 • Thoughtful person, thoughtful man. See: a-barakɨ́ To do carefully; to do with much thought and time; árriyíá Skillful.

ɔl-abárnònì   Nom sg: ɔl-ábárnóní. Acc pl: ɨl-abarnók. Nom pl: ɨl-abarnók. [North] Acc pl: l-abarnôk. 1 • Barber, shaver, shearer. LING: Mol notes the noun is irregular with suffixes -oni (sg), -ok (pl), not -ani, -ak, as expected. Usage: rare (in K). Among the Samburu, every wife is l-abárnònì. Mɛbárnɨshɔ ɔlábárnóní kɛwaríé. A barber does not shave at night.

2 • Professional barber. Traditionally, this is a person who performs religious rituals (though not Christian).

3 • [West] Someone who gives new names, e.g. a pastor. Usage: Christian.

ɛnk-abárnònì   Someone who decorates women for dancing.

ɔl-ɔbárnɨshɔ   The one who shaves; barber. See: ɔl-arónyònì Shaver, barber; a-bárn To shave.

ɛn-abɛlɨ́   Nom sg: ɛn-ábɛlɨ́. Acc pl: ɨn-aábɛlɨ́. Nom pl: ɨn-áabɛlɨ́. n.r. 1 • Sth. to be broken.

2 • Sodium bicarbonate. Used with chewing tobacco. Ɛɨtʉ́shʉlɨ oshî ɛnabɛlɨ́ ó embolíê áàɨ̀shɔ̀ inkíshú. Sodium bicarbonate is mixed with salt lick to give to cows.

3 • Large salt chunk, which can be licked by animals. Big chunks of salt are always split into small pieces before use. This is a rather poetic use of the word, and might be used so children wouldn't understand. See: shímpì Salt. Syn: ɛ-mʉnyán Salt; ɛn-aɨsʉ́kʉ̀t Salt; ɛ-makát Salt. See: em-bolíêî Salt lick; a-bɛ́l To break; rock back and forth.

ɔl-abíkònì   Nom sg: ɔl-abikoní. Acc pl: ɨl-abíkók. Nom pl: ɨl-abikók. n. 1 • Inhabitant; someone who has stayed for a long time in an area. Ilabikók ɔpɛ́ny enkóp óotomitó étúrrí ilcóròì. It was the inhhabitants who refused the wells to be dug. (Pk).

2 • One who remains; remnant. Órè apá peê eidʉ́rrɨ̀ nɛ́ɨ́ŋʉarɨ́ olabikók. [nɛ́yŋʊ̀àɾɪ́] When people left, it was the remainers who were left. (Pk).

3 • [South] Temporary resident. See: a-bík To stay, remain.

ábílâ   n. teníjo táatá áɨ́ŋɔ̀r ɨ́nâ ábílâ ɔɔ́ ltʉ́ŋáná when you try to see those people.

ɛnk-abobókì   Nom sg: ɛnk-ábobókì. Acc pl: ɨnk-abobók. Nom pl: ɨnk-ábòbòk. n. 1 • Piece of bark from a tree. Eitáyíó ɛnkáyíóní ɛnkabobókì tɔ̀ lcánì. The boy has removed the bark from the tree. enkabobókì ó sókêt bark of the osókêt tree (W). Enkabobókì ó lcaní ótóyíó ɛyáka Kérínâ kokoô ɛnyɛ́ méínokíé ɛnkɨ́má. It is a dry piece of bark from a tree that Kerina took to his grandmother to use for firewood. Órè tɛnɨ́ntáyù enkabobókì tì órìòŋ ɔlcaní náà éísidai tɛnɨ́kɨnyʉ́ enkopitó. When you remove a piece of bark from a tree, it is good to remove the white inner side of it. (Pk).

2 • [South] Scar. Usage: perjorative. Ɛitáa emuoyíán ɔltʉŋánì ɛnkabobókì. The sickness has made the person emaciated. LING: ɛnk-abobókì is a countable noun. See: en-kiporôî Scar; enk-opitó Strap; gum on inner side of bark; e-sipisípí Gum on stripped tree; n-kasotókì [North] Bark.

ɛn-ábóóí   Nom sg: ɛn-abooí. n. Sp. of wild plant which not used for anything. Cows generally don't eat it, but it is not poisonous to them. Grows in places where water deposits silt. Plant of the potato family. The above-ground stalks of the plant have a star-shaped leaves or "heads" with seven narrow points. (Mol 96.002). solanaceae; datura stramonium. Ɛbʉlʉ́ ɛnaboóí tɛ̀ olmúùàtɛ̀. Datura grows in a deserted home. See: ɛm-pálèkì Datura; ɔl-mʉrʉ́nkʉ́ì Irish potato; ol-gisóyiaî Type of edible root.

abóri   Nom sg: áborí. [North] Nom sg: ábori. n.r. 1 • Underneath. Etíi ɛnkáyíóní abóri ɔlcaní. The boy is under the tree. abóri ɛ mɨ́sà under the table. Órè oshî ɨntɔná ɔɔ́ lkeék némélìò amʉ̂ abóri ɛnkɔ̂p etíi. The roots of trees are not seen because they are underground. (Pk).

2 • Below; at a lower level; lower regions. Etíi olówuarú márâ abóri ɔlásʉ́ráí. The leopard is below the snake. (W). Etíi inkíshù abóri ɔldóínyíó. The cows are at the foot of the hill. (Pk). Elóíto ɔlpáyìàn abóri ɔlkɛjʉ́. The man is going downstream. Ɛshɔmɔ́ enkítòk abóri ídíà áŋ. Doris has gone down to that home. Ɛshɔmɔ́ abóri olêŋ. He has gone too far down. Etíi ɛnkáyíóní abóri ɛnkápʉ́nɛ́ The boy is inside the cave (at the bottom of the cave). LING: This is a "relational noun" because it has some nominal properties: it occurs in a genitive constructions, and can follow the preposition tɛ̀. However, it does not take a gender prefix, and can precede a N with no genitive linker between. Ant: shʉ́mátá Up, above, on top of. See: a-doyíó To drop down.

ol-abúáànì   Nom sg: ɔl-ábúáání. Acc pl: ɨl-abuáák. Nom pl: ɨl-ábúáák. [West] Acc sg: ol-abúànì. n. 1 • Shouter (e.g. seller of wares on the street; elder who rebukes loudly).

2 • Barker (e.g. a dog).

3 • [South] Person specialized in removing children's front teeth.

enk-abúáànì   Female remover of teeth; shouter. See: a-búák To shout, bark.

ɔl-abʉrrâ   Nom sg: ɔl-ábʉrrâ. Acc pl: ɨl-abʉ̂rr. Nom pl: ɨl-ábʉ̀rr. n. 1 • Foam, froth. Etupúkuo ɔlábʉrrâ tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k é nkíné. Foam has started coming out of the goat's mouth. ɔlabʉrrâ lɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ froth of the milk. ɔlabʉrrâ lɛ̀ nkárɛ́ foam of the water. Eitáyio oldîâ ótookó oldíîp ɨlabʉ̂rr tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k. The dog that drank acaricide has discharged froth from the mouth.

2 • [South] Disease that causes foaming.

3 • Grass sp.

a-ác [North]   v. 1 • [North] To get stuck in the throat.

2 • [North] To cause a brief delay.

3 • [North] To pinch snuff.

a-acʉ́ [North]   [North] To pinch a bit of snuff.

l-ácɛ̀rɛ̀ [North]   Nom sg: l-ácɛ́rɛ̀. n. [North] Maggot. See: ɔl-áshɛ́rɨ̀ Tick; ɔl-mársáŋùà Maggot.

ɔl-adakɨ́tà   n. 1 • Food.

2 • Food dish. See: ɛn-dáà Food; a-daá To eat, feed, graze.

ɔl-adakíté   Nom sg: ɔl-ádakíté. n. Food; food dish. Syn: ɛn-dáà Food. See: ɔl-dákéí The eating.

ɛnk-adaláwùò   Nom sg: ɛnk-ádaláwùò. Acc pl: ɨnk-adalawuoní. Nom pl: ɨnk-ádalawuoní. n. 1 • Small piece of wood or bone worn around the wrist and fastened with a small string, meant to protect the wrist from being hit with the string of the bow when shooting an arrow. Ɛ́tɛ́ɛ́ná ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkadaláwùò tɛ̀ nkaɨná. The man has tied a wrist protector on his hand.

2 • A small bracelet, perhaps of beads, for decoration. See: ɛ́n-kɨ́rɨ́nâ Bracelet.

ɔl-adalʉ́   Nom sg: ɔl-ádalʉ́. n. 1 • Heat, warmth.

2 • Hot season, when the heavy rains do not occur, i.e. September to about the end of January or February.

3 • January; a month in the Maasai calendar, approximately coinciding with January-February, which are the hottest months over much of Maasailand. (However, the meaning of such specific month(s) is not uniform throughout Maasailand, because climactic conditions differ from highlands to lowlands.).

5 • [West] Sth. that gives out light very strongly (e.g. sun). See: a-dál To scorch; ɔl-árì Rainy season.

adé   adv. 1 • Later in the day, presently. Elotú ɔlpáyìàn adé. The man will come later on today. Máapé tɛnákatá peê mɛ́ɨ́ŋátàà iyíóók adé. Let us go now so that he does not miss us in the evening. (Pk). Kipúó adé. We will go later.

2 • Later.

adáke   Etym: adé aké later just.1 • Later.

2 • Later in the day. Ant: dúóó Earlier today. See: tɛnákatá Immediately; tááisérè Tomorrow; kɛnyá Later on in life.

ɛn-adédè   Acc pl: ɨnaádedé. n. Truth, the truth. Éjó oshî ɨltʉŋaná ɛtɔ́n èìtù epíú Yésúù kákè kórè ɛnadédè etopíwúó ɔpá olêŋ. People always think that Jesus has not resurrected, but the truth is that he resurrected a long time ago. (W). Éjó oshî ɨltʉŋaná meishiunyékì ɔltʉŋánì lóloirírùà, kákè eishíúnyékì. Kórè ɨnaádedé náà: kɛ́rɨkɨ́ sipitálì, kɛ́rɨkɨ́ oloibónì, ashʉ̂ eomonokiní. People think that a mad person will not be cured. But he can be cured. The facts are: he can be taken to hospital, he can be taken to a magician, or he can be prayed for. (W). Usage: adede has the sense 'to be true', 'truthful', or 'to be right'; while ɛsɨ́pátá conveys the idea of 'truth'.. LING: adédè has a more restricted syntactic use than ɛsɨ́pátá. See: asɨ́pànì Truthful; ɛ-sɨ́pátá Truth.

ɔl-ádítárí   Nom pl: il-áditariní. n. Doctor. Ɛkɛ́púóí áàùd inkɛ́rà tááisérè iláditariní. Children will be vaccinated (injected) tomorrow by doctors. (Pk). See: ɔl-dákɨ́tárrí Doctor.

a-adɔ́   Variant: a-ɔdɔ́ [North]. In some suffixed forms: adɔr. v.s. v.s. To be saliently extended in one dimension; be tall (e.g. of a person, many animals, tree); be long (e.g. of a snake, stick, length of tape). Ɛadɔ́ ilméutîn áàlàŋɨltʉ́ŋáná. Giraffes are taller than people. (K)áaadɔ̂ enkítòk. My wife is tall. (Pk). (K)áaadɔ̂ inkítùààk. My wives are tall. (Pk). Ɛáta Námʉnyak ɨlpápɨ́t ɔáadɔ. (from ɔɔ́ adɔ) Namunyak has long hair. Kíáádɔ́ enkúme. Your nose is long. Ɛadɔ́. He is tall. Mɛadɔ́. (Often pronounced [mɛ̀ɛ̀dɔ́].) He is not tall. ɔltʉŋánì ɔ́ádɔ́ a person who is tall. ɔlɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ a tall/long (masculine) one. ɛnáádɔ́ a tall/long (feminine) one. Kɔ́ɔdɔ̂ kʉlɔ́ párrùà wáàrè. These two palm trees are tall. (SN).

2 • v.s. To be long in time. ɛnkátá náádɔ́

3 • v.s. [North] To be distant in location.

a-ɨtɔɔdɔ́r   To make long; lengthen.

a-adorú   To become extended in one dimension; become tall, become long. In some suffixed forms: adorun. Ɛadóru ɔlcáni. The tree will become tall. Áádórù. I will become tall. Kɛ́bʉlʉ́ olcánì aadorú. The tree will grow to be tall. Ɛgɨ́ra olkérèrì aadorú. The queue is growing long. Etɔɔdɔ́rɨtâ ilóipí lɛ́ nteipa. The shadows of evening have lengthened. ilkeék áádórú trees that are tall. LING: This is a relative clause marked by á-. See: ɔl-ɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ kɨrragatá Giraffe; ɛ-náá́dɔ́ kʉtʉ́k Big meat-eating bird.

il-Adoín   n. Baraguyu, Paraguyu; pastoral Maa-speaking people in Tanzania. See: ɨl-Parakúyò Baraguyu tribespeople; o-lúmpuaní Ethnic group.

ɛnk-adɔ́rɨ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-ádɔrɨ́. Acc pl: ɨnk-ádor. Nom pl: ɨnk-ádôr. [West] Acc sg: ɛnk-adɔ́rɨ. n. Height, tallness; length, longness. Kórè peê iló ɔlcámpà íyakákɨ̀ olmíwà lɔátà ɨ́nâ adɔ́rɨ. [ɨ̀nà àdɔ́rɨ] When you go to the garden, bring me a sugar cane of that length. (W). Nɛ́kɨ́nɔ́s ɛnkadɔ́rɨ. We discussed (the topic of) height/length. (W). LING: Some (W) will only use the singular form of this word, even in contexts where a plural idea must be understood: ɛnk-adɔ́rɨ ɔɔ́ nkɛ́rà height(s) of the children (W). LING: Other nominaliztion forms do not work for this root in W (kk), aside from relative clause formations: *ɛndɔrɨshɔ, *ɛnkadɔrɔ́n, *ɛnkadɔrán; but ɛnáádɔ́ / ɔlɔ́ɔ́dɔ́ 'the one who is tall'.

tɛ̀ nk-ádɔrɨ́   Extended temporal period. Nékinós taá tɛ̀ nkádɔrɨ́. We had a lengthy discussion. (lit: We discussed for a long time.) (W). Nékinós taá tɔɔ́ ɨnkádɔrɨ́. We had a lengthy discussion. (lit: We discussed for a long time.) (W). LING: Length in time only is understood when tɛ̀ is present. See: a-adɔ́ To be long, tall.

adúáànì   Nom sg: ádúáání. Acc pl: aduaák. Nom pl: áduaák; ádúáák. [West] Nom sg: adúànì. adj. 1 • Keenly observant. This need not refer to a permanent characteristic.

2 • The quality of being visionary, prescient, having foresight. A blind person could be adúáànì in this sense. Etódúá Kɨ́mɛ̀lɨ̀ ajó kégol ɛntɛmatá. Náajokí ɨ́sʉmá ɛmátùà è oŋúán. Nɛ́kɛ̀nyʉ̀ kíâs ɛntɛ́mátá. Nájó ádɔ́l, kórè ɨmbáà kúmòk néíŋúàà ɛmátùà è oŋúán. Ɛnyɔrrɨ́kɨ̀ (ɔl)adúáànì Kɨ́mɛ̀lɨ̀. Kimeli felt the test would be hard. Then he told me I should read chapter four. The following morning we did the exam. When I tried to observe [during the exam], a lot of questions came from Chapter Four. I discovered Kimeli has foresight.

ɔl-adúáànì   n. One who can predict the future but does so without using magic; an observant, perspicacious, or prescient person; a visionary, a seer. Ɔladúáànì aké ɔ́ɨ́dɨm atodúà entókì naisudórò. It is only a keenly observant person who can see a hidden thing. See: a-dɔ́l To see; ɔl-arrípònì Watchman; ol-oibónì Ritual expert.

ɔl-adúŋònì   Nom sg: ɔl-ádúŋóní. Acc pl: ɨl-aduŋók. Nom pl: ɨl-ádúŋók. n. 1 • S.o. who cuts; cutter. Etuuróyìè ɔládúŋoni ɔlcaní. The cutter has felled a tree.

2 • Divider, one who divides sth. Etuduŋókitô átɛ́ ɨladuŋók ɛnkɔ́p néíŋúàà kʉlɨ́kaɨ tʉŋáná. The people who demarcates land have apportioned land for themselves and left other people.

3 • S.o. who subdivides the loot, especially cows obtained from a raid among the warriors who went for them. Ɛ́́túdúŋó ɔládúŋóní inkíshú néíŋúàà kɛwán. The divider has divided the cows and left himself (without any).

3 • S.o. who harvests wheat, maize etc. that is characterised by cutting down the whole plant before getting the grain; harvester.

4 • Attacker.

ol-adúŋònì lɛ́ nkɨgúɛ́nà   Judge, one who decides the case. See: a-dúŋ To cut.

ɔl-adúóó2   Nom sg: ɔl-adúóó. Acc pl: ɨl-adúóó. Nom pl: ɨl-adúóó. n. Previously-mentioned participant or participants. Néínyotótò oladúóó mʉrraní. The previously-mentioned warrior woke up. Népùò áàsàì ɛnadúóó títo. They go to finish betrothing the previously-mentioned girl. Nɛ́dʉmʉnɨ́ ɛnadúóó ayíónì. This previously-mentioned young boy was picked up. Ɛshɔmɔ́ oladúóó áyíóní kɛ́rɛ́rɛ̂ arrarrʉ́ imbúkuí tɛ̀ kábât. That slovenly boy has gone to knock all the books out of the cupboards. (W). See: Pronouns-Demonstratives; dúóó Earlier.

adúùm [North]   Nom sg: ádùùm. Acc pl: aduumí. Nom pl: áduumí. n.f. [North] A tree species used for forage and fence building. Salsola dendroides.

ɔl-aɛ́nànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɛ́nání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɛnák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɛ́nák. n. 1 • One who ties.

2 • A person who is like a "middleman" between ordinary people and the supernatural; typically his or her actions involve tying charms (which are not put on animals but are put on people). Alternatively, it could involve other actions such as spitting; sorcerer. Ɛ́́tɛ́ɛ́ná ɔláɛ́nání inkíshú naɨ́mɨnâ peê mɛ́nyá. ilowuarák. The sorcerer has tied the lost cows so that the beasts will not eat them.

ɛnk-aɛ́nànì   Female sorcerer. See: a-ɛ́n To tie; ɔl-kʉ́yántíkí Sorcerer.

l-ágɛ́sànà [North]   Nom sg: l-agɛsánà. Acc pl: l-ágɛ́sànàk. Nom pl: l-agɛsánàk. n. [North] Skin skirt, made by women. The skirt is usually red. See: yóopè Skirt; ɔl-ákɛ́sɛ́nà Skirt that women put on, typically "purple" in color.

ɔl-agúɛ́tànì   Nom sg: ɔl-ágúɛ́tání. Acc pl: ɨl-aguɛták. Nom pl: ɨl-ágúɛ́ták. n. 1 • Carpenter. Eitáyíó ɔlágúɛ́tání olórika tɔɔ́ nkɨ́pɛrat ó lɛrai. The carpenter has made a chair from the wood of an acacia tree.

2 • Someone who carves things out of wood or stone; carver.

3 • [North] Uninvited guest at a meal. See: a-gúɛ́t To whittle.

áí1   [moras as áy, +ATR]  Nom sg: âî (moras as [ây]). Acc pl: áinéí (moras as [áìnéy]). Variant: áinêî. Nom pl: áinéí (moras as [áìnéy]). Variant: áinêî. pn.psr. First person sg. possessive pronoun: belonging to me. LING: If the possessed item is masculine, áí takes the prefix l-. A: Káà kɛ́ráí ɨ́gɨ́rà aɨmakɨ́? B: ɛnâ áí. A: Which child are you referring to? B: This one of mine. Ádɔ́lɨ́tà enkitók áí. I see / am seeing my wife. Káló aparán laláshɛ̀ láí. I will go visit my brother to ask him for help. (SN). Ɛadɔ́ enkítòk âî aláŋ enkitók inó. My wife is taller than your wife. Emúéítà ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ âî. My cow is sick. (W). Kɛ́ɛdɔ́ oláyíóní lâî. My son is tall. (Pk). Ádɔ́lɨ́tà inkitúààk áinéí. I see my wives. (Pk). Ádɔ́lɨ́tà inkíshú áinêî kúmòk tɔ̀ ldoinyó. I am seeing my many cows on the hill. (W). Kɛ́ɛdɔ́ iláyìòk láinéí. My sons are tall. (Pk). Kɛ́ɛdɔ́ iláyìòk láinêî. My sons are tall. (W). Kɛ́nyɔ́rɨ̀ ɛnkɨ́lâ âî ayíá ánàà eninó. [ɛ̀ŋkɪ́lá ! áɪ́ àyyá] My cloth is green like yours. (Pk). Ɛnaáí. It's mine. See: Pronouns-Possessive.

ɛnk-áí2   [ɛŋkáí, two moras at end]  Nom sg: ɛnk-aí. Acc pl: ɨnk-aítìn. Nom pl: ɨnk-áìtìn. n. 1 • God, as expressed in either a religious or everyday context. God is thought of as one who gives life, creates, is kind, is a provider and is in control of all things. Traditionally, ɛnkáí is the god of the mountains and rivers. Ɛɨtáyíó ɛnkaí shʉ́mátá ɔ́ ɛ́nkɔ́p. God has created heaven and earth. Áatɨpɨká ɛnkaí ɛntábóí. God has put me into trouble. Though ɛnkáí can only take feminine grammatical gender, at least some Maasai appear to conceptualize God as masculine.

2 • Sky. The Maasaɨ refer to the sky as a dwelling place for God. Etíi ɨnkátàmpò ɛnkáí. The clouds are in the sky. Ɛgɨ́rà airowuajú amʉ̂ ɛ́ɨ́pɨ́rá ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ ɛnkáí. It is becoming hot because the sun is high up in the sky. (Pk) (lit: It is becoming hot because the sun is facing the sky.). See: képér Sky; shʉ́mátá Above, sky. Ant: ɛn-kɔ́p The ground, earth.

3 • Moderate to heavy rain. Some Maasai communities associate the rain with God in the sense that God is the provider. Kínotitô ŋolé ɛnkáí sapʉ́k. Yesterday we got a lot of rain. Eéwuo ɛnkaí. The rain has come. See: ɛn-cán Rain.

ná-aí!   Oh God! Commonly used in prayers and blessings.

ɛnk-áí nárɔ́k   The sky.

ɛnk-áí nányókíé   the red god.

ɨnk-áì   n.pl. 1 • Suppletive plural of ɛnk-áwùò, referring to a bow, or to the wooden part of a bow with ɛmpító (bow string) removed.

2 • Wooden bows without bow strings, carried as symbols of peace. See usage note on plural variants under ɛnk-áwùò.

áî   [áy]  [North] Acc sg: éí-. 1 • interj. Introductory particle. Néjokí apá ɔlápʉ́tání, "Áî káyieu apá inkíshú." The father-in-law tells him, "Now I want my cows.". Ká àì etíi? Where is it? (Pk).

2 • inter.prt. Interrogative particle for certain polar ("yes/no") questions. (K)áî iyíé ɔ́shɔmɔ́ ɔlkɛjʉ́ádɔ́? [(K)áy ìyyé] Is it you that has gone to Kajiado? (W). (K)áî nɨnnyɛ́ ɔ́shɔmɔ́? Is it him/her that has gone? (W). LING: The word is normally not said without something following it, so it surfaces as [áí] or [àì]. LING: v:áî optionally allows the k- prefix with no discernable change in meaning. It does not allow the n- prefix.

(ɛnk-)áɨ́2   [one mora áy, -ATR] Variant: káɨ́. Nom sg: (ɛnk-)âɨ̂. n. 1 • Another one (fem), the other one. (ɛnk-)áɨ́ Another (W). Eéwùò ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. Néítókí alotú ɛnkáɨ̀ aɨgɨ́l. This cow came. Then another one came also. (W). Ájó áípótù meéù ɛnâ shótó ó lgûɛ̂ nɛ́arárì aló ɛnkáɨ́ shótó. I tried to call him to come to this side of the road; then he kept on going towards the other side. intapʉ́kà aré sikíto sapúki ɔ́ ɛnkáɨ́ kɨtɨ́ olêŋ [wɛ́nkáɪ́] two big yellow flowers and another very small one. Órè ɛná titó botór nɨnyɛ́ apá nágɨrá anapɨnáp ɛnkáɨ́. This older girl was the one caring for the other. Káló ayaʉ́ ɛnkáɨ́ amʉ́kɛ̀ amʉ̂ nɛ́ná ɛnkáɨ́. I am going to get the other shoe because one is here. Nárɛ́ʉ́ mɛtáaratá ó loiŋónì lɛ́ndà káɨ́ áŋ. I drove it to fight together with the bull of the other family. (W). A: Ílótú tááisérè? B: Á'a. Kákè kálótú áɨ́ ɔlɔ́ŋ. A: Can you come tomorrow? B: No. But I'll come some other day. (W). nk-áɨ́ párrî another day (SN, S). áɨ́ ɔlɔ́ŋ another day (K Pk S KS) another day. ...ɔ mɛtábâ ánàà nélotu pápaí lɛ́nyɛ̀ áɨ́ ɔlɔ́ŋ. ...until their father came another day.

2 • Feminine Indefinite demonstrative pronoun; another (feminine thing).

3 • Place gender indefinite pronoun; another (place). ai wueji another place. LING: This is like a demonstrative pronoun, as it can occur before nouns, except it takes a gender prefix like a noun. In this respect it shares properties with kɨ́tɨ́ 'small'. LING: v: Ɛnk-áɨ or just áɨ́ occur before feminine, dimunitive and place nouns, while, lɨkáɨ̀ occur before masculine nouns. See: Pronouns-Indefinite; lɨkáɨ Other (masc); kulîê Others.

ɛnk-áí pʉ̀s-ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀   n.prop. God of mercy. Pʉ̂s ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ cannot be used to refer to a human-being, and is strictly reserved for God.

aɨ́ashʉ̂   conj. or.

1 • Alternative conjunction; or. Tɛ́gɛlʉ́ enkishúí aɨ́ashʉ̂ kɛɛ́yà Choose between life or death.

2 • At least.

3 • Unless. Syn: arakɨ́ Or. See: aashʉ̂; arashʉ̂ Or.

ɔl-áɨ́bártànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨbártànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́bártàk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨbártàk. n. Male initiate; one who has just been circumcised, who is not yet a warrior, or who is waiting for school to re-open. ɛlɛ̂ áɨ́bártànì this initiate (W). Ɛtabarnákɨ ɔláɨ́bártànì mɛtáà ɔlmʉ́rránì. The (male) initiate was shaved to be a warrior. ɨnkayîôk áâ ɨláɨ́bártàk boys (who) are new initiates. This term refers to the healing time after circumsion, when the initiates are still sick or dirty, and are not fit to walk openly. From the time they are circumcised until the ceremony when the intiates come out, they wear skins, do not cut their hair, or take baths. During this time, the initiates will go killing birds as part of their training. The feathers are used for decoration. Formerly this period may have lasted up to a year, in the bush, during which time certain training occurred. Modernly the period of time lasts about a month because of school terms. Also, because there is not enough "bush", the initiate may opt to stay at home. Traditionally women were not allowed around the ɨl-áɨ́bártàk. Traditional male initiates will wear black dress, womens' coiled breast-rings, and isurútia, a headress of stuffed birds. Female initiates are also dressed in black, let their hair grow, and wear ɔl-márisíán lɔɔ́ sɨkɨrá, a decorated band of cowrie-shells and beads around the head. The term can be used as an insult for s.o. who has already passed this stage, implying that the person is incompetent, childish, etc.

ɛnk-áɨ́bártànì   1 • Female initiate; one who has just been circumcised and is still in seclusion but not yet married, or is waiting for school to re-open. After circumcision, there is a period of several months when the girl heals in her mother's home before she is married. The female initiate is not supposed to see, or be seen, by men, but should stay in seclusion.

2 • [North] A circumcised girl who is married but has not given birth. The difference in meaning by dialect is because the custom is different: Samburu women are married as soon as they are circumcised, before they are healed. See: a-ɨbárt [North] To watch over; e-sípólíóí Initiate; ɔl-bárnótì Shaved initiage.

l-aibelâî [North]   Nom sg: l-áíbelâî. n. [North] One of the protruding bony structures on a humans ankle. See: ɛ-nauré kokóyò Bones on sides of ankle; e-múrt ɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Ankle; ol-ouré kokóyò Ankle; ɛ-rʉ́bátá ɛ́ nkɛjʉ́ Ankle; ol-oidólokî [South] Ankle.

ɔl-áɨ́bɛ́lɛ́kɛ́nyànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨbɛlɛkɛ́nyànì. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨbɛlɛkɛnyák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́bɛlɛkɛnyák. n. Interpreter; changer. ɔláɨ́bɛ́lɛ́kɛ́nyànì lɛ́ nkʉ́tʉ́k Translator/ interpreter of the language. See: a-ɨbɛlɛkɛ́ny To turn.

ɛn-áíbón   Nom sg: ɛn-aibón. n.sg. 1 • Magic, divination, or prophecy of ol-oibónì, which is manifested in the form of a cure, a curse, or an explanation. ɛnâ áíbón [ɛná àìbòn] this magic (W). Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlmʉ́rrán oloibónì áɨ́ŋɔrʉ ɛnáíbón peê èpùò enjóré. The warriors have gone to the magician to look for advice so that they can go for raids. (i.e. to find out the success of upcoming raids).

2 • Witchcraft. When ol-oibónì prepares ɛn-áíbón as a treatment for disease or a curse, he mixes herbs together and give them to his patient. See: a-ibón To perform office of ritual expert; ol-oibónì Prophet; e-sakutét Witchcraft; ɛ-sákùtòrè witchcraft; ɛ-sɛtán Witchcraft; [North] n-gurúpòrè Witchcraft.

ɔl-aibónì   Nom sg: ɔl-áíbònì. Nom pl: ɨl-áíbònòk. Acc pl: ɨl-áíbònòk. n. Diviner, sorcerer, witch doctor. See: ol-oibónì Diviner.

ɔl-aibóònì   Nom sg: ɔl-áíbóóní. Acc pl: ɨl-aiboók. Nom pl: ɨl-áíbóók. n. S.o. or sth. that prevents, in a very general sense. ɛlɛ̂ aibóònì this protector (W). Órè ɛlɛ̂ shaní náa ɔlaibóoni lɛ́ muoyíán. This medicine is the preventer of disease. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkáyíóní aibók inkíshú peê méítókì áàpùò osérò. The boy has gone to prevent the cows from going into the forest. See: a-ibók To prevent; a-ibón To foretell.

ɛnk-aɨdáshɛ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-áɨ́dashɛ́. Acc pl: ink-aidáshèn. Nom pl: ink-áídashén. n. Shoe. Usage: colloquial (K); archaic (W). Tɔrrɔ́nɔ́ ɛndá áɨ́dashɛ́. That shoe is bad. Ɛtʉ́mʉ́sánɨtâ kʉndâ áídashén olêŋ. Those shoes are very old. LING: The plural is apparently the most common form, even though it appears to carry a suffix. See: ɛn-amʉ́kɛ̀ Shoe.

l-aidélokî [North]   n. [North] Elbow. See: ol-oidólòl Elbow.

ɔl-áɨ́dɛ́tɨ́dɛ́tànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨdɛtɨdɛ́tànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́dɛ́tɨ́dɛ́tàk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨdɛtɨdɛ́tàk. n. 1 • One who dreams and is able to make correct predictions from the dreams; prophet. Ɛɨdɛtɨdɛ́tua ɔlaɨdɛtɨdɛ́tànì ajó kélotú olámèyù. The dreamer has dreamt that famine will come. See: ol-oibónì Magician.

2 • One who talks about dreams, hopes, or desires without actually acting upon them. Usage: contemptuous. Ɔláɨ́dɛ́tɨ́dɛ́tànì Kónené amʉ̂ eyíéú nɛakʉ̂ olbúnkéí. Konene is a dreamer because he wants to be a member of parliament. (W).

3 • One who dreams while asleep.

n-áɨ́dɨ̀k ɔ́ ltàʉ̀ [North]   Nom sg: n-áɨ́dɨ́k ɔ́ ltaʉ. Acc pl: n-áídikí ɔɔ́ ltaʉjá. Nom pl: n-áídikí ɔ́ɔ̀ ltaʉjá. n. [North] Soft part on the front of the neck. Syn: ɛn-áɨ́ŋàŋ ɔ́ ltaʉ The soft part on the front part of neck. See: ɔl-táʉ́ Heart.

ol-aidólòkì [South]   [North] Acc sg: l-aidólòkì. Variant: ol-oidólokî. Nom sg: ol-aidólokî. Acc pl: il-aidólòk. Nom pl: il-áídòlòk. n. [South] Ankle. See: [South] ol-oidólokî Ankle; e-múrt ɛ́ nkɛ́jʉ́ Ankle; ol-ouré kokóyò Ankle; ɛ-rʉbatá ɛ́ nkɛ́jʉ́ Ankle; [North] l-aibelâî Ankle.

ɛn-aɨdʉ́rrà   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́dʉ̀rrà. Acc pl: ɨn-aɨdʉrrarritín. Nom pl: ɨn-áɨ́dʉrrarritín. [West] Acc pl: ɨ-naáɨ́dùrrà. [West] Nom pl: ɨ-náàìdʉ̀rrà. n. Migration, a shift from one place to another along with one's belongings. Ɛ́tápálá apá ɨlMaasáɨ́ ɛnaɨdʉ́rrà peê édúŋí ɛnkɔ́p ɛnyɛ̂. The Maasais did away with migration after their land was demarcated. The Maasai traditionally shifted from one place to another, depending on the season, searching for green pastures and water for their livestock. Sidaîn ɨnáàìdʉ̀rrà. Migrations are good. (W). kʉndâ naáídʉ̀rrà these migrations (W). See: a-ɨdʉ́rr To migrate. Syn: ol-orórà Big gathering of people; big migration.

en-aigárà   n. Diaphram. See: [South] ɛ-rapátɛ̀ Diaphram.

ol-aigéetíâî [South]   Nom sg: ɔl-áígéetíâî. Acc pl: ɨl-aigéetíá. Nom pl: ɨl-áígéetíá. n. [South] Tale. Kɛ́nyɔr ɨnkɛ́râ nɛ́ɨ́nɔsakɨnɨ́ ɨlaigéetíá. Children like it when they are told stories. Syn: ɔ-lɔɔ́nkukuuní Tale. See: ɛnk-atiní Tale.

ɔl-aigúánànì   [North] Acc pl: l-aigwanák. n. Leader who has been formally appointed (traditionally, or within the Kenyan system of government). See: ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Leader; ɔl-aríkònì Leader.

ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áígúɛ́nání. Acc pl: ɨl-aiguɛnák. Nom pl: ɨl-áígúɛ́nák, ɨl-aiguɛnák. n. 1 • Traditional life-long leader of an age-set who advises members of his age-set, arbitrates disputes, and presides over meetings or ceremonies. Ɔlaigúɛ́nànì óíguɛnákɨ̀ olpórrôr lɛnyɛ̂. The leader of an age-set is the one who counsels his age-set. Ɛátà ɔláígúɛ́nání inkíshú. The chief has cattle. This person is articulate, eloquent, is able to make his points in a very understandable and convincing way, and can give wise advise.

2 • An official appointed by the government to keep law and order in a designated location; chief. Ɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋá ɔláígúɛ́nání ɨltʉ́ŋáná ɔɔ́taarátɛ̀. The chief has arrested the people who fought. There are two kinds of chiefs, either a Maasai "chief" or a government chief. A Maasai "chief" is the leader of his own age-set. Typical qualities of a Maasai chief are eloquence in speech, a strong character, and a sound body. A government chief is appointed by the Provincial Administration of Kenya. His role is to keep law and order at his designated location (which is a part of a larger territory administrated by the government).

3 • Judge.

4 • [North] Person who leads in a meeting, giving wise advise and leading the group to decisions. This term may be used of a person who exercises this ability in a given meeting regardless of formal cultural or governmental position. See: a-igúɛ́n To take counsel; ol-otunó Age-set leader; ɔl-arɨ́shànì Judge; ɔl-áíkúmúnònì Judge; ɔl-aríkònì Leader.

ɨnk-áɨ́k   n.pl. Hands. See: ɛnk-áɨ́ná Hand.

ol-áíkámpáí   Nom sg: ɔl-aikampáí. Acc pl: ɨl-aikámpà, il-aikámpan. Nom pl: ɨl-áíkampá. n.prop. Kamba tribesman, Mkamba. The Kamba are one of the larger ethnic groups of Kenya. Their homeland borders on traditional Maasailand in Kenya, covering both the Machakos and Kitui administrative districts to the north and north-east of Kajiado District, Kenya. Etym: < Swahili? Kamba Kamba.

enk-áíkámpáí   Female Kamba person. See: [West] ɔl-Kámpáí Kamba tribes' person; ol-óŋúí Nickname of the Kamba people.

áɨ́kátá [North]   adv. 1 • Ever, never. Mɛyɨɛŋɨ́ áɨ́kata ɔlkɨ́tɛ́ŋ lɛ́mɛ̂ sɨnyátì tɔɔ́ ntálèŋò. An ox which is not sacred (of one colour) could never be slaughtered for sacrifice. (Pk). Ɛɨtʉ́ áɨ́kata áɨ́kata nanʉ́ aló ínê. I have never ever been there. (Pk). Órè ɔltásháláí laáíjo ɛlɛ̂ németum áɨ́kata inkíshú amʉ̂ ɨmɛɨŋɔ́rʉ̀. A lazy person like this can never get cows because he does not look for them. Ítódúà áɨ́kata oldóínyó lɛ̀ Kilimanjárò? Ɛadɔ́ oshî! [ɛ̀àdɔ́shɪ̀] Have you ever seen Mt. Kilimanjaro? It's tall! (W).

2 • Other time.

3 • [North] Ever again.

4 • [North] At some indefinite time in the past or future.

ɔl-áíkípìànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aikípìànì. Acc pl: ɨl-aikípìàk. Nom pl: (ɨ)L-aikípìàk. [West] Nom pl: (ɨ)Láikípìà. [láìkípyà, with two initial moras, one final mora] Variant: ɨ-Laikipíák. 1 • n.prop. Laikipia (ɨl-Aikípìà) Maasai person. Usage: Normally used in the plural to indicate a Maasai section. The singular indicates one individual of that section.. Éló ɔl-Akípìànì. The Laikipia person will go. (W). Épúó Laikípìàk. The Laikipia people will go. (W). Kɛ́ɨ́bá apá ɨ-Sámpʉ̂r ɨl-Áíkípìàk. The Samburu used to hate the Laikipia. The Il-Aikípìàk were one of the original ol-oshô (major units of the Maasai). During the internecine wars around the middle of the 19th century they were terribly defeated and routed by a combination of other il-oshôn (Maasai units), notably the Il-Purko. Numbers of Il-Aikípìàk Maasai are still found among the Il-Wuasinkishu Maasai and the Il-Purko Maasai. Their last home was on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya.

2 • n.pl. Place where the Laikipia Maasai live. Káló ɨláíkípìàk. I am going to the land of the Laikipia people. Álóítò Laikípìà tááisérè. I am going to Laikipia tomorrow. (W). Sídáí Láikípìà olêŋ. Laikipia is very beautiful. (W). See: Laikípìà Laikipia plateau; ol-oshô Plateau; Maa section.

ɔl-áɨ́kɨ́tálànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨkɨtálànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áíkɨ́tálàk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨkɨtálàk. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨl-aikɨ́tàk. n. 1 • One who spies on a community or scouts out surroundings, e.g. before a raid on a village or before deciding where to move to. ɛlɛ̂ áɨ́kɨ́tálànì this spy (W). Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlaɨkɨtálàk áàlèèn ɛnkɔ́p oó ɨlmaŋáti. The spies have gone to scout out the land of the enemies.

2 • [South] Child born not from his or her father.

3 • [North] Wiseman. Syn: ɔl-áírénkésònì Spy. See: a-leén To scout.

enk-aíkònì   Nom sg: ɛnk-áíkóní. Acc pl: ɨnk-aikók. Nom pl: ɨnk-aikók; ɨnk-áíkók. n. Traditional female healer. Sídáí ɛná áíkònì. This traditional female healer is good. (W). Sidaîn kʉná aikók. These traditional female healers are good. (W).

ɔl-áɨ́kɔ́paní   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨkɔ́pànì. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔp. Nom pl: ɨl-ɔ́ɨ́kɔ́p. n. Murderer. Kɛ́sɨ́nyáyù ɔlɔɨkɔ́paní ɔ́talaá inkíshú ɔɔ́ nkɨrɔ́. A murderer who has paid the compensation for murder becomes blameless/holy. (Pk).

ɔl-aɨkɔ́shʉ́àànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨkɔshʉ́àànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́kɔ́shʉ́ààk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨkɔshʉ́ààk. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-áɨ́kɔ́shʉ́àànì. n. Person who is greedy for food; glutton. ɛlɛ̂ áɨ́kɔ́shʉ́àànì this glutton (W). See: a-atá ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ To be greedy; a-ulú To eat heavily; a-ɨsɛpɛ́ To be greedy, gluttonous.

ɔl-aɨkɔ́shʉ́àànì-túrúáí   Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́kɔ́shʉ́àà-túrùà. n. Lazy person; lazy-bones. See: a-ɨsɛpɛ́ To be greedy, gluttonous.

ɔl-áíkúmúnònì   Nom sg: ɔl-aikumúnònì. Acc pl: ɨl-aikumunók. Nom pl: ɨl-áíkumunók. n. 1 • Judge.

2 • [North] Person who incites, goads, provokes. See: a-ikumú To judge; ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Judge; ɔl-arɨ́shànì Judge.

ɛn-áíkútí   n. Cut of meat eaten by a group of women together. ɛnáíkútí oelíékì entíto (-K) ɛnáíkútí with which the girl [who is being engaged] will be smeared. Kɛ́nyá oshî inkítùààk ɛnáíkútí Women eat ɛnáíkútí.

ɛnk-ailéerrî   Nom sg: ɛnk-áíléerrî. Acc pl: ɨnk-ailéer. Nom pl: ɨnk-áíleér. n. Egret.

l-ailéleê [North]   n. [North] Lower part of the leg, below the knee; foreleg. See: ɔl-ɔɨlɛ́lɛɛ̂ Foreleg.

ɔl-áɨ́lɛ́mɨ́lɛ́mànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨlɛmɨlɛ́mànì. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨlɛmɨlɛmák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́lɛmɨlɛmák. n. 1 • Noisy person; noise-maker; person who makes unnecessary noise by talking. Mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì oyíéú nɛ́tɔ̀n aininíŋ ɔláɨ́lɛ́mɨ́lɛ́mànì. No one would like to sit and listen to the noisy person.

2 • Insincere person who may talk and promise a lot of good things, but who is not genuine and has hidden motives; hypocrite. See: a-ɨlɛmlɛ́m To make noise by talking.

ɔl-áɨ́lɛ́pɨ́lɛ́pànì   Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́lɛ́pɨ́lɛ́pàk. n. A talkative person. See: a-ɨlɛpɨlɛ́p To talk a lot; ɔl-áɨ́lɛ́mɨ́lɛ́mànì Talkative person.

n-ailɔ́ɔn [North]   n.sg. [North] Dirtied water. Syn: ɛn-álɔ́ɔ́ Dirtied water. See: ɛnk-árɛ́ Water.

l-aimététérònì [North]   [North] Acc pl: l-aimététéròk. n. [North] Person who slanders others.

ɛn-áɨ́mɨ̀n   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́mɨ̂n. n.sg. 1 • Darkness. Tenédóyio ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ nélótu ɛnáɨ́mɨ̂n. When the sun sets, darkness comes.

2 • The state of self-imposed exile, where community members have no knowledge of the person's whereabouts. Usage: Figurative. Ɛɨtʉ́ ɛ́dɔ́lɨ́ entíto najî Wambúì tɔɔ́ ɨlarín tɔmɔn, amʉ̂ ɛshɔmɔ́ arém ɛnáɨ́mɨ̀n. A girl named Wambui was not seen for ten years, because she has gone into darkness. See: a-ɨmɨ́n To be lost; ol-misimísì Darkness; en-kwaríé Darkness.

ɔl-áímónkònì   Nom sg: ɔl-aimónkònì, ɔl-áímónkóní. Acc pl: ɨl-áímónkòk. Nom pl: ɨl-aimónkòk. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-áímónkoní. n. Liar, cheater. Etupurróyìè ɔláímónkóní inkíshú ɛɨ́kɨŋa, néjò ɛɨtʉ́ epurróò. The cheat/liar stole the cows that are not his, and he said that he did not steal. Étúpúrróyìè ɔlaimónkònì inkíshú ó lpayíán. The cheat/liar stole the man's cows. See: e-mónkóí A lie.

ɔl-áɨ́mówúárànì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨmowúárànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́mówúáràk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨmowúáràk. n. 1 • Deceased uncircumcised adolescent boy. This term may be used to avoid using the name of the deceased person. (W).

2 • An uncircumcised adolescent. Syn: [South] ol-kúlúí Young boy. See: ɛ-nɔɔ́sɨlân Girl who dies uncircumcised; ɛn-taŋátaŋâ Deceased old woman; ɛn-dɔ́rrɔ́p sɛ́sɛ̂n Deceased uncircumcised girl; ɔl-kɨmáɨ́tà Deceased uncircumcised boy.

ɛn-aɨmʉ́rʉ́àì   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́murʉ́àì. Acc pl: ɨn-aɨmʉ́rʉ̀à. Nom pl: ɨn-áɨ́mʉrʉ́á. [West] Acc sg: ɛnk-aimúrrúàì. [West] Nom sg: ɛnk-áímuruâî. [West] Acc pl: ɨnk-aimúrrúà. [West] Nom pl: ɨnk-áímurruá. n. Grass species; "Kikuyu" grass. Tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɨlɔ́ shámpâ amʉ̂ ɛtʉbʉ́laka ɛnkáímurruâî. That garden is not good because the ɛnkáímurruai grass has grown on it. (W). This type of grass spreads and thickly covers the surface of the ground. It has some burrs, and a lot of "branches". It typically grows in very fertile places, such as in old homesteads. Cows will eat it, but it is a big nuisance for agriculture as it spreads like a weed.

ɔl-áímútíáí   Nom sg: ɔl-aimutiáí. Acc pl: ɨl-áímùtìà. Nom pl: ɨl-áímùtìà. n. Reed. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlaimutiáí abʉlʉ́ tiátùà ɛnkárɛ́. A reed is growing in the water. Syn: o-séyíáí Reed.

ɛnk-áɨ́ná   Nom sg: ɛnk-aɨná. Acc pl: ɨnk-áɨ́k. Nom pl: ɨnk-áɨ̀k, ɨnk-áɨ́k. [Chamus] Acc sg: káɨ́nà. [South] Acc sg: káɨ́ná. n. Arm (from the shoulders to the fingers) of a person; includes the hand. Ɛɨbʉŋɨ́tà enkítòk ɛnkɛ́ráí tɛ̀ nkaɨná. The woman is touching the child with her hand. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ emboréɨ̀ ɛ́ nkáɨ́ná ɛ́ naɨsʉ́kʉ̀t. Give me a handful of salt. (Pk). Átárríê náakʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛnkainá. I fell down and my hand/arm became paralyzed/stunned. (W). An animal like a cow does not have ɛnkáɨ́ná. Etym: Proto-Lotuko-Maa *-kaɨn- 'arm/hand', from Proto-Eastern-Nilotic *-kaɨn- 'arm/hand' (Vossen 1982:326). Reanalysis of the root as , with singular suffix as -na and plural as -k apparently occurred in Proto-OngamoMaa..

áinêî   [North] Acc sg: áinén. First person possessive pronoun of plural items; of or belonging to me; my (plural possessed items). LING: If possessed N is masc., possessive pronoun may take prefix l-. inkúény áinêî aré sapúki my two big birds (W) (In this NP, any ordering of the last three words is grammatical as long as they follow inkúény. The possessive pronoun cannot appear before a noun.). Ɨnáainéí kʉná kɛ́râ. These children are mine. Ɨláanéí kʉlɔ́ kɛ́rrà. These rams are mine. Parts of the body usually do not take this possessive. LING: If the possessed item is masculine, the prefix l- occurs. Ɛ́dɔ́l ɨnkáɨ́k áinêî tááisérè. He will see my hands tomorrow. (W). Sidaîn ɨnkáɨ́k áinêî olêŋ. My hands are very good. (W). Ɨlmɔ́ŋɨ́ láinéí kʉlɔ́. These are my bulls. See: Pronouns-Possessives; áí My (sg item).

ɛnk-ainí   Nom sg: ɛnk-áíni. Acc pl: ɨnk-ainíto. Nom pl: ɨnk-áínìtò. [West] Acc pl: ɨnk-ainítò. n. Co-wife; a wife who shares her husband with one or more other wives. Enkitók bótór oshî náŋamʉ ɛnkainí tenérìkùní aŋ. It is the older wife who receives the co-wife when she is brought home (from her wedding). In traditional Maasai culture, the norm for a man, especially a wealthy man, was to have more than one wife; this tradition continues.

ɔl-áíníníŋònì   Nom sg: ɔl-aininíŋònì, ɔl-áíníníŋóní. Acc pl: ɨl-áíníníŋòk. Nom pl: ɨl-aininíŋòk. n. A listener. Etíi entúmò ɔlaininíŋònì ɔ́gɨra ɔ́ laininíŋònì ɔ́ɨ́rɔ̀. In a meeting there is a passive listener and an active listener (one who talks).

ɔl-áínyámoní   Nom sg: ɔl-ainyámoní. Acc pl: ɨl-áínyámôk. Nom pl: ɨl-ainyamók. n. 1 • Thief or eater involved in the act of ɛ-nyámù. Ɛɨtálakɨ ɔláínyámoní inkíshú naáudó tɛnɛ́nyà ɛnyámù. A thief will be fined nine cows if he is involved in stealing/eating. Stealing is considered a very serious crime; anyone declared to be ɔl-áínyámoní will be obliged to pay dearly for it.

2 • Traitor, either personally or nationally.

ɛnk-áínyámoní   1 • A (small) thief. Usage: derog.

2 • A female thief. Syn: ɔl-apúrrònì. See: ɛ-nyámù Theft.

áɨ́nyɔɔ   [West]: aaínyɔ. [North]: ányɔ̀. pn.inter. Interrogative question word: What? Who? Why? Káɨ́nyɔɔ ɛná? What is this? Káɨ́nyɔɔ ɔlápâ? What is the moon? Áɨ́nyɔɔ esidanó ɛ́ nkishón? What is the goodness of life? Káɨ́nyɔɔ nágɨrá aasayú? What is happening? Káɨ́nyɔɔ ɛná? [káɪ́ɲánà] What is this? Aaínyɔ ɛnná? What is this? (W -K). Káɨ́nyɔɔ ɨ́ásɨ́tà? What are you doing? Káɨ́nyɔɔ íáwua ŋolé? What did you bring yesterday? LING: When (k)áɨ́nyɔɔ is used alone as a complete question, it means 'What?', and depending on context it could be interpreted as 'What do you want?' or 'What has happened?'. LING: Áɨ́nyɔɔ includes the sense of 'why' in W, but primarily the sense of 'What' in K. Mol 96 007 notes that áɨ́nyɔɔ is generally preceded by k-. LING: Interrogative Pronoun Paradigm.

áɨ́nyɔɔ peê   Why?

áɨ́nyɔɔ peê   pn.inter. 1 • Why? Áɨ́nyɔɔ peyîê ilóítò? Why are you going? Aaínyɔ peê iló? Why do you go? (K -W). Néíkilíkùàn ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkɛ́ráí ajokí: aáɨ́nyɔ peê ɨntarrúóyìè? The man asked the child: "Why did you make a mistake?". Áínyɔɔ peê ɨ́ncɨ̀r? Why do you cry? Áɨ́nyɔɔ peê ɨyáʉ̀ imodíók ɛnkají? Why do you bring mud/dung into the house?

áɨ́ŋaɨ   pn.inter. Who (sg.). Káɨ́ŋaɨ? Who (is it)? Áɨ́ŋáɨ́ ɨlɔ̂? [áɪ́ŋáɪ́ ɪ̀llɔ] Who (masc.) is it? (W). Áɨ́ŋáɨ́ ɨnâ? [áɪ́ŋáɪ́ ɪ̀nnâ̂] Who (fem) is it? (W). See: Pronouns-Interrogative.

ɛn-áɨ́ŋàŋ ɔ́ ltáʉ́   [ɔ́ltàʊ̀] Variant: ɛn-áɨ́nàŋ ɔ́ ltáʉ́. Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́ŋâŋ ɔ́ ltáʉ́. n. Soft spot on front of neck. Syn: [North] n-áɨ́dɨ̀k ɔ́ ltáʉ́ Soft spot on front of neck. See: ɔl-táʉ́ Heart; a-ɨŋáŋ To pretend to hit.

ɔl-aiŋóiŋóì   Nom sg: ɔl-áíŋóiŋóì. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨŋɔ́ɨŋɔ́ɨ́. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́ŋɔ́ɨŋɔ́ɨ́. n. Type of worm that is only found in water. Kétíi ɔláíŋóiŋôî ɛnkárɛ́. There is a worm in the water. See: a-ɨŋɔɨŋɔ́ɨ́ To move slowly in a twisted motion.

ol-áíŋókònì   Nom sg: ɔl-áíŋókóní. Acc pl: ɨl-áíŋòkòk. Nom pl: ɨl-aiŋókòk. n. Sinner. See: e-ŋókí Sin.

l-aɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ lɛ́ mpɛrɛ [North]   n. [North] Spear head, point. See: ɛ-sɨ́pɨ́l Spear head.

ɔl-aɨŋʉ́rànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́ŋʉ́rání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨŋʉrák. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨŋʉrák. n. Watchman, one who watches. See: ɔl-arrípònì Watchman.

ɛn-áɨ́ŋʉ́rrɛ́   Nom sg: ɛn-aɨŋʉrrɛ́. Acc pl: ɨn-aɨŋúrria. Nom pl: ɨn-áɨ́ŋurriá. n. Chewing gum. Kɛ́ɨ́bʉ̀ŋ ɛnaɨŋʉrrɛ́ ɨnkɨlánì. Chewing gum sticks on clothes.

ɛn-aipidí   Nom sg: ɛ-náípidí. n.r n.sg. Beer. See: a-ipíd To jump.

enk-áípóóponí   Nom sg: enk-aipoóponí. Acc pl: ɨnk-áɨ́póopo. Nom pl: ɨnk-aɨpoópò. n. 1 • [Purko] Mushroom.

2 • Loved child. Usage: endearment. Táakʉ́ íyie ɛnkáípóóponí, nɨ́ákʉ̀ íyie olúmpuaní. You become the "loved child", and you become the Olumpuani cannibal. See: [West] ɛm-pɔ́ɔpɨât Mushroom.

ɛn-aipúkôî   Nom sg: ɛn-áípukôî. Acc pl: ɨn-aipúkò. Nom pl: ɨn-áípùkò. [Chamus] Acc sg: kaipúkóì. n. 1 • Wing. Etúá ɔlɔ́jɔŋánì amʉ̂ ɛtɨgɨ́lɛ̀ ɛnáípukôî. The fly died because its wing is broken. Ɛtɨgɨ́làtɛ̀ ɨnáípùkò olêŋ. The wings are very broken. (W). Ɛátà ɛntɛ́kɛ̂ ɛnaipúkôî sápʉ̀k. An aeroplane has a big wing. (W).

2 • Section of sth. Ɛɨmɨ́nɨ́tà ɛnáípukôî oó nkíshú. A section of cows is lost. (W).

ɛn-aipúkôî ó ldóínyó   Lower flank of a hill. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ inkíshù ɛnaipúkôî ó ldóínyó. [óldòynyò] The cows have gone to the section of the hill. (W). See: [North] nk-apúpôî Wing.

nk-aipúpôî [North]   n. [North] Wing. See: ɛn-aipúkôî Wing.

ɔl-áɨ́rákují   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨrákují. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́rákúj. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨrakúj. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-áɨ́rákúji. [West] Nom sg: ɔl-aɨrakúji. [North] Acc sg: arakújì. [Chamus] Acc sg: áírákújì. n. Kidney. ɔláɨ́rákují oshî ɛŋasɨ́ áànyà tɛnɛ́yieŋi enkíné. It is the kidney that is eaten first when a goat is slaughtered. Ɛátà oshî ɔltúŋánɨ ɨláɨ́rákúj aárè. A person normally has two kidneys. (W). Ɛátà ɨná kítòk ɛnkɛɛ́yà ó láɨ́rákúji. That woman has a kidney disease. (W).

ɔl-áírénkésònì   Nom sg: ɔl-airenkésònì. Acc pl: ɨl-airenkesók??. Nom pl: ɨl-airenkesók??. n. Spy. Syn: ɔl-áɨ́kɨ́tálànì Spy; ɔl-átálúnòni Spy. See: a-irenkés To spy.

ɔl-airúkònì   Nom sg: ɔl-áírúkóní. Acc pl: ɨl-airukók. Nom pl: ɨl-airukók. n. Believer. Órè oshî ɔlairúkònì pɔɔkɨ́ náà kéíshíákínó náà ɔltáʉ́ Sinyátì órikóò inkiasin ɛnyɛ́nà Every believer is supposed to let the Holy Spirit guide his action. (Pk). Ɛnkairúkònì Kónené ɛ̀ Kenyáttà. Konene is a believer of Kenyatta. See: a-irúk To believe.

l-airúpònì [North]   n. 1 • [North] Sorcerer.

2 • [North] Person who carries n-gurúpòrè for killing, etc. See: ɔl-ásákútònì Sorcerer.

ɔl-aɨrrágànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́rrágání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨrragák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́rrágák. n. 1 • Sleeper; e.g. one who comes from far away and spends the night sleeping in another's house before continuing on; one who sleeps in an area in order to do sth. Eg. A Narok resident might sleep in Nairobi for a night because he has to leave early the next morning by plane, and can't get all the way to Nairobi from Narok just before the flight. Or, one could be an ɔlaɨrrágànì in her office to wait for a phone call from Australia.

2 • Guard; watchman; s.o. who sleeps in a meat eating place, perhaps to protect it. He sleeps inside or outside the enclosure.

ɔl-aɨrrɨ́tànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́rrɨ́tání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨrrɨták. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́rrɨ́ták. n. 1 • Herdsman, shepherd. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɔláɨ́rrɨ́tání aɨŋʉrakɨ́ inkíshú ɨnkʉ́jɨ́t naányɔ̀rɨ́ naanyâ. The herdsman has gone to look for green grass for the cows to eat.

2 • Pastor, bishop. Usage: religion. See: ol-cekût Shepherd.

Il-Aisér   Nom pl: ɨl-Áíser. n.pl. Name of a Maasai clan, members of whom can be found across various "sections" Kúmòk il-Áíser olêŋ. There are many ɨl-Áíser. (W). This is a clan, distributed throughout various Maasai sections. Clan membership is inherited through the father, and one does not intermarry with members of one's own clan. Among the il-Wuasinkishu section, the oloibónì must come from the il-Aiser clan. All clan members put distinguishing marks on their cows. See: ol-oshô Section.

ol-áísérrí   Nom sg: ol-aiserrí. Acc pl: il-Aisér. Nom pl: il-Áíser. n. Person of the il-Aisér clan. See: il-Aisér il-Aisér clan.

ɔl-áísíààyìànì   Acc pl: ɨl-aísíáyìàk. n.pl. Worker, servant. See: a-ás To do.

ɨl-aɨsɨkák   n.pl. Refugees. See: a-ɨsɨ́k To run away.

aɨsɨ́nànì   Nom sg: áɨ́sɨ́nání. Acc pl: aɨsɨnák. Nom pl: aɨsɨnák. adj. Poor in wealth (livestock or money). Ɨmɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀m ɔltʉ́ŋání áɨ́sɨ́nání aɨnyɨ́áŋʉ̀ ɨnamʉ́kà naágolí ɛnkɨ́nyaŋá. A poor person cannot buy shoes that are expensive in price. Kárá aɨsɨ́nànì. I am poor. (SN). Káɨ́táà aɨsɨ́nànì. I will make you poor. (SN).

ɔl-aɨsɨ́nànì   n. A poor man. See: a-mɛná To be poor.

áɨ́sɨ́nánɨ̀shɔ̀   Nom sg: aɨsɨnánɨ̀shɔ̀. n.sg. The state of being materially poor, of lacking; poverty. Étómítíóko aɨsɨnánɨ̀shɔ̀ ɛ́lô aɨsʉmá. The state of being poor has prevented him/her from going to study. Áɨ́bá áɨ́sɨ́nánɨ̀shɔ̀ olêŋ. I hate poverty. áɨ́sɨ́nánɨ̀shɔ̀ is the cause of ɔ-sɨná. LING: This nominalization exceptionally does not take a gender prefix *ɔláɨ́sɨ́nánɨ̀shɔ̀.

aɨsɨ́pànì   Nom sg: áɨ́sɨ́pání. Acc pl: aɨsɨpák. Nom pl: aɨsɨpák. adj. 1 • Truthful, not a liar; having the quality of correcting things.

2 • Good at guessing what will happen or what will be the correct answer; good at figuring out things. Áɨ́sɨ́pànì Sunkuli/Clinton tɛ̀ ncotó éríkórè kákè ɔlalɛ́jànì. Sunkuli/Clinton is very smart in terms of leadership, but he is a liar. (W). Usage: With reference to intelligence, aɨsɨ́pànì implies that one generally gets things right and performs well in most domains. ŋɛ̂n, by contrast, is more specific to such things as classwork. Someone who is aɨsɨ́pànì must also be ŋɛ̂n. Someone who is ŋɛ̂n may or may not be aɨsɨ́pànì. (One might be ŋɛ̂n but not be a good guesser about things in general [sense 2]; or, as in the example above, one may be a good guesser, but also be a liar [sense 1].).

ɔl-áɨ́sɨ́pànì   n. Person who is truthful. See: ŋɛ̂n Clever, bright; asɨ́pànì Truthful.

ɛn-aɨsʉɨ́   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́sʉɨ́. Acc pl: ɨn-aáɨ́sʉ̀ɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨn-áàɨ̀sʉ̀ɨ̀. [West] Acc sg: ɛ-naɨsʉɨ́. n. 1 • Singed goat's head, sheep's head, or cow's head. ɛnâ aɨsʉɨ́ this head. ɛnâ naɨsʉɨ́ this singed animal head (The hair is burnt off so that the head can be cooked.) (W).

2 • Head, typically of a cow, sheep or goat. Etíi ɨlpapɨ́t ɛnaɨsʉɨ́ ó ltʉŋánì. There is hair on the head of the person. (In W, this term would never be used for a person except in an abusive way.). Ɨlayíòk oshî ɔ́ànyà ɛnaɨsʉɨ́. It is the boys that feed on the singed head (of a sheep, goat).

3 • Singed thing, that which is singed. See: a-ɨsʉ́ɨ́ To singe, scorch; ɛn-dʉkʉ́yà Head; ɛ-lʉ́kʉ́nyá Head; en-kúé Head.

ɔl-aɨsʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨsʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨsʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ́. [Singular: ɔ̀làysʊ́ɪsʊ́ɪ̀] Plural: [ɪ̀làɪ̀sʊ́ɪsʊ́]  Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́sʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ́. n. Black ant (sp.), perhaps 2 to 3 mm. in length, with very painful bite. Áatɔnyɔ́ ɔlaɨsʉ́ɨsʉ́ɨ̀ ŋolé. The ant (sp.) bit me. Pain from the bite may remain for five hours or so.

ɛnk-aisúishôî   Nom sg: ɛnk-áísúishôî. Acc pl: ɨnk-aɨsʉ́ɨ́shɔ́. Nom pl: ɨnk-áɨ́súɨshɔ́. n. Plant sp. sesanum angolende pedalianceae. Sídáí ɛná áísúishôî This plant (sp.) is good. (W). Sidaín kʉná áɨ́sʉ́ɨshɔ́. These plant (sp.) are good. (W). In W ɛnk-aisúishôî refers to a plant or plant part that is sour when chewed. There are two types: (a) a small plant that grows close to the ground in clumps, with leaves arranged in groups of fours; or (b) a straight twig that shoots off a tree with paired leaves along the twig. (The whole tree is not ɛnk-aisúishôî.).

ɛn-aɨsʉ́kʉ̀t   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́sʉkʉ̂t. Acc pl: ɨna-áɨ́sʉkʉ̂t. Nom pl: ɨná-aɨsʉkʉ̂t. n. 1 • Sth. that has a sour taste.

2 • Salt. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ emborêɨ̂ ɛ́ nkáɨ́ná ɛ́ naɨsʉ́kʉ̀t. Give me a handful of salt. (Pk). See: shímpì Salt. Syn: ɛ-mʉnyán Salt; ɛn-abɛlɨ́ Sodium bicarbonate; salt; ɛ-makát Salt. See: em-bolíêî Salt lick.

ɔl-áísúnkúí [South]   n. [South] European or Asian.

nk-aisúyiasúì [North]   n. [North] Tiny flying insect that lands on wet dung.

ɔl-aɨshɨmɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́shɨmɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-aáɨ́shɨ̀mɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨl-áàɨ̀shɨ̀mɨ̀. n. 1 • [West] Type(s) of tree with leaves or young branches that people chew and chew.

2 • [West] Sugarcane.

3 • [West] Part of a bone (e.g. hip bone) that, when cooked, is chewable.

4 • [North] Tree whose stem is used to make containers, e.g. gourds for milk. See: ɔl-ɔɨshɨmɨ́ Bone part.

ɔl-aɨshɨ́rànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́shɨ́rání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨshɨrák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́shɨ́rák. n. 1 • Survivor after defeat; one who is left alive after a battle and goes home to seek help from others; one who does not qualify in a race, so is unable to advance to the next level. Etushukúnyè ɔláɨ́shɨ́rání peê ɛɨdɨpáyù ɔlárrábàl alikioó ɨlɔmɔ́n lɔɔ́ltʉ́ŋáná oótùàtâ. The survivor came back when the battle was over to tell the news about the people who died.

2 • S.o. who cries due to death or physical injury; mourner. Ɛtagórè ɔláɨ́shɨ́rání tɛ nkárakɨ́ eidoŋókì. The cryer is upset because he was beaten up.

3 • S.o. who complains too much. Ɛ́ɨ́rɔ́rɔ́ ɔláɨ́shɨ́rání ɛnkɛɛ́yà oónkíshú ɛnyɛ́na ɔmɛtáà ɨmɛniŋí énájô. The complainer has talked of the death of his cows until people do not listen to what he says.

ɛn-aɨshɨrɨ́ dámà   Nom sg: ɛn-áɨ́shɨrɨ́ dámà. Acc pl: ɨn-aáshɨ̀rɨ̀ dámà. Nom pl: ɨn-áàshɨ̀rɨ̀ dámà. n. Rattle. See: [North] l-kelekelé Rattle.

ɛn-áíshó   Nom sg: ɛn-aishó. Acc pl: ɨn-áíshí. Nom pl: ɨn-aishí. n. 1 • Alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, hard liquor, etc.). Ɛtɛmɛ́ràtɛ̀ ɨlpáyianí amʉ̂ étóóko ɛnáíshó. The men got drunk because they took beer. ɨnáíshí ɔ̀ kʉlɛ́ goodbye (at evening time) (lit: beer and milk) (W). [This implies wishing another (esp. a man) good food and a good time during the evening.].

2 • Honey. ɛn-áíshó oó ilotóròk honey. In W, the central meaning of ɛn-áíshó is 'honey', and this extended expression just clarifies what kind of 'honey', as if there could be multiple types of insects that produce honey. In A, this expression is used even if the honey is not fermented. Ɨmɛɛ́tà apá iltórróbò inkíshú; ɨlŋanayíó ɔ́ ɨnáíshí oó lotóròk ó ŋúésì éntìm ɛ́nyá. Before then the Dorobo never had cattle; they used to eat fruits, bee honey, and wild animals. In some areas, when used without modification ɛn-áíshó is most neutrally understood as referrring to a fermented beverage (sense 1) rather than to unfermented honey, as the local brew in Maasailand is made from honey. LING: The plural refers to multiple containers of honey or intoxicant. See: ɔl-marúá Intoxicant; ɛn-cɔɨ́ Intoxicant.

ɔl-aitájéúnònì   Nom sg: ɔl-aɨtajéúnònì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́tájéúnòk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨtajéúnòk. [North] Acc sg: ɔl-áítájéúnònì. n. Savior.

ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nànì   Variant: ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nyànì. Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nání; ɔl-aɨtɛŋɛ́nànì. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nàk. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨtɛŋɛ́nàk. n. Teacher; one who makes others knowledgable. Éírúkó ɔláɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nání peê ɛɨlɛ́p ɛnkɛráí. The teacher has permitted the child to go to the next class. (Pk). This is apparently not a traditional concept, at least for W where this would compositionally mean 'a teacher'; but for that concept the Swahili borrowing ɔl-málímúí is used. Syn: ɔl-málímúí Teacher. See: a-ɨtɛŋɛ́n To enlighten, teach.

ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nyànì   n. Teacher, one who makes others knowledgable. See: ŋɛ̂n Clever.

ɔl-aɨtɛ́rànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́rání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨtɛrák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́tɛ́rák. n. 1 • Beginner; starter; one who initiates sth; pioneer.

2 • One who begins to have cattle by buying or being given by friends.

3 • One who lacks cattle. See: ŋásúnotó Beginning, starting; a-ɨtɛ́r To begin.

ol-aitérrìànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áítérríání. Acc pl: ɨl-aiterríák. Nom pl: ɨl-áítérríák. [West] Acc sg: ɔl-aɨtɛ́rrànì. [West] Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́tɛ́rrání. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-aɨtɛrrák. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-aɨtɛrrák. n. Person who tends to faint. Ɛtámúíyíá ŋolé oloshî áɨ́tɛ́rrání lɛ́ sokónì nɛ́ɨ́tɛ̀rrɛ̀ isáaí aré. The usual market fainter (i.e. person who always faints in the market) becaume sick yesterday and fainted for two hours. (W). In W ɔlaɨtɛ́rrìànì apparently has the implication that someone is trying to reach someplace, faints, moves on further, faints again; while ɔlaɨtɛ́rrànì just means 'a habitual fainter'. See: a-ɨtɛrrɛ́ To faint.

nk-aitiíshònì [North]   Nom sg: nk-aitiíshònì. Acc pl: nk-áítííshòk. Nom pl: nk-aitiíshòk. n. [North] Midwife. Typically 35 years old or more. See: enk-aitóyìònì Midwife.

ɔl-áɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rání. Acc pl: ɨl-áɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rák. Nom pl: ɨl-aɨtɔbɨrák. n. 1 • [South] One who makes, maker.

2 • One who heals; traditional healer. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá Jôn olóírirúá, nériki enetíi ɔláɨ́tɔ́bɨ́rání peê epúéí áàɨ̀tɔ̀bɨ̀r. Jon became mad (crazy); then he was taken to the healer so that he could be healed. (W).

3 • Creator. Usage: Religion.

ɔl-aɨtɔ́rìànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áɨ́tɔ́ríání. Acc pl: ɨl-aɨtɔríák. Nom pl: ɨl-áɨ́tɔ́ríák. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-aɨtɔríák. n. 1 • A ruler, one who is in charge. Ɔlaigúɛ́nànì oshî ɔláɨ́tɔ́ríání lɔ́ lpɔ́rrɔr lɛnyɛ́. The chief is the ruler of his age-set.

2 • The Lord Jesus Christ. Usage: Christian. Ɔlaɨtɔ́rìànì aké ɔ́ɨ́dɨ́m ataásà ɨmbáà ɛ́ nkɨŋasíá. It is only the Lord who can do miracles. See: a-ɨtɔrɛ́ To rule; ɔl-aríkònì Leader.

enk-aitóyìònì   Nom sg: ɛnk-áítóyíóní. Acc pl: ɨnk-aitoyíók. Nom pl: ɨnk-áítóyíók. n. 1 • Midwife. Enkaitóyìònì apá náítoiwuó ŋotó Lɛmáyìàn. It is the midwife who helped Lemayian's mother give birth. (Pk).

2 • Dryer; sth. or s.o. that dries sth. Elotú ɨná áítóyíóní aorishó. That (fem.) dryer will come to clean (e.g. urine from the calf's pen).

ɔl-aityóyìònì   Male person who dries sth. up. See: [North] nk-aitiíshònì Midwife; a-itóí To dry.

n-aituríáá payianí [North]   n.sg. [North] Short downpour. See: ɛn-cán Rain.

ɛnk-aɨwáŋʉ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-áɨ́wàŋʉ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-aɨwaŋuní. Variant: ɨnk-aɨwáŋ. Nom pl: ink-áɨ́waŋuní. n. 1 • Type of bracelet. ɛná aɨwáŋʉ̀ this bracelet.

2 • Small round piece of glittering metal at the end of a woman's ear-ring. See: a-wáŋ To be open, bright.

ajá   inter. How many? How? Énkíloí ajá ɛyáua? How many kilograms did she bring? Ɛyáua inkíloí ajá? He brought how many kilos? Inkíloí ajá? How many kilograms? (W). Ajá ɨltʉŋaná óotií? How many people are there? Kɛ́sàà ajá íló sukúùl? What time will you go to school? (W). Ɛ́nɛ̂ ajá? [ènìàjá] How much? [lit: of how much?] (i.e. how much money do you want to spend; the item is feminine or small). Ɨ́lɛ̂ ajá? [ìlìàjá] How much? [lit: of how much?] (i.e. how much money do you want to spend; the item is masculine or big). See: kája How many? How?.

ɛnk-ají1   Nom sg: ɛnk-ájì. Acc pl: ɨnk-ájíjík. Nom pl: ɨnk-ajijík. n. 1 • House, home. ɛnkají sápʉ̀k big house. The traditional Maasai house is "loaf"-shaped, and is constructed of mud, sticks, grass, cow dung and urine. In some areas, Samburu houses tend to be thatched with sisal fiber. Parts of the ɛnkají include: ɛsʉntáɨ̀ 'wall', ɨltulí lɛ́ nkají 'back of the house', kʉ́tʉ́k-ají 'door', ɛnkokórde 'front side extension of house', ɔlmáírròtò lɛ́ nkají 'corner of the house', shʉ́mátá 'roof', enkiperût 'eve' where roof extends over walls, elúsíé 'opening for smoke to escape'. On one side of the door is a room where baby sheep and goats stay. The other room is used for cooking and sleeping. The Maasai house is a woman's property and she does everything that has to be done to it. She builds, maintains, and repairs it. Among the Maasai, the house is used to guage the woman's ability to work hard. A shoddy or dirty house or utensils communicate the kind of woman who lives there. Most women earn their respect from others by the way they handle their houses. Esúújí is a lazy, shoddy woman who cannot maintain her house or build a good one. The rate at which a woman can build a house is also important. A quick and skilled builder is generally respected and held in high esteem by others. A slow and poor builder is called ɛntʉ́rúáí. Construction of the house proceeds as follows: Néítamanyɨ́ ɛnkají The house is designed, using side posts. Nɛ́bákɨ́ ɛnkɔ́p The ground is broken. Nétúrí ingumót Holes are dug. Néúní imbókìshì Side posts are planted. Nɛ́yɛ́nɨ́ ɨlkɨrɨ́nɛ̀n (sg. ɔlkɨ́rɨ́nɛ̀) Side posts are fastened, using double, long slender, freshly-cut sticks. These come in sets of three. Nɛ́pɨkɨ iréítà ɔ́ lɔ́ɔ̀m Little sticks are put in to mesh and seal the spaces between the posts. Nɛmʉrɨ ɨsʉntá The walls are plastered, using cow dung or mud from soil. The cow dung is fresh or has been mixed with cow urine to keep it soft. Straps called inkopít (sg. enkopitó)fasten sticks, posts, or rafters together. Nɛ́shɛtɨ ɨlɨaatuanɨ́(sg. ɔlɨaatúà)The inner walls are constructed, dividing the ɛnkají into rooms. The same construction process described above is used for the inner walls. At this point, a portion of the house can be casually roofed as a semi-permanent shelter, and is called ɔlŋɔ́bɔ́r. The casual roofing is made from a hide. Néshuki ɛnkají The house is roofed permanently, using ɨlɔ́ɔ̀m rafters, which are slender freshly-cut long stems from a special plant. First, néúní ɨŋápɛ̀tà (sg. ɛŋápɛ́) big poles are put into the ground. Nɛ́ɨ́rɨsharɨ́ ɛnkají Thick long sticks are put up to the house to assist the slender sticks in reinforcing the roof. Ɛmpɨ́kátá ɔ́ lkʉjɨ́tá shʉ́mátá Grass is put on the roof. Then ɛmʉ́rátá the roof is smeared using cow dung or mud. Ɛnkɨ́dɨ́pátá ɛ́ nkají The finishing of the house includes: Ɛmpɨ́kátá ɛ́ lúsíé Putting a small hole in the house to let out smoke from the fire. Ɛnáúnotó ɔ́ ɛmpɨ́kátá oó soitó lɛ́ nkɨ́má Bringing and arrangement of the permanent trio of fire stones. These are meant to guard, direct and keep all that pertains to the fire (i.e. charcoal, ashes, firewood), and to support the wire mesh that holds cooking pots above the fire. Ɛncɛ́tátá ɔ́ lkɨtárà Making of the cupboard for keeping cups, plates and other kitchen things. Ɛyɨ́kátá oó rúátìn (sg. ɛ-rúát) The stick-meshed beds are raised about 30 to 40 centimetres from the ground, as desired. Ɛsɨ́sɨ́nɛtá The shrubs are pressed to make a flat mattress which is put on the stick-meshed bed. (Beds can have a solid bush mattress, or can be hollow underneath.) Ɛyɨ́kátá ɛ́nɛpɨkɨ́ ilkeék The firewood shelf is raised. The internal furniture and spaces of the house include: irúátìn beds (sg. erúát). There are two to three beds, with at least one big (for the man) and one small (for the woman). ilálétà rooms (sg. ɔlálɛ́). One room is for baby goats and lambs, and the other for calves. olgóríèt corridor leading to the door. ɨlkɨtaraní cupboards (sg. ɔlkɨtárà) for keeping cutlery and other utensils. inkutót little sub-sections (sg. enkútótó), mostly formed by corners in the house and used for temporarily keeping calabashes. ɨndʉkʉyaní the heads of the beds (sg. dʉ́kʉ́yà), slightly behind where the head rests during sleep. Calabashes are kept here permanently, especially at the head of the small bed. kɛjɛ́k ɛ ndápásh the feet of the bed, in the direction of the person's feet while sleeping. Most beds slope, with dʉ́kʉ́yà where the head rests being higher than kɛjɛ́k where the feet rest. orunkú (pl. irunkûn) the space between the bed and the floor, or between the lower part of the small bed and the wall. This area is used for storing honey beer for ceremonies. ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k ɛ́rùàt (pl. inkʉ́tʉ́kíé orúatín) the edge (door) of the bed, which also serves as a seat. ɔltírén (pl. iltírénìtò) the floor of the house, especially the area around the fire place and beds. kʉ́tʉ́kají the door of the house. ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k ɔlálɛ́ the door to the kids, lambs, and calves' rooms. ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k ɔ́lɨtárà the door of the cupboard. ɛnkɨ́má the three little stone walls for burining pieces of firewood and cooking food. ilkeék pieces of firewood for cooking food and warming the house. See: [North] n-kórrímpâ Small house; e-surúsurî Abandoned house; o-séêt Small house for shepherds; en-kisonó Abandoned house.

2 • Family; clan. Eéwùò ɛnkájì ɔ́lɛ̀ Sempé. The family of Ole-Sempe has come.

olk-ají   Big house. See: ɔl-ají Age set.

ɔl-ají2   Nom sg: ɔl-ájì. Acc pl: ɨl-ájíjík. Nom pl: ɨl-ajijík. n. n. Whole age set, including both "right" hand (the first, or senior) and "left" hand (the second, or junior) circumcision groups. Ɨlcánkéní oopír olájì láŋ. Our age group is Ilcankeni oopir [lit: the donkies that are fat]. Each age set is given a distinct name, and these are important markers of the history of the Maasai. The "right" hand of an age set is composed of the first group of boys that are circumcised when a new circumcision period is opened. When this group is closed, several years may pass before the "left" hand circumcision period is opened. As of 2000, the newest?? age group was named ɨlcánkéní oopír 'the donkies that are fat'. One member of this age set reported that this is because many in this age group have gone to school and are not viewed as very good by the older generations.

2 • n. Big house.

ájî   Nom sg: ájì. [West]: kájì. pn.inter. 1 • Where, which. Kájì ɨ́shɔ́mɔ̀ ŋolé? Where did you go yesterday? Kájì doí íŋúaa? Where are you coming from? / Where do you come from? Kájì etíi ɨntárɛ̀ ínonó? Where are your sheep/goats? (Pk).

2 • How. Kájì ínkúnárɨ̀? How will you go? (e.g. I know you don't have money for transport) (W). Kájì áɨ́kɔ́? i) How do I do it? (e.g. I don't know how to do the homework) (W -K) ii) What do I do with it? (K). Kájì áíkó tɛnáas? How do I do it? (K). Kájì kɨ́nkʉ́nà ɛntɛmatá? i) How did you do on the test? (W -K) ii) What did the exam do to you? (i.e. how did it affect you?) (K). LING: This most often occurs with k- prefix.

ajó   Acc pl: áàjò. [South]: áájó. comp. Complementizer which introduces a complement clause. Reanalyzed from the infinitive a-jó 'to say'. Nɛ́akʉ kéjo aké áàɨ̀nɛ̀nɛ̀ŋ ɔlmʉrraní ɛlɛ̂ rinká, nɛ́dɔ̀l ajó éísidai. When the warriors were trying this club, they say [saw?] that it was good. Keyíólò ajó kálotu. He knows that I am coming. Ɛgɨ́rà iláyìòk áàtɛ̀mà áɨ̀ŋʉ̀ràà ajó kálɔ̂ ógòl. The boys are trying each other to see which is strong. (Pk). Ágɨ́rà aʉ́t siî nɨnyɛ́ sukúùl ajó kálò. I am intending to go to school too. (Pk). See: a-jó To say.

ɔl-ajúŋònì   Nom sg: ɔl-ájúŋóní. Acc pl: ɨl-ajuŋók. Nom pl: ɨl-ájúŋók. n. 1 • Heir, inheritor. Inheritance within a family is as follows. A man is the head of the family. When he marries, he gives his wife cows, who in turn gives them to their children. Every time a child is born, the wife is given a cow. When the man has stopped marrying, he is left with some cows, goats, and sheep, called inkíshú ɛ bɔɔ́ 'Cows of the homestead;. When the man dies, all these animals are automatically inherited by his firstborn son, along with his ɔlcártʉ́lá walking stick, olkídòŋ tobacco container, and ɛsayéi narɔk blue necklace. If the firstborn son is unmarried when he dies, his properity (cloth, cattle, land, etc.) is inherited by the immediately junior brother born of his own mother. Similarly, the property of any other unmarried brother is inherited by the immediately junior brother of the same mother. A woman's cattle is inherited by her last-born son, referred to as oldúŋórét. If the lastborn son ( oldúŋórét) is married, then he gives the cattle to his firstborn son. The property of barren co-wives is inherited as follows: the first and third co-wife may inherit from each other (depending on which one is barren when she dies), and the second and third co-wife inhert from each other.

2 • Caretaker of a family whose father has died. In KS, this man takes the responsibilities and property of an older brother who dies until the children of the deceased grow up and claim it for their own. This includes financial and moral responsibility for the actions of the children. Eg. if a child is ordered to pay a cow for an offense, but isn't old enough to sell his own cows, his ɔl-ajúŋònì will have to pay the fine for him (though he may call on others to help).

-ak   Variant: -ok. nmlz. Plural number suffix in agent nominalizations. (Variant -ak is used with -ATR stems; -ok is used with +ATR stems.).

aké   Particle which occurs after the first constituent of a sentence, indicating:

adv. 1 • Again just as before. Nyáakɨ́ aké shɔ́mɔ̀ íyakákɨ̀ ɛnkʉrmá. Go again and get me flour again. [Implication: Last time you brought me flour and this is exactly what you should bring again. Compare this with Nyáakɨ́ shɔ́mɔ̀ íyakákɨ̀ ɛnkʉrmá. 'Go again and get me flour.' Implication: Last time you brought me something else, but this time you should bring flour.].

2 • Degree of exclusivity or contrast (perhaps exclusive focus of contrast, or counter to expectation); expression of determination: only, just. Enkiriŋó aké ányá. I'll just/only eat meat. [when offered both meat and fruit]. Ɔladúáànì aké ɔ́ɨ́dɨm atodúà entókì naisudórò. It is only a keenly observant person who can see a hidden thing. Kóyíánó aké náyɨmá ɛntɛ́mátá. It is only Koyian who has passed the exam. (Pk). Káló aké I WILL go. [insisting]. Nánʉ́ aké. It's just me. [not insisting]. Máapé aké. Let's just go. Nɛ́ɨ́dɨp aké nélò. He just finished and left. Ɛnkɨtɨ́ dáà aké nánʉ́ ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀. Just give me a little food. (Pk). Míló aké aɨmɨ́n. Don't get lost, don't stay for long. See: siî Just, also.

aké dúóó   Merely, just because. ḿmɛ̀ taá ílótú aké dúóó amanɨmanaá pɛ́shɔ̀. You just don't come and merely loiter around. (Pk). Míkíntókì taá aké dúóó atɔ́n aitoŋú tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ mɨ́kɨ́nyɔ́r. Stop speaking ill of me just because you don't like me. (lit: You just don't keep on smearing me bad smell because you don't like me.) (Pk).

ɛnk-akɛnyá   Nom sg: ɛnk-ákɛ̀nyà. Acc pl: ɨnk-akɛ̂ny. Variant: ɨnk-ákɛ̀ny. Nom pl: ɨnk-ákɛ̂ny. n. 1 • Morning, up until about mid-morning. Kɛ́jáà ɛnkákɛnyá? How is the morning? (K W). This is a way of greeting. Kɨ́tɔtɔná omeúù ɛnkákɛ̀nyà. We stayed up until morning came. Eoshí inkíshú tɛ̀ nkákɛ̀nyà. Cows are driven to the pastures in the morning.

2 • [South] Sometime in the future.

3 • Time just before the sun comes up; dawning. See: tádɛkɛnyá Early morning; rauto Dusk; ɛn-darʉ́nà Dawn; ɛ-nasiríé Dawn, morning; tásɨrán Morning.

ɔl-ákɛ́sɛ́nà   [ɔ̀lá̪kɛ́sɛ̪́nà, undermark indicates stress on vowel]  Nom sg: ɔl-akɛsɛ́nà. Acc pl: ɨl-ákɛ́sɛ́nàk. Nom pl: ɨl-akɛsɛ́nàk. n. Cloth skirt that women put on, typically moríjóí ("purple" or maroon) in color. Ɛadɔ́ ɨlɔ́ akɛsɛ́nà óíshòpìtò Múnàì. That skirt that Munai is putting on is very long. (W). Ɛátà Múnàì ɨlákɛ́sɛ́nàk tɔ́mɔ̂n. Munai has ten skirts. (W). A man and a woman could each buy identical cloth, but only when a woman puts it on it could be called ɔlákɛ́sɛ́nà. See: a-kɛsɛ́n To tie on a skirt.

-akɨ   Variant: -ɔkɨ; -oki; -iki. In some suffixed forms: -akɨn, -okin. appl. Greater intensity or intention to do sth. Tápàlà peê áyákɨ́ ɛnkɨlâ ínó. You do not mind I will bring your cloth. (Pk). Tápàlà peê áyákɨ́ ɛnkɨlâ inó. Just leave it, so I will bring you your cloth. (W). Néjokí: Órè oshî táatá néméékúré kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. He said to them/He told them: "Nowadays you don't come to see me like before." (Pk). LING: In the following example, -akɨ on nɛ́sʉjakɨ́ and nɛ́ɨ́sɨadákɨ̀ indicates that one group is following after the other in a line: Kórè ɔpá kɨ́ndʉ́rrɨ́tâ áàpùò enetií ɛnkárɛ̀, ɔlálɛ́ loó nkíshú âŋ náàìtùrùkìtò, nɛ́sʉjakɨ́ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú ɔɔ́ Ɛmpapá, nɛ́ɨ́sɨadákɨ̀ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú oó Lemeín. When we were moving to where water is, then the group of our cows was the first one, followed by a group of Empapa's cows, then lastly the group of Lemein's cows. (W). LING: The following is judged to not be very good with the Dative -akɨ(n) because "no one will make a line with goats"; the sentence is fine if -akɨ(n) is dropped: ?Ɛ́sʉ́jákɨ̀ ɛnkáyíóní enkíné. The boy will follow the goat. (W). Áasʉjakɨ́ oldóínyó. He will track me (all over the place, through whatever routes I might take) to the mountain. (W) Compare: Áasʉ́j oldóínyó. He will follow me to the mountain. (W) With -akɨ(n), the example might imply that the person following me has some bad intention and I am seeking refuge in the mountain. Also note the meanings in: Áasʉjakɨ́ ɛnkítɛ́ŋ. i) He will follow the cow for me. (e.g. it is lost and I am unable to go after it). (W) ii) He will pursue me all the way to the cow (e.g. I know that a dog who is pursuing me is afraid of cows, so I run to a cow seeking safety, but the dog neverless pursues me all the way there). (W). LING: The variant -akɨ(n) occurs on most -ATR verb roots, -ɔkɨ(n) with -ATR roots that contain /ɔ/, and -oki(n) on +ATR roots. Choice of the variant -iki(n) sometimes correlates with a slight meaning change, but with most roots that take -iki(n), it is the only dative form that can occur.

akínì [North]   adv. [North] Slowly, gently. See: akɨ́tɨ̀ Slowly; kinyí Little.

ɔl-ákɨ́rá   Nom sg: ɔl-akɨrá. Acc pl: ɨl-ákɨ́r. Nom pl: ɨl-akɨ́r. n. Star. Ɛ́ɨ́kɨtɨ́ ɛwaŋán ɔ́lákɨ́rá aláŋ ɛnɛ́ nkɔlɔ́ŋ. The light of the star is smaller than that of the sun. Kɛ́wáŋù ánàà ɨlákɨ́r. They will shine like stars.

tɔ̀ lakɨrá   In the morning; during the time when the stars are still visible.

l-ákɨ́rá lɛ́ sɨrán [North]  

l-ókíráí [North]  

l-ákɨ́rá dɔ́rrɔ́p [North]   See: en-kókúáí The pleiades; [North] l-oisápà The pleiades; [North] n-kábártàk The pleiades.

ɔl-ákɨ́tárrɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-akɨtarrɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-akɨtarriní. Nom pl: ɨl-ákɨtarriní. n. Doctor. LING: ɛnk-ákɨ́tárrɨ́ would be used for a woman, but it is not usual.

akɨ́tɨ̀   Variant: áákʉ́tɨtɨ́. adv. 1 • Slowly. Shɔ́mɨ̀shɔ̀mɔ̀ taá akɨ́tɨ̀ ɔtábàì. Just go slowly until you reach there. Táàsà esíáàì inó akɨ́tɨ̀. Do your work slowly. (Pk). Táàsà esíáàì inó áákʉ́tɨtɨ́. Repeatedly, do your work very slowly. (Pk). Téjò áákʉ́tɨtɨ́ Say it slowly. (Pk). See: akíni [North].

2 • Gently, quietly. Akɨ́tɨ̀ taá ɨ́mbʉŋá ɨ́lɔ̂ kimojínò peê mínkóyìè. [ɨ́mbʉ̀ŋá ɨ̀lɔ̀ kìmòjínò] Hold that sick finger gently so that you don't hurt him. Ɨ́rɔrɔ́ akɨ́tɨ̀, amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́rʉ́rà ɛnkɛráí. Talk quietly, because the baby is asleep.

3 • [West] I am sorry. This is what one might say if you step on someone's foot, though may also be used to let someone know he has stepped on you.

4 • A short bit of time. A: Maria! Ewó sháì? B: Ɛɨtʉ́, kákè akɨ́tɨ̀. A: Maria! Is tea ready? B: No, but in a little bit (it will be ready). (W). Akɨ́tɨ̀ peê ááítárè. (Wait) a moment, so I will escort you. (W). See: áákʉ́tɨtɨ́ Slowly; kɨtɨ́ Little.

ol-akítònì   Nom sg: ol-akítóní. Acc pl: il-akitók. Nom pl: il-akítók. n. 1 • Man who scrapes hair off a hide with an axe.

2 • [South] Man who circumcises boys. This expert is known in the whole district.

ɛnk-akítònì   Woman who circumcises girls. See: ɔl-ámʉ́ràtànì Circumciser; ol-tórróboní Circumciser.

a-akʉ́   In some suffixed forms: akʉn. v.s. 1 • To become; enter into a new status. Epúó ɨlmʉ́rrân eúnótó peê ɛakʉ́ ɨlpayianí. The warriors will go to the installation ceremony so that they become elders. (W). Ɛákʉ̀ kitók. I shall be great. Ɨ́ákʉ̀ íyie ɔ́ nkɛ́rà inóno ɨsɨnkân láinéi ɨntarasí. You and your children will become my servants forever. Áákʉ̀ ɔláɨ́tɛ́ŋɛ́nànì. I will become a teacher. Táakʉ́ íyie ɛnkáípóóponí nɨ́ákʉ̀ íyie olúmpuaní. You become the "loved child", and you become the Olumpuani cannibal. Ɛákʉ̀ ɛná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ ɛnaáí. This cow will become mine. peê ɛakʉ́ siî nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɛnɨ́nà áŋ. so she can belong to that family. (W).

2 • To turn out to be, result (in a new situation); amount to. LING: In this use, nɛ́akʉ can take a finite clausal complement beginning with k[H]-. Kɛ́akʉ nánʉ́ aké ólò Nairobi amʉ̂ nánʉ́ lɛ́mɛ́ɨ́mɨ̀n. It will just be me who will be going to Nairobi because it is me who is not going to get lost. Kɛ́akʉ kéjókì aké, máapé! He will just be telling him, let's go! Tɛ̀ nɨ́nkɛ̀n ilkimojík lɔɔ́ nkáɨ́k ɔ́ lɔɔ́ nkɛjɛ́k nɛ́akʉ tikítàm. If you count your fingers and toes together, they add up to twenty.

3 • To begin. Ɛákʉ̀ ɛmanyatá ilapaitín aárè oópuonú. The manyata will take place in two months to come (i.e. in two months' time). (W). Tólikíókì taá tɛnɛ́akʉ ɨ́tádámùà. Tell me when you have begun to think of him.

4 • Could it be? Is it right? (requesting information, or rhetorical). Olayíónì oyamá enkitók? Ɛákʉ̀? A boy who married a woman? Could it be right? (W). Ɛshɔmɔ́ doí apá/ɔpá? Ɛákʉ̀? He has actually gone long ago. Isn't that right? [Implication: so stop bothering me about it.] (W).

a-akunyé   v.mid. 1 • To become. Órè ɛnkáŋ oó motónyi nɛ́akunyé eunotó ɨ́nâ. The (ceremonial) home-of-birds becomes the installation-home-for-warriors just like that.

2 • [North] To become by means of.

nɛ́akʉ   conj. Discourse conjunction; so, so therefore. Nɛ́akʉ táatá ɛtagolíkio doí iyíóók. So now we are troubled [because traditional knowledge and customs are not being transmitted.]. Kʉlɔ̂ oójî ɨl-Kɨsákàrà ɔ́ɔɨdɨpâ áàtòòk kʉlɛ̂. Nɛ́akʉ kájò nanʉ́ ɨl-Ŋɔ́rɨshɔ́ ɛ́mʉ́rátɨ́taɨ ɨ́nâ kátá. These called Il-Kisakara [an age-set] had just gone through the milk-drinking ceremony. So I think it is the Il-Ng'orisho [age-set] that were being circumcised that time. See: táà Imperative form of a-kʉ́(n) 'become'; ɛ́-táá He became; áâ Be; a-rá To be.

a-akʉ́ ɔ́lɛ̂ kɛwán   [ààkʊ́ ɔ̀lɛ̀ kɛ̀wán] v.phrase v.s. To become self-centered, selfish. Ɛgɨ́rà aakʉ́ ɔ́lɛ̂ kɛwán. [ɛ̀ɡɪ́ɾà ààkʊ́ ! ɔ́lɛ́ kɛ̀wán] He is increasingly becoming self-centered, selfish. This person has resources, but everything is concentrated on himself. He does things for himself. He doesn't want to talk to people or socialize with people, to spend time doing things only for himself, and may isolate self from people for that purpose; he doesn't tell people what he is doing. He doesn't share water, etc. that he has. Even a poor person can be this way.

akúà   interj. 1 • Congratulations.

2 • Expression used when greeting a dearly-missed individual who has been away a long time.

ákúâ   [ákúâ] with two final moras, rather than [ákwâ]  [Chamus] Acc sg: líákùà. inter dem. Interrogative plural determiner; counterpart to sg. áâ (fem), álɔ̂ (masc) and ájî (place). Ákúâ payianí kʉlɔ́? ̃[àkùà pàyyàní] Which men are these? (W). Kákùà tʉ́ŋáná lɛlɔ̂? Which people are those? (Pk). Kákùà payianí kʉlɔ́? Which men are these? (W). Kákúa kɛ́ra kʉná? Which children are these? Kákùà kɛ́rà kʉná? Which children are these? (i.e., we don't know the identy of certain children). (W). Kákúa payianí kʉlɔ́? Which men are these? Kákùà (a)lɛ́ náòtò? Which milk is fermented? (e.g. out of several calabashes). Kákùà lɛ́ íyíéú? Which milk do you want? (W). Íyíéú ákúâ lɛ́? [íyyéú àkùà lɛ́] Which milk do you want? (W). LING: In this order, ákúâ cannot take the k- prefix. See: álɔ̂ Which (msg); áâ Which (fsg); ájî What (place.sg).

ɔl-akúɛ́tànì   Nom sg: ɔl-ákúɛ́tání. Acc pl: ɨl-akuɛták. Nom pl: ɨl-akuɛták; ɨl-ákúɛ́ták. n. Runner. Einépua ɔlákúɛ́tání ɔlɨkáɨ. The runner caught up with the other one. See: a-kúɛ́t To run.

ɔl-akúí1   [ɔ̀làkwí]  Nom sg: ɔl-ákûî. Acc pl: ɨl-akúí, ɨl-akúyìà(k). Nom pl: ɨl-ákúí, ɨl-ákúyíà(k). [West] Acc sg: ɔl-ákúí. n. 1 • Ancestry. Ɔlakúí láí taá doí ɛlɛ́ páyìàn. This man is from my ancestral line. LING: In W, young people would find this word unusual or archaic.

2 • Ancestor. Kɛ́pɨ́ apá ɨlákúí láŋ. Our ancestors were brave. Meipotí oshî ɨlakúí tɔɔ́ lMaasáɨ́. Ancestors are not mentioned in Maasai. Ancestors (and those who have died generally) are not mentioned among the Maasai, either out of a sense of respect or for fear that it is a bad omen. When one does mention them, they should spit and say Kilomé 'Let nothing come to harm.'. LING: In K, ɔl-ákúí has a plural sense and ɨl-akúyìà(k) is not used.

3 • Maternal grandfather; may be used vocatively.

4 • [South] Brother of my mother.

ɛnk-akúí   1 • Grandchild, as addressed by grandparents.

2 • Grandmother; female ancestor.

ɨnk-akúí   Grandparents.

ɔl-akúyiaâ   Grandfather.

ɛnk-akúí2   [ɛ̀ŋkàkúy]  Nom sg: ɛnk-ákûî. Acc pl: ɨnk-akúyìà(k). Nom pl: ink-ákúyíà(k). [West] Acc sg: ɛnk-ákúí. n. 1 • Grandchild (by a son or daughter).

2 • Ancestor.

3 • Grandparent (male or female). See: kakúyìà Grandchild (male or female).

ol-ákúí   [òlákúy] n. Dog.

l-akulí [North]   n. [North] Preserved meat stored in fat. See: ɔl-pʉ́rdá Preserved meat in fat.

l-ákʉ́nyá [North]   Variant: ɔ-lɛ́lʉ́kʉ́nyá (K PK). Acc pl: l-ákʉ́ny. Nom sg: l-akʉnyá. Nom pl: l-akʉ́ny. n. [North] Brain. Syn: ɔ-lɛ́pɨ́rnyɨ́ny Brain. See: ɛ-lʉ́kʉ́nyá Head, brain.

a-akunyé   v.mid. To become. See: a-akʉ́ To become.

ɔl-aláànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áláání. Acc pl: ɨl-alaák. Nom pl: ɨl-áláák. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-alaák. n. who.unties.ACC.

1 • One who unties. Mayíólò ajó kálò aláànì ɔtalaáyìè ɨlashɔ́ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ áànàk. I don't know who untied the calves to go and suck. (W). LING: For W (kk), this appears to be a nonce sense.

2 • One who pays (e.g. bills), buyer (who pays for what he/she buys); cashier (who gives out money). KS:5 says this is a man who covers the wrong of another because the guilty party is in his charge, but not yet old enough to sell his own cows. DESCRIBE cultural relevance/role of such a person? See: a-lák To loosen, untie, release, pay, compensate.

álábàny   adj. Complacent, not dilligent. See: ɔl-bárríkô Complacent.

ɔl-aláí   [ɔ̀làláy] pn. Mine.

ɔl-alâɨ̂   [ɔ̀làlây but -ATR]  Nom sg: ɔl-álàɨ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-álá. Nom pl: ɨl-alá. n. 1 • Tooth. Ɛtɨ́gɨ́lá ɔlalâɨ̂ lâî. He broke my tooth. (W). Ɛtɨgɨ́lɛ̀ ɔlálàɨ̀ lâî. My tooth broke. (W). Ɛtɨgɨ́làtɛ̀ ɨlalá láinêî. My teeth broke. (W). ɨlálá lɔ́ ldîâ teeth of a dog.

2 • Tusk. ɔlalâɨ̂ lɔ́ lkáncáóí elephant tusk (Pk). Ɨlálá aárè ɔɨ́pɨ̀kʉ̀ bɔɔ́ ɛátà olbitírr. A warthog has two tusks that project conspicuously outside.

3 • Warthog's tooth that is chopped, smoothed, and put on children's necks as a charm.

3 • [South] Stone put on children's necks.

ɛnk-alâɨ̂   1 • Little tooth.

2 • Triangular stone, shell, or tile used to adorn small children. This is worn around the neck (from birth?) until it wears out and falls off.

ɨl-álá lɛ́ kɛ́ràɨ̀shɔ̀   Primary "milk" teeth; teeth which are lost beginning around age 6.

ɨl-álá lɛ́ kishiáá   Upper front teeth.

ɨl-álá lɛ́ mbúátá   Lower front teeth. See: ɨ-naapɨ̂ tɛ̀ barɨák Thin, sharp teeth; ɔl-tagɨ́lɨgɨ́lɨ̀ Molar.

ɛnk-alámù   Variant: ɛn-kalámù; ɛnk-alamú. Nom sg: ɛnk-álàmù. Acc pl: ɨnk-alamuní. Nom pl: ɨnk-álamuní. n. Pencil, pen. This cannot mean 'chalk' in at least W, S. nɛ́nâ alamuní pɔɔkí [nɛ̀nà àlàmùní] all those pencils. Ɛnkalámù ɛná. This is a pen. Kéígérisho ɛná álàmù aɨtɔbɨrakɨ́. This pen writes very well. (Pk).

ɛnk-alámù ɛ́ ncatá  

ɛnk-alámù ɛ́ nketá   Pencil.

ɛnk-alámù ɔ́ ránkì   Biro pen.

álànì   Nom sg: álánì. Acc pl: álànàk. Nom pl: álánàk. adj. 1 • Clumsy.

2 • Not smart, not skilled; inept, unable to do things in the right way; incompetent. Áajokí apá Páàpà lâî árá álànì amʉ̂ mayíólò aɨrrɨ́ta inkíshú. My father used to tell me that I am inept because I don't know how to look after cows. (W). LING: A 'stativized adjective"?

a-alanú   To become inept. Ant: árriyíá To be skilled.

ɛnk-álánó   Nom sg: ɛnk-alanó. n.sg. 1 • Ineptitude. Órè siî ɔ̀ nánʉ́ nɛ́mayieu ɨ̀nà álánó. I also do not want that ineptitude. (Pk).

2 • Clumsiness.

3 • Slovenlyness. Ɛátà Jois ɛnkálánó. Jois is slovenly. (W). This would not be used to describe a home but a person, or perhaps an animal that does not follow the right path even after being shown where to get salt, food, etc. See: kɛ́rɛ́rɛ̂ Slovenly.

a-alanú   v.incep. To become clumsy, inept, incompetent. See: álànì Clumsy.

ɛnk-alaónì   Nom sg: ɛnk-álaónì. Acc pl: ɨnk-alaó. Variant: ɨn-kalaó. Nom pl: ɨnk-álàò. [West] Acc sg: ɛn-kalaónì. [South] Acc sg: ɛnk-alawónì. n. Ant (black). Kɛ́ɔ́nyɨshɔ ɛnkálaónì olêŋ. An ant bites very much. ɛndá (k)alaɔ́nì that ant (W). See: o-rirí Red ant; ŋotó kɔ́shɛ̀shɛ̀ Army ants.

ɔl-aláshɛ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-álàshɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-aláshɛ̀rà. Nom pl: ɨl-álàshɛ̀rà. [North] Nom pl: ɨl-áláshɛ̀rà. n. 1 • A male relative with the same parents. Rather than use a term like this, a man will refer to his brother by the gift that was given. For some speakers, this noun can be stretched to refer to a male member of the same clan.

2 • A male member of a religious group. Usage: Christian. ɔlaláshɛ̀ láí botor my elder brother.

ɔl-aláshɛ̀ bótór  

aláshè bótór [North]  

alácè bótór [Chamus]   Older male relative of the same father; elder brother. See: ɛnk-anáshɛ̀ Sister.

ɛnk-albúálì   Variant: ɛnk-arbúálì; ɛn-kalbúálì. Nom sg: ɛnk-álbùàlì. Acc pl: ɨnk-albúál. Nom pl: ɨnk-álbùàl. n. Blood clot, clotted blood. Eturukúnyè ɔsárgɛ̀ eiŋúàà ɛŋɔ́ny ɛ́ nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ nɛ́ɨ́bʉ́ŋa aakʉ́ ɛnkalbúálì. Blood flowed from the cow's vein and it clotted. Kórè ɛná kalbúálì néíŋúáà endúŋótó ɛ́ nkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. This blood clot is from the cow's cut (injury). (W). See: ɔ-sáróí Curdled milk mixed with blood; [North] n-julótì Fresh milk mixed with blood; [North] m-poróì Roasted clotted blood.

alɛ́   n. Milk. Akùà alɛ́? Which milk? (Pk). Kɛ́bɛbɛ́k kʉná álɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛ́tɨ́pɨ́kákɨ̀ ɛnkárɛ́. [kʊ̀ná ! álɛ́] This milk is diluted because it has water. (Pk). Hymn: alɛ́ Calf pen (nominative). See: kʉlɛ́ Milk.

alɛ̂ [North]   [North] This, masculine singular. Restrict: SN, Restrict: SN. Alɛ̂ gíitâ ápórórie anâ ŋɛ́rɛ́m. This rope is what I will use to creep/climb over this precipice. (SN). See: ɛlɛ̂ This.

ɔl-álɛ́   Nom sg: ɔl-alɛ́. Acc pl: ɨl-álɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨl-alɛtá. n. 1 • Pen for calves, or kids and lambs, inside the kraal or inside the house. àlɔ̀ álɛ́? Which calf pen? (Pk). ɔlálɛ́ lɔɔ́ lashɔ́ calf pen.

2 • Piece of land given to some people during demarcation of the land to individual owners by the Kenyan government. Usage: derog.

3 • Cattle camp away from home, used exclusively for cattle (e.g. not goats); women and children may visit but do not stay.

4 • Location within a market place for gathering livestock which are to be bought and sold; the "enclosure" is typically formed by people that surround the cattle.

5 • [West] A well-defined group of cattle that is conceptually "marked off" for a definite purpose, or which are together for a defined period of time. This term would not be used for a casual grouping of cattle that just happened to be grazing in a particular place. Kórè ɔpá kɨ́ndʉ́rrɨ́tâ áàpùò enetií ɛnkárɛ̀, ɔlálɛ́ loó nkíshú âŋ náàìtùrùkìtò, nɛ́sʉjakɨ́ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú ɔɔ́ Ɛmpapá, nɛ́ɨ́sɨadákɨ̀ ɔlálɛ̀ lóò nkíshú oó Lemeín. When we were moving to where water is, then the group of our cows was the first one, followed by a group of Empapa's cows, then lastly the group of Lemein's cows. (W).

ɛnk-álɛ́   Little calf pen. .

l-álɛ́ lɔɔ́ lacáó [North]   [North] Calves' pen. See: ɛm-bɨ́rrɨ̀sh Sub-kraal; en-dúŋórotó Fence; ɔl-álɛ́ Pen for calves, kids, etc.; e-múátátá Fold for goats and sheep.

álɛ́   interj. Expression of surprise, or of something unusual. Kórè kíŋórû ɨlŋanayíó tɛ̀ ntîm eitú kítûm tɛ̀ nkatá náàdɔ̀ kórè tɛ̀ nkɨ́tɨ̀ katá náníŋ ɔlcɔrɛ́ láí Kúntàì peê éjô "Álɛ́! Ánótó obô!" When we were looking for fruits in the bush, we didn't find any for a long time. But in a little while, I heard my friend Kuntai saying, "Álɛ́! I got one!".

ol-álɛ́lɨ́ [South]   n. [South] Enclosure set aside for calves to graze. This is outside of the enk-áŋ, and is enclosed by thornbushes. It may be 1 x 6 km or bigger.

ɛnk-álɛ́m   Nom sg: ɛnk-alɛ́m. Acc pl: ɨnk-alɛmá. Nom pl: ɨnk-álɛ̀mà. n. Knife. Incɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛndâ álɛ́m matuduŋíshòrè. Give me that knife so that I can use it for cutting. (Pk). Tɛ́ɛ̀nà enetuduŋó ɛnkalɛ́m méítokí awó. Put a bandage on the area that the knife has cut so that it won't keep bleeding. (Pk). A Maasai knife is sharp on only one side.

ɔl-álɛ́m   Sword, maybe 30 to 50 centimeters long. Ɔl-álɛ́m is worn on the right, and is sharp on both sides.

ɔl-álɛ́m lɛ́ mpɔ́lɔ̀s   Long knife used by warriors to defend themselves.

l-álɛ́m lɛ́ nkɨ́jɨ̀ [North]   [North] Acc pl: l-alɛmá lɔɔ́ nkɨ́jɨ̀ɨ̀. [North] Long straight knife sharpened on both sides, used by warriors to defend themselves.

ɔl-álɛ́m lɔɔ́ ŋkírí   Knife, bigger than |ɛnk-álɛ́m, used mostly by women to cut meat. It is also used to slaughter cows.

enk-álɛ́m ɔɔ́ ntaré   Knife with wooden handle, sharp on both sides, used for trimming sheep's hooves. See: ɔl-mʉrrʉ́nyà Small knife for shaving or circumcision; [North] l-káncár Small sword.

ɔl-álɛ́m ónyókíé   [ɔ̀lálɛ́m ōɲōki͡é̄]  Nom sg: ɔl-alɛ́m ɔ́nyòkìè. n.sg. 1 • God's sword. Usage: curse. This refers to the idea of God's dangerous wrath, but is normally used to curse s.o. Mɨ́kɨ́tárìè ɛnkaí ɔlálɛ́m ónyókíé. May God extinguish you! (Pk). Angry curse to mean, 'May God kill you!' Not used to put a curse with effects on a person, but to express anger.

2 • Red sword.

3 • [South] Death of blood.

enk-alépònì   Nom sg: ɛnk-álépóní. Acc pl: ɨnk-alepók. Nom pl: ɨnk-álépók. n. 1 • One who milks. Ɛ́mpotó dúóó ɛnkalépònì metálepo inkíshú. Call the woman who milks so as to milk the cows.

2 • One who milks the cows excessively, to the point where the calves look sick. Ɛtálépó ɛnkálépóní ɨlashɔ́ mɛtásasɨtá. The milker milked the calves thin. (i.e. The milker milked the cow so much that there was insufficient milk for the calves.).

ol-alépònì   Man who milks cattle. This would refer to a man from another tribe hired to do the milking, as Maasai men do not do milking. A young boy who has not yet been circumcised can, however, do milking.

ɔl-álɨ́lɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-alɨlɨ́. Acc pl: ɨl-ɔlɨlɨ̂n. n. 1 • [North] Grass that grows inside a (potentially deserted) kraal and which smells bad such that cows do not want to eat it.

2 • [South] Grazing field set apart for calves; pasturage. See: ɔl-ɔkɛrɨ́ Restricted area near the homestead for calves to graze in.

a-alíp   v. 1 • To nurture a sick person by giving a specialized diet.

2 • To bless s.o. by ceremonially giving them a small amount of beer, milk, or blood to drink. Ɛtaalipókì ɔlmʉrránì tɛ̀ kʉ́lɛ̀ The warrior was ritually blessed with milk. Anyone can do this, and for many occasions. LING: This verb cannot take the Progressive ending -ítò. See: a-ipók To cleanse ritually.

(ɛnk-)áló   Nom sg: ɛnk-aló. Acc pl: ɨnk-álòlì. Nom pl: ɨnk-álólì. n. 1 • Adjacent area bordering one side of an object; side. Káà áló? Which side? Káló ɛnkáló âŋ. I am going to our part (i.e. where we stay). Shɔ́mɔ̀ íyakákɨ̀ osóít otíí ɛnkáló ɛ́ndà ají. Go get me a stone that is adjacent to that house. Ɛitáshè ɔlpáyìàn tɛ̀ nkaló ɛ́nkají. The man is standing by the side of the house. A: Káá áló ítíi? B: Átíi ɛnkáló ɔ́dɨrɨsha é lúsíé. A: Which side are you on? B: I'm on the side of the window. (Exchange between A who is outside a house, and cannot see B who is outside on a different side of the house.).

2 • Direction, way. Tíà aló eímua? i) Which side did he pass him (on/from)? ii) Coming from which direction did he pass him? Ɛgɨ́raɨ áàdàm inkíshú mɛ́ɨ́nyià̀àrì ɛnkáló naiŋúáà. The cows are being turned so they return to the direction they came from. Káà áló ílóítò? Which way are you going?

3 • Side of the body. Íjó doí káníŋítò emíón tɛná aló. I am feeling pain on this side (of my body). LING: áló has a more prepositional/adverbial value when used without the gender prefix (see TM 43).

tì álò   Beside, next to. Tì álò ɛndá ají apá etúá ɔlashé. Somewhere about that side of that house the calf died. amʉ̂ étéjó ɛnkaí memíkì ɛnâ sírì tì álò Abraham. because God said that He will not keep this secret away from Abraham. See: ɛm-bátá Beside.

álɔ̂   pn.inter. inter.dem. Masculine singular interrogative determiner; which? who? Emúóyíáà ɨlɔɨŋɔ́k, kákè mayíólò ajó álɔ̂ taá ósíókí aishíú. The bulls are sick, but I don't know which one will heal first. Álɔ̂ taá ayíónì ɔ́adorú? Which of the (two or more boys) will be taller? Kálɔ̀ payíán ɛlɛ́? Which man is this? Mayíólò ajó kálɔ̀ aláànì ɔtalaáyìè ɨlashɔ́ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ áànàk. I don't know who untied the calves to go suck. (lit: I don't know which untier (it was) that untied the calves to go suck.) (W). See: áâ Which? (fem); ákúâ Which? (pl).

ɛn-álɔ́ɔ́   Nom sg: ɛn-alɔɔ́. n.sg. Dirtied water in a dam. Syn: [North] n-ailɔ́ɔn Dirtified water. See: sɨ́nkɨ́l Pure, clean; ɛnk-árɛ́ Water.

ol-alótònì   Nom sg: ol-álótóní. Acc pl: il-alotók. Nom pl: il-alotók. n. One who goes for a long journey, or travels a lot (even if for short journeys); pilgrim. humans only.

ɛnk-alúɛ́nà   Nom sg: ɛnk-álùɛ̀nà. Acc pl: ɨnk-aluɛnaní. Nom pl: ɨnk-áluɛnaní. n. Ear. Tóòshò taá tiáborí ɛnkalʉ́ɛ́nà. Hit him below the ear! See: en-kíòòk Ear; máróroi Ear; e-niŋét Ear.

ɛnk-alʉlʉ́ŋà   Nom sg: ɛnk-álʉlʉ́ŋà. Acc pl: ɨnk-alʉlʉŋaní. Nom pl: ɨnk-álʉlʉŋaní. n. 1 • Circular metal worn by women on the lower parts of the legs; leg bangle. Sídáí ɛndá álʉlʉ́ŋà. That metal bangle is nice. (W). Typically women will wear several of these at once. See: muleení Circular metal worn by women on the lower parts of the legs; [North] n-kúpúlìtò Circular metal worn by women on the lower parts of the legs.

2 • [North] Barricade. See: ol-tím Barricade.

ɛnk-alʉlʉ́ŋà   Nom sg: ɛnk-álʉlʉ́ŋà. Acc pl: ink-alʉlʉŋaní. Nom pl: ink-álʉlʉŋaní. n.pl. Circular metal rings worn by women on the lower parts of the leg. See: ɛnk-alʉlʉ́ŋà Circular leg bangle.

a-ám   PF, SUBJN: m, mat. v. 1 • To eat. Áám ɛnâ dáà tɛnáshukúnyè. I will eat this food when I return. (W). Ágɨ́rà aám ɛndáà. I am eating the food. (W). Máapé amʉ̂ átámà siî nanʉ́ ɛndáà. Let us go because I have also eaten. (Pk). Ɛtarapóshè ɛtamá ɛndáà. He was satisfied after eating food. Káɨ́nyɔɔ nátamá ɛndáà natíi ɔlkɨtárà? What has eaten the food on the shelf? Támà ɛndáà tɛnákatá! Eat food now! Ɛtamíshìè. He ate. (PF Antipassive). LING: For at least K and KS (and preferably in W) this verb is defective and occurs only in the PF and subjunctive forms: *áám 'I will eat' and *éám 'he will eat.' W somewhat rejects the progressive form for Sense 1 (*Áámɨ́tà ɛndáà). See: a-nyá To eat (transitive); a-daá To eat (intransitive); a-gúɛ́ny To remove meat from a bone; gnaw.

2 • To munch.

3 • To make s.o. be in an emotionally extreme state; make s.o. cry out; make s.o. be in distress. Káɨ́nyɔɔ nátamá ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́? What caused the child to be in distress? (or even possibly in an especially good mood?) (W) (lit: What that ate the child?). Kɨ́támà ɛsʉ́mâsh. You felt hungry. (W). See: a-ɨnɔ́s To eat; cause pain; a-yá To take; hurt.

4 • To have sex (with a woman). Támà! (i) Have sex with her! (W) (ii) Eat! Usage: For the sense 'have sex', the subject of the verb must be male. Men would easily use this among themselves when talking about having sex with a woman. People try to avoid this word in the presence of women unless it is very clear they are referring to food, but even then it is unusual to say támà ɛndáà in the presence of girls. In W, this may also have an implication of marriage, cf: kɨ́àm (*kɨ́yàm) 'You will marry me'. But see also a-yám 'to marry'. In W, "only old men" would use the progressive for Sense 4.. Etym: From Proto-Baez *am 'to eat', via Southern Nilotic (speculative, based on Heine, Rottland, Vossen 1979:77).

a-ám ɛnalʉmɛ́ [North]   v.phrase. [North] To sneeze. See: a-nyá ɛnalʉ́mɛ̀ [North] To sneeze; a-sɨ́ŋ To sneeze.

ámaâ   adv. 1 • Used, especially in conversation, to draw attention to something; Well!; now. Ámaâ, kájì ílóítò tɛnákatá? Well! where are you going right now?

2 • As it is; reason being; since. For this sense, ámaâ is followed by naâ, followed by the evidence or reason why the first part of the sentence has been made. Éítùànì taá dúóó táatá imbáâ ámaâ naâ kinotô pɔɔkɨ́ tókì nikíyíéú. Things are beautiful today since we have gotten all that we wanted. Ɛgɨ́rà oshî táatá nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɔltáání atumokí ámaâ naâ enotó esíáàì. So-and-so is succeeding because he has gotten a job.

ɔl-ámál   Nom sg: ɔl-amál. Acc pl: ɨl-amalá. Nom pl: ɨl-ámàlà. n. Ceremonial group. Képuonú táatá ɨlámàlà pɔ́ɔ́kɨ áàshʉ̀là. All the ceremonial grouping will get together today. LING: W lacks a plural form that takes ɨl-. However, in W the apparent singular form controls the suppletive plural form of 'go': Képuonú táatá ɔlamál pɔ́ɔ́kɨ áàshʉ̀là. All the ceremonial grouping will get together today. (W -K). Epuɨ́tà ɔlamál. The ceremonial group(s) is/are going. (W).

Amala   n.prop. River which has its source in the Mau Narok range and combines with the Nyangoris River near Emarti to become the Mara River.

ɔ́l-ámân kʉ́tʉ́k   Nom sg: ɔl-ámàn kʉ́tʉ́k. Acc pl: ɨl-aamân nkútúkíé. Nom pl: ɨl-áàmàn nkútúkíé. [North] Acc sg: l-aman nkʉ́tʉ́k. [North] Nom sg: l-aman nkʉ́tʉ́k. [North] Acc pl: l-aamân nkútúkíé. [North] Nom pl: l-áaman nkútúkíé. n. Moustache. Sídáí ɔlámàn kʉ́tʉ́k lɛ́nyɛ̀. His moustache is good. (W). See: ol-múnyéí Beard.

ɛnk-amanáà   Variant: ɛn-amanáà. Nom sg: ɛnk-ámanáà. Acc pl: ɨn-kamanáà. Nom pl: ɨnk-ámanáà. n. 1 • Circular-shaped piece of leather cut to fit tightly over the opening of the calabash as a calabash. Eitútumi ɛnkamanáà ó leléo áàrɨ̀p esíótè é nkúkúrí. A leather circular-shaped is woven together with a piece of gourd to make a lid for a calabash.

2 • Lid or top that is screwed on, with a rotating motion, to tightly cover a container. See: a-mán To surround.

l-ámárrárrànì [North]   Nom sg: l-amarrárrànì. Acc pl: l-ámárrárràk. Nom pl: l-amarrárràk. n. [North] Scout, spy. See: ɔl-áɨ́kɨ́tálànì Spy; marrárr To scout.

ɔl-ámàyìò   Nom sg: ɔl-ámáyìò. Acc pl: il-ámàyìò. Nom pl: il-ámàyìò. n. 1 • Lion hunt. For a lion hunt, brave warriors are gathered, and surround the lion. They all sing, and throw their spears in unison. (KS:5).

2 • Hunt (for any kind of animal).

3 • [South] Shouting.

ɔl-áméyú   Nom sg: ɔl-ámèyù. Acc pl: ɨl-ameyitín. Nom pl: ɨl-ámèyìtìn ɨl-ámeyitín. [South] Acc sg: al-áméy. [North] Acc sg: l-áméí. n. 1 • Famine. Eéwùò ɔlámèyù óyookí amʉ́t inkíshú ó sirkôn.` Famine which may finish the cows and donkeys has come. (Pk).

2 • Hunger; extreme hunger. Usage: hyperbole. Káátà ɔláméyú. I am famished. / I am feeling hunger. LING: This could indicate a habitual, persistent state. Hɔ́ɔ́ dúó náɨ́nɔsá ŋolé ɛndáà kákè ɛtɔ́n aátà ɔláméyú. Though I had eaten food yesterday, I am still feeling hungry. (W). Áànyɛ̀ɨ̀tà ɔlámèyù. I am feeling hunger. (W). LING: This could indicate something one feels at the moment.

3 • Dry season, long dry season. Kɛ́ɨ́dʉ̀r oshî olórérè tɛ̀ rɨshatá ɔ́lameyu. People migrate during the dry season. Ɛgɨ́rà inkíshù áàìtìànyà tɔ̀ lámèyù. The cows are dying during the dry season.

4 • Drought. Eéwùò ɔlámèyù ógòl ɛnkɔ́p. Drought has come. (lit: The drought that is hard has come to the land.).

ol-áméy ogól   [ɔláméyúògòl] Hard dry season, when the dry period continues into when the rainy season should be. Ant: e-leŋón Season of plenty. See: ém-pérî Famine; ɛ-sʉ́màsh Hunger; [North] n-kɔlɔ́ŋ Hunger.

amɨ́nɨn   Acc pl: amɨninɨ́. adj. Generous. Ɨltʉ́ŋánák amɨ́nɨn kʉlɔ́. These are generous people. (K). Ɨltʉ́ŋáná amɨnɨnɨ́ kʉlɔ́. These are generous people. (Pk). Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlmʉrrân áànyà ɛndáà tɛ̀ nkâŋ ɔ́lmʉ́rránì amɨ́nɨ̀n. The warriors went to eat food in the home of the generous warrior. Kárà amɨ́nɨn. I am generous.

ɛnk-ámínínó   Ɛnkámínínó ɛsapʉ́k kʉlɔ̂ tʉ́ŋáná amʉ̂ ɔlɛ́ɛ̀ mɛɛ́tà tókì. These people are endowed with grnerosity because they don't have much. Ant: arɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ Unkind, stingy. See: amɨ́nɨn Generous; a-léŋ To be generous.

ɛnk-ámínínó   n. Generosity. Ɛnkámínínó ɛsapʉ́k kʉlɔ̂ tʉ́ŋáná amʉ̂ ɔlɛ́ɛ̀ mɛɛ́tà tókì. These people are endowed with generosity because they don't have much. (Pk). Ant: arɔ́k ɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀ Unkind, stingy. See: amɨ́nɨn Generous.

amʉ̂   conj. Because, reason. Tɨ́gɨrayú amʉ̂ kérrinyúnyìè ŋutunyí! Be quiet because mother will come back! Mayíéú ɛnâ kɨlâ amʉ̂ mmɛ̂ ɛnaáí. I don't want this cloth because it is not mine. Ɛ́ntasotú ɨmálàsìn amʉ̂ ɛ́táá kɛ́ɨ́ŋʉrákɨ̀nɨ̀ ɛnapá kɛ́ráí inyî ɨntaléŋò. Collect beer gourds because it is about time for your child to go through initiation. Ɛrɔ́k ómòm Pita amʉ̂ ɛtáláíkínè ayámà ɨ́nâ títo. Pita is unfortunate because he was not able to woo that girl. Mayíéú náló inkíshú táatá amʉ̂ àlò aɨsʉmásh. I don't want to go look after cows today because I will feel hungry. LING: may take an independent-like clause complement, or one with subjunctive tone.

ɛn-amʉ́kɛ̀   Variant: ɛnk-amʉ́kɛ̀. Nom sg: ɛn-ámʉ̀kɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨn-amʉ́kà. Variant: ɨnk-amʉ́kà. Nom pl: ɨn-ámʉ̀kà. [South] Acc sg: amka. n. Shoe, of any sort (tyre shoes, rubber, plastic, leather, hide sandals, etc.). Órè oshî táatá nɛ́taá intáirí eishopí imeekúré aá ɨnamʉ́kà oólonítò anáá apá. These days people wear tire sandals, not leather sandals like before. (Pk). ɛndâ amʉ́kɛ̀ that shoe. ɛnâ amʉ́kɛ̀ this shoe. Sídáí ɛnámʉ̀kɛ̀ âî. My shoe is good. (W). Metíi ɨnámʉ̀kà áinéí enê némétii endê. My shoes are neither here nor there. See: ɛnk-aɨdáshɛ̀ Shoe; táìr Tyre shoe.

ɛnk-amʉlákì   Nom sg: ɛnk-ámʉlákì. Acc pl: ɨnk-amʉlák. Nom pl: ɨnk-ámʉ̀làk. [North] Acc sg: gamɨlák. [Chamus] Acc sg: kamɨlák. n. 1 • n. Saliva. Ɛtɔnɔtáyìè ɔlpáyìàn ɨnkamʉlák ɔ́lkumpaú. The man has spit out tobacco saliva. Ɛtʉnʉtáká olasuráí ɨnkamʉlák. The snake has spit on him. Ɛmayíán oshî ɨltásatí ɨnkɛ́rà ɛnyɛ̂ tɔɔ́ ɨnkámʉ̀làk. Elders usually bless their children with saliva. Átódúà ɨ́nâ dáà natɛyɨɛrákɨ̀ áàtùmòkì nɛ́akʉ káaɨtɔ́ŋ ɨnkámʉ̀làk. I saw that food which was well cooked, and I started salivating. (lit: ... and my saliva started to drip.) (W).

2 • n. A blessing. Ɛshɔmɔ̂ inkítùààk áàɨ̀ŋɔ̀rʉ̀ ɨnkamʉlák tɛ̀ manyatá. The women have gone to look for blessing in the ceremonial home. (W). This type of blessing is always administered by elders to warriors, women, children, fellow elders, etc. by spitting on to the person saliva and local brew (beer) or milk, which are mixed in the mouth before spitting it out.

3 • n.sg. One drop of saliva. Usage: rare. LING: The singular form is rare, referring to one drop of saliva. Syn: ɛ-máyìànàtà Blessing.

ɔl-ámʉ́rátànì   Nom sg: ɔl-amʉrátànì. Acc pl: ɨl-amʉraták. Nom pl: ɨl-amʉrátàk. n. An expert in circumcision.

ɛnk-ámʉ́rátànì   Woman specialized in women's initiations. See: ol-tórróboní Circumciser; ol-akítònì Circumciser.

ol-amuríákì   Nom sg: ol-ámuríákì. [West] Acc sg: ol-amuriákì. [W: òlàmùrìákì]  [West] Nom sg: ol-ámùrìàkì. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-amuriâk. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-ámùrìàk. n. 1 • Tree species. Orŋanayíóì moríjoi ɛɛ́tà olámuríákì. The Olamuriaki tree has maroon fruits. (Pk). Ɛadɔ́ kʉlɔ́ ámùrìàk. These amuriak trees are tall. (W). For kk (W), the term may refer either to a tree, or the fruits of this tree. It is described as a good-sized tree with small fruits and thorns. The fruit is about the size of the end of one's finger and are between green and moríjoi when unripe, and between moríjoi and black when ripe. The fruits can be eaten and have a somewhat sour taste. The leaves are about the length of half of one's finger. The roots may be used as herbs.

2 • Fruit of this plant.

l-amʉ́rruak [North]   [lamʊ́rrwak ~ lamʊ́rrwag] n.pl. [North] Burrs.

nk-amúrruakî [North]   Nom sg: nk-ámúrruakî. Acc pl: nk-amúrrùà. Nom pl: nk-ámurrúá. n. [North] Star grass. See: ol-pérésí Type of grass that is long and thin; ɛn-aɨmʉ́rʉ́àì Star grass; ɔl-gʉ́rmɛ́ Bumper grass; ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass; [North] l-áráá Type of grass on banks of a river; [North] n-dálankúánì Type of grass on sides of hills; ɔl-ɔ́lɨ́lɨ́ Type of grass on abandoned homes.

ɔl-ámʉ̀yɛ̀   Nom sg: ɔl-ámʉ́yɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-amúyeishi. Nom pl: ɨl-ámuyeishí. [West] Nom sg: ɔl-amʉ́yɛ̀. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-amúyeshi. [North] Acc sg: l-ámìà. [North] Acc pl: l-amééshì. n. 1 • Male donkey. Epuonú ɨlamúyeshi kʉmɔ́k. The many male donkies are coming. (W).

2 • Boy. Usage: Derogatory.

ɛnk-ámʉ̀yɛ̀   Small male donkey. See: o-síkìrìà Donkey; e-ŋirô Donkey.

-án   Variant: -ɔ́n; -ón. nmlz. Suffix which creates a noun referring to a state or condition from stative verb roots. LING: The variant -ɔ́n follows -ATR /ɔ/ root vowels. Compare ɛn-dɔr-ɔ́n [FSG-be.red-NMLZ] 'redness, rust', versus ɛn-cal-án [FSG-weak-NMLZ] 'weakness' and ɛm-pɨj-án [FSG-be.sharp-NMLZ] 'sharpness'. The variant -ón follows +ATR root vowels as in en-gol-ón [FSG-be.hard-NMLZ] 'hardness, strength' and en-gut-ón [FSG-be.deep-NMLZ] 'depth'.

aná1   conj. Alternative conjunction; or. Kɛ́ntaré íyíéú aná inkíshú? Is it sheep you want, or cows? Íyíéú níásɨshɔ tɛ̀ súkùùl aná íyieu nílo aigurán? Do you want to work at school, or do you want to go and play? LING: For W, *anáà cannot occur in the preceding sentences. Ílótú ɛnkají âî aná ílo sokónì. Will you come to my house, or will you go to the market? See: anáà Or else.

anâ [North]2   Nom sg: aná. dem. [North] Feminine singular proximal demonstrative; this. Alɛ̂ gíitâ ápórórie anâ ŋɛ́rɛ́m. This rope is what I will use to creep/climb over this precipice. (SN). Kɔ́bɔ́r aná kɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. This cow is calm. (SN). See: ɛnâ This.

áná   pn. How. Áná ijó doí ɨ́mɔ́dà? How is it that you are stupid? (an insult).

ánàà   [South]: anáà. Variant: ɛ́nàà. prep. Resemble, like. Étíú oláyíóní ánàà mɛ́nyɛ́. A son looks like his father. Kórè ɛnkɛ́ráɨ́ nétìù ánàà ɔlkɨtɨ́ tʉŋánì. A child is like a small person. (W). Órè oshî táatá néméékure kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. Nowadays you don't come to see me like before. Maitókì áɨ́kata aikó injí mɛtáa tɔ́nyɔrra kʉnâ kíshú ánàà ɛnáányɔ́r. ([àìkónj̤í] when said quickly.) I will never do that to you again, so love these cows like how I love you.

ánàà aké   Daily, always. Syn: áà-nyàànyʉ̀k To look alike; a-tíú To be like; a-ikununó ánàà To resemble.

ánàà aké   Variant: ánaaké. adv. Every day, always. Ɛ́táá ɛná ájì ololá aitúkù ánàà aké. This house has become a burden, to clean it every day. Ɛátà ɛnkɛráí âî elubôî ánaaké tɛ́dɛkɛnyá amʉ̂ mɛ́ɨ́nɔ̀s ɛndáà téípà. My child has a lot of gluttony (eats voraciously) every morning because she doesn't eat in the evening. (W). Ámɨ́r ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ánàà aké. I sell a cow every day. (This implies it is a different cow each day; the emphasis is on "every day".). Álép ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ ánàà aké. I milk the cow every day. (W). LING: The strong tendency is to phonologically join the two words as ánaaké.

ánàà íjo   pn. How/why is it that?; Usage: Insult. Ánàà íjo doí ɨ́mɔ́dà? How is it that you are stupid?

anáàà   Variant: anáà; ánáà. conj. 1 • Or else; implies some repercussion if a certain alternative is not taken. Íló sukúùl anáàà ílo aɨrrɨtá inkíshú tɔ̀ lárí. Will you go to school, or go and look after cows in the rain? (e.g. said to a child to make him go to school). Shɔ́mɔ̀ siî sipitálì anáàà imúóyù olêŋ. Go to the hospital, or else you will be very sick. Ílotu ɛnkají âî anáàà íló sokónì. You better come to my house, or else you have to go to the market. (said as a threat). See: aná Or.

2 • Whether. Shɔ́mɔ́ ɛldɛ̂ túrrúr otíí endê̂ ɨ́ŋurááɨ́ tɛ̀ anáàà ítʉm. Go to that crowd of people and see whether you can find him. See: tɛnáà If, whether; wɛ̀ɨ̀tʉ̀ Whether.

ánáátá   Variant: ánátá. v.aux. 1 • Contrafactual modal auxiliary; should, would, could. Does not inflect for person. Ánátá ataasá síáì ŋolé. I would have done the work yesterday. (SN). Ánáátá ataasá esíáì ŋolé. I would/should/could have done some work yesterday. (W). Ánáátá itaasâ esíáì ŋolé. You (pl) should have done work yesterday. (W). Ánáátá etaasá esíáì ŋolé. He should have done work yesterday. (W). Kórè tɛ̀ nékítólíkíó ajó ílóítò sokónì ánáátá áɨ́rɨ́wáyìè ɨyakákɨ̀ ɔsabúnì. If you told me that you are going to the market, I could have sent you to bring me soap. (W). Kórè tɛ̀ nétolikíó nɨnyɛ́ ajó elóítò sokónì ánáátá eiriamarî. If he had told her that he was going to the market, she would/could have gone with him. (W). LING: This form does not inflect for person.

anápàrɨ̀ [Chamus]   adv. [North] Today, this day. See: [North] m-pârr Day.

ɛnk-anasá   Nom sg: ɛnk-ánasá. Acc pl: ɨnk-anasân. Nom pl: ɨnk-ánasân. n. 1 • Large village, town; large kraal. ɛnkanasá natíì oldóínyó a town/large kraal on the hill. ɛnkanasá sápʉ̀k a city.

2 • [South] Congregation.

ɛnk-anáshɛ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-ánàshɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-anáshɛ̀rà. Variant: ɨnk-anáshàrà. Nom pl: ɨnk-ánàshɛ̀rà; ɨnk-ánáshɛ̀rà. 1 • A female relative having the same father as "ego"; sister. LING: W uses just the second Nom PL form.

2 • A daughter of "ego's" father's siblings. A man cannot marry someone that is called ɛnkanáshɛ̀. This includes female offspring from the same mother and father as ego, from ego's father's brothers and sisters, from one's own clan. Ego cannot marry his mother's brother's daughters, but does not call them ɛnkanáshɛ̀.

3 • A female member of a religious group. Usage: Christian. ɛnkanáshɛ̀ tiátùà Yesu a sister in the Lord.

anáCɛ̀ bótór   Elder sister. See: ɔl-aláshɛ̀ Brother.

-ani   Variant: -oni. nmlz. Verb suffix which creates a singular agent nominalization. ɔlaárànì beater, attacker, killer; from root ar 'beat, kill'. Ɛtámúíyíá ŋolé oloshî áɨ́tɛ́rrání lɛ́ sokónì nɛ́ɨ́tɛ̀rrɛ̀ isáaí aré. The usual market fainter (i.e. person who always faints in the market) became sick yesterday and fainted for two hours. (W).

ɛn-ánká   Nom sg: ɛn-anká. Acc pl: ɨn-ánkàn; ɨn-ánkân. Nom pl: ɨn-ankán. 1 • [North] Modern clothing, e.g. shirt, trouser; cloth. LING: W uses the second Acc Pl form. Kɛ́átà aná anká múíán kúmò. This cloth has many colors. (SN).

2 • Skirt. In W ɛnánká could be used for a skirt with a zipper, but not for trousers.

3 • Kanga. During warrior graduation, a warrior will wear ɛnánká.

4 • Piece of cloth (from which clothing of any sort can be made). See: ɛn-kɨlâ Clothing; ɔl-káráshá Clothing; sheets; ɔl-ákɛ́sɛ́nà Skirt.

ɔl-antɛ́rɛrâî   Nom sg: ɔl-ántɛ́rɛrâî. Acc pl: ɨl-antɛ́rɛ̀rà. Nom pl: ɨl-ántɛ̀rɛ̀rà. n. Seed. Ɛtámá enkúényî ɔlantɛ́rɛrâî. The bird ate the seed. (W). Míntókì adanyʉ́ ɨlantɛ́rɛ̀rà tɔɔ́ lŋánàyìò. Stop splitting out seeds from the fruit.

ɔl-ántìyìà   Nom sg: ɔl-ántíyìà. Acc pl: ɨl-antíyìàn. Nom pl: ɨl-ántiyíán. n. Donkey. See: o-síkirìà Donkey.

anú   pn.inter. When? Anú kɨ́rɛ́wákɨ̀ ɛnapá áshê When are you bringing me the heifer? Kánù áɨ́nɔ́sɨ́tà ɛɨ́látá? When was I eating fat? (W). A: Kánù ɨ́ndɨ́pà atɛshɛ́tà ɛnkají? B: Áɨ́dɨ́pà ídîâ ɔlɔ́ŋ. A: When did you finish building the house? B: I finished it the other day. (Speaker B is not being specific about which day, except that it is in the past.) (W).

a-ány1   PF: tanya. v.prog v.aux+subjn-infinitive. 1 • To refuse, reject an object. Tányà taá ɨŋamʉ́ ɨ́nâ pálai ɛnyɛ́. Refuse to receive that letter of his. Áány ɛngárrì. I will refuse the vehicle. (*I will wait for the vehicle.) (W). Átányà ɛngárrì. I have refused the car. (W). Kɛ́anyɨ́tà ndáà. She is refusing the food. (SN).

2 • [North] To refuse to do an action. LING: Action refused occurs in infinitive verb form.

3 • To forbid an action. Tányá taá kígíróò tɛ̀ kíshòmì. Forbid him to bypass you at the gate. (Pk). Tányà taá ɛdaá inkíshù ɛ́nyɛnák tɔ̀ lcámpâ línò. Forbid his cows from grazing in your land. (W). Ɛtányá ɛdaá inkíshù áinêî tɔ̀ lcámpâ lɛ́nyɛ̀. He has forbidden my cows to graze on his land. (W). Ɛányɨ́tà ɛdaá inkíshù áinêî tɔ̀ lchámpâ lɛ́nyɛ̀. He is refusing that my cows graze on his land. (W).

4 • To deny an assertion. Ɛ́tányá eirúk ajó nɨnyɛ́ ɔ́ɔwá olkér láí. He has denied that he is the one who stole my castrated ram.

a-anyaá [South]   [South] To refuse many people, one at a time. See: a-anyʉ́ To wait for; a-mít To refuse; a-mikí To deny.

a-ány2   v. To hold in readiness, especially food, as you wait for an important person or group. Káshʉ́m kʉlɛ́ aány ɔlámál. I will keep milk ready because I am waiting for a ceremonial group. Ɛ́ány enkítòk ɔlpayíán lɛnyɛ́ oshomóyìè. A woman will keep food ready for her husband that has gone. See: e-mútà Food kept for s.o. special.

n-anyaálishôî [North]   Nom sg: n-ányaálishôî. n. [North] Part of the head above the ear. See: a-nyaál To chew.

ɛnk-anyarátì   Variant: nkanyorágà. Nom sg: ɛnk-ányarátì. Acc pl: ɨnk-anyarát. Nom pl: ɨnk-ányàràt. n. Phlegm, sputum. Ɛɨtáyíó ɔltásât ɛnkanyarátì náɨ́bɔrr. The old man coughed off grey phlegm. (Pk). See: ɛn-kíròkèt Cough.

a-anyɨ́t   Variant: a-yanyɨ́t. v.s. To respect. Áányɨ̀t nanʉ́ ɨltʉ́ŋáná kitúààk. I respect elders. Áyányɨ̀t nanʉ́ ɨltʉ́ŋáná kitúààk. I respect elders. Káányɨ̀t lpayianí. I respect elders. LING: For W, this verb takes an epenthetic /y/ only when a two-mora person prefix would otherwise create an extra-heavy syllable. Compare: Áányɨ̀t ɛnkanáshɛ̀ áɨ́ amʉ̂ bótór. I respect my sister because she is older. Ááyányɨ̀t iyíé. I respect you. Áayanyɨ̂t nínyɛ̀. He/she respects me. See: ɛnk-ányɨ́t Respect; ányɨ̀t Shame.

ɛnk-ányɨ̀t1   Nom sg: ɛnk-ányɨ̂t. Acc pl: ɨnk-ányɨ́tɨ́. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨnk-ányɨtɨ́. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨnk-ányɨtɨ́. n. Respect. Ɛnkányɨ̀t oshî erikíékì ɛnkɔ́p. By respect the world is ruled. Ɔltʉŋánì súpàt ɔɔ́tà ɛnkányɨ̀t ɛlɛ́ páyíán. This man is a good person who has respect. Oltʉŋánì lɛ́ nkányɨ̀t A person who is respected/who has respect. Áatará ɨnkányɨtɨ́. Due to my respect (for someone), I suffered some loss. (lit: Respects beat me.). See: a-anyɨ́t To respect; a-bár nkányɨ̀t [North] To show respect.

ányɨ̀t [North]2   Nom sg: ányɨ̂t. n.sg. [North] Shame. Ɨ́ntamá ányɨ̀t. Shame him/her. (SN). Syn: ɛn-kʉrrʉ́nà Shame. See: a-anyɨ́t To respect; ɛnk-ányɨ̀t Respect.

ɔl-anyɔ́rrànì   n. God; the one who loves. See: a-nyɔ́rr To love, like.

a-anyʉ́   PF: táányua. v.prog. v.prog. To wait, wait for sth. Wóu aké íyie amʉ̂ (k)áanyʉ. You just come because I will wait for you. Ágɨ́ra aanyʉ́ máayakɨnɨ̂ peê atúm ashɔ́mɔ̀. I am waiting to be given it so that I can go. (Pk). Tɛnáà taá ílotu tááisérè tólikíókì peê ááányʉ́. If you are coming tomorrow, tell me so that I can wait for you. (Pk). Míntókì doí awuapá, táanyʉ́ míkítólíkínì. Stop overreacting angrily and quickly; wait until you get informed. (Pk). Kɛ́anyʉ́ ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkitók ɛnyɛ́. The man will wait for his wife. (Pk). Átáányua ɛngárrì. I waited for the car. (W). Máítíéú ashɔ́mɔ̀ tɛ̀ mísimísi áányʉ́ mɛtáwaŋá. I fear going in the darkness; I will wait until it is bright. (W). LING: The progressive form of 'wait for' necessarily drops the ending -ʉ́ from the verb: Áányɨ́tà táatá. I am waiting for it today. Áányɨ́tà ɛngárrì. I am waiting for the vehicle. (*I am refusing the vehicle.) (W). Ááyányɨ́tà táatá. I am waiting for you today. (W). Kɛ́anyɨ́tà nɨnyɛ́. He/she is waiting for him/her. (SN). Káányɨ́tà lpayíán. I am waiting for the elder. (SN). Ɛgɨ́rà áànyɨ̀shɔ̀. They are waiting. (W). Ɛtaányɨ̀shɛ̀. He waited (but is not waiting any more). (W). Ɛtáányɨ́shɔ̀tɛ̀. They waited (and are not waiting any more). (W). Kɨ́tɛyɨɛŋâ enkíné amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n dúóó aké kɨ́ányɨ́tâ ɔlaɨgúɛ́nànì meéù. We have slaughtered a goat because we are still waiting for the chief to come. Kɨ́tɛyɨɛŋâ enkíné amʉ̂ ɛ́tɔ́n dúóó aké kɨ́ányɨ́tâ ɔlaɨgúɛ́nànì meéù. We have slaughtered a goat because we are still waiting for the chief to come.

2 • v.prog. [North] To be emboldened toward, i.e. to regain courage, esp. to fight an opponent previously feared; of children bulls etc. LING: Ventive -ʉ́ necessarily occurs for the meaning 'wait for' in the absence of other suffixes. The Ventive is retained in the Perfect(ive), making the Perfectives for 'wait for' and 'refuse' distinct. However, the Ventive suffix is dropped from 'wait for' in the Progressive and Antipassive, resulting in homophony with 'refuse' in those forms. For W, the Progressive form of any simply cannot be interpreted as 'refusing'. (Without these suffixes, however, bare a-ány means 'refuse'.) For W, an epenthetic /y/ or /ɨ/ may occur if an /a/-prefix occurs: áɨ́ányʉ́ ~ áányʉ́ 'I will wait for it.' áàyànyɨ̀tà 'He is waiting for me.'.

a-anyaá   1 • To ambush. Anyáríé ɨmbáà. He will use the arrows to wait in ambush for him.

2 • To wait over a period of time for several people's arrivals at different times; e.g. one comes, then some more come. See: a-ány To deny, forbid; a-rrɨmʉ́ [South] To wait.

a-anyicó [North]   [North] To be waiting.

(ɛnk-)áŋ   Nom sg: (ɛnk-)âŋ. Acc pl: ɨnk-áŋítìè. Nom pl: ɨnk-aŋitíé. [North] Acc pl: nk-áŋíté, nk-áŋítíé. n. 1 • Location where ones people and cattle are established; home, homestead. Traditionally associated with a kraal, but modernly may also refer to a place in a city where one's family resides. A traditional ɛnk-áŋ is arranged in a circular fashion, enclosed by a thorn-bush fence. Small houses are constructed around the inside perimeter, while the cattle sleep in the center of the ɛnk-áŋ. Traditionally ɛnk-áŋ are shared by more than one family, such as by a father, his sons, and their wives. Káló áŋ amʉ̂ ɛ́táá képonú intárè. I am going home because the goats and sheep are just about to come. (Pk). Ɛnkáŋ ɔɔ́ lMáásâɨ̂ ɛná. This is a Maasai home. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlpáyìàn ayietú ɨnkɨkʉ́ aɨkárr áŋ. The man is pulling branches (of trees) to fence the home. Máapé áàɨ̀dɨ̀p entúrórè ɛ́nkɔp peê kípúó áŋ. [kípúó ! áŋ] Let us go and finish up the cultivation so that we can go home. Wóu ɛnkáŋ âŋ tááisérè peê áányʉ́. Come to our home tomorrow and so I will wait for you. (Pk). Nélotu ɔlpáyìàn nɛ́manáà tɔɔ́ nkaŋitíé asotú ɨmálàsìn. The man comes and goes around homesteads collecting beer gourds. tì âŋ at home. See: ɛnk-ají House; bɔɔ́ Kraal; ɛ-mányátá Village; [North] l-orórà Village.

2 • Family. Ɛtáá képuonú ɛnkáŋ ɔlɛ́ Suyɨ́ánkà áàrìk entíto. Ole Suyianka's family is about to come and take the girl for marriage. (Pk). Ɨ́mbʉŋá ɛnkáŋ. Take care of the family. (W). LING: This noun is often used without gender prefix or demonstrative.

ɛnk-âŋ oó́ nkíshú   Kraal where cows stay; this may be away from the ɛnk-âŋ where one's family is.

ɛnk-âŋ ɔɔ́ ntaré   Kraal where the sheep and goats stay.

âŋ   Nom sg: áŋ. [North] Acc sg: âg. pn.psr. First person plural feminine possessive pronoun. Órè ɛnâ áshê náà ɛ́ná âŋ You see this heifer is ours.[náà ɛ̀nà âŋ]  Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɛnkɛráí áŋ sukúùl. Our child has gone to school.

ɛnk-áŋ ɛ kʉ́lɛ   n. Milk ceremony; an initiation ceremony which follows the e-únótó ceremony by a few months. Prior to this, a warrior must eat together with other warriors and may not even drink outside of the camp if women are present. Only following the ɛnk-áŋ ɛ-kʉ́lɛ ceremony may the man eat in the presence of his female lover or wife (and at first he may feel shameful doing so). This ceremony happens perhaps one week to one month before ɛnk-áŋ oó nkírír. This ceremony requires the entire age set to shave their red-ochre-stained hair. It is a mother's role to shave her own graduating son. See: a-ók kʉlɛ́ Milk drinking ceremony; e-únótó Installation home for warriors; ɛnk-áŋ oó nkírí Meat ceremoney.

ɛnk-áŋ oó nkírí   n. Meat ceremony, which allows warriors to eat by themselves meat that has been prepared by women of a selected homestead near the meat-camp; the particular women (likely women who only have sons and whose homes are not marked by conflict) are selected by elders. This ceremony may happen one week to about one month after ɛnk-áŋ ɛ kʉ́lɛ. Kórè inkitúààk ɔɔ́ nkáŋítìè náàtà típàt náà nɨncɛ́ egelúni peê éyíér inkírí tɛ̀ nkáŋ óò nkírí. Women from homes with values are the ones that are selected to cook meat at the meat-ceremony home. A specially chosen bull is slaughtered for this ceremony. Wives (from the nearby homestead) must prove to their husbands (junior elders) that they have not engaged in any illegitimate affairs with men of the younger warrior age-set. Whether this has occurred will be revealed by participating in the bull's skin ritual. Men wrestle among themselves to get near the bull's skin, to see if their wives have been unfaithful to their own (junior elder) age set. (If a woman is guilty, she will be disrespected by the whole age set. To regain respect she must obtain a cow for her husband from her relatives.) By the end of the meat ceremony, both men and women fight against one another for the specially roasted meat. See: ɛnk-áŋ ɛ kʉ́lɛ Milk ceremoney; e-únótó Installation home for warriors.

aŋâ   [South]: aŋaŋá. interj. Exclamation of horror or suprise at sth. unbelievable; it may be either really good, or really bad news. A: Kájì kɨ́nkʉ́nà ɛntɛmatá? B:Kʉ́ák aŋâ! Áɨ́mà pɔɔkɨ́! A: How did you do on the test? B: Incredible! I scored everything!

ɔl-áŋáríé kɨ́nà   Nom sg: ɔl-áŋaríé kɨ́nà. Acc pl: ɨl-áŋáríé kɨ́nà. Nom pl: ɨl-áŋaríé kɨ́nà. n. My brother, of the same biological mother. Kɛ́bɔ́r ɔlɔ́ŋaríé kɨ́nà. My brother is gentle. Ádɔ́l ɔláŋáríé kɨ́nà. I will see my brother. (lit: I will see the one with whom I share the breast.). See: ɔl-ɔŋaríé kɨ́nà His brother.

ɔl-áŋàt   Nom sg: ɔl-áŋât. Acc pl: ɨl-áŋatí. Nom pl: ɨl-áŋati ?. [West] Acc pl: ɨl-aŋáti. [West] Nom pl: ɨl-áŋatí. n. 1 • Hot coal fire, red hot coals.

en-kɨmá naijukújuk   coal fire.

áŋátá   Nom sg: aŋatá. Acc pl: aŋat. [North] Acc sg: ɔ́ŋátà. n. 1 • Flat country: plain, desert. ti aŋata on the plain, in the desert.

2 • Area outside of the home. Átódùàà olowuarú kerî tì ɔŋɔtá. I have seen a spotted leopard in the bush. (Pk). LING: Mol notes that this noun is feminine, but that it rarely occurs with a gender prefix.

3 • Opening or place where one can cross a river; fording place.

Áŋátá nányókíé   n.prop. Original Maasai name for the present-day Wuasinkishu Plateau, Kenya.

Áŋátá ɔ́lɛ̀ Narɨ́kà   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá ó lgúlúlui   n.prop. Place name 20 km. south-east of Namanga, Kenya.

Áŋátá ɔɔ́ lásít   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá ɔɔ́ lmotíòòk   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá è Loitá   n.prop. Place name of large plains south-west of Narok Town, Narok District, Kenya. The Áŋátá Loitá is bordered by the Olkinyei Hills, the Pardamat Hills, the Ilkeekoorook Road, and the Narok-Ololulunga Road.

Áŋátá oó lturót   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá oó nkíshú   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá pʉ̂s   n.prop. Name of one of the plains in the Maasai Mara game park, located between the Ilkeekoorook Lodge and the Talek Gate.

Áŋátá rɔ́nkáí   n.prop. Place name 15 km. south of Nairobi along the road to Magadi, Kenya.

Áŋátá sɨ́nyáí   n.prop. Place name.

Áŋátá Táɨ̀k   n.prop. Place name.

áŋátá é kítét   Kitet/Suswa Plains, Narok District, Kenya. Ɛɨbɔ́rra aŋatá é kítét. The Kitet plain has become dry.

Áŋátá náádɔ́   Place name about 23 km. south-east of Narok Town, Kenya.

Áŋátá nasɨ́nyà   Name of one of the plains in the Maasai Mara game park.

áŋátá e ntérít   Place name 10 km. east of Naarɔɔsura, Narok District, Kenya. See: e-wúâs Plain.

áŋátá Barrikóì   n.prop. Plain. See: Ɔ́ŋátá Barrikóì Place name in Trans-Mara, Kenya, 20 km. south of Lolgorien, on the border with Tanzania.

ɔl-áŋéní   Nom sg: ɔl-aŋení. Acc pl: ɨl-áŋénî. Nom pl: ɨl-áŋénî. n. Wiseman. Ɔláŋéní aké óyíóló ɛnaikoní tɛnɛ́ɨ́tɔbɨrɨ́ ɛnkáŋ natasakutókì. It is only the wiseman who knows how to undo a curse lodged at a certain home. Népuonu ɨláŋénî. Wisemen came. This person gives you advice, and reads stars and slaughtered goats to fortell rain.

ɛnk-áŋéní   Wisewoman. See: [North] l-aánkamíníŋì Wiseman.

l-áŋíé [North]   Nom sg: l-aŋíé. n. 1 • [North] Bridge.

2 • [North] Dam that holds water for a long period of time.

ɔl-aŋórònì   Nom sg: ɔl-áŋóróní. Acc pl: ɨl-aŋorók. Nom pl: ɨl-aŋorók. n. 1 • Hunter. Ɛ́tárá ŋolé ɔláŋóróní ɔrmɛʉ́t tiaúlùò âŋ. Yesterday a hunter killed a giraffe just outside our home. (Pk). This may apply to one who kills wildlife for security, food, or fun.

2 • One who supplies the family with its necessities: provider, breadwinner. Eléléró oshî ilaŋorók lɔ́ɔ̀ nkáŋítìè ɛnyɛ̂. It is the young adults who are the breadwinners of their homes. (Pk).

3 • Supporter; advocate, lawyer. Kʉlɔ̂ tʉ́ŋáná dóí ilaŋorók lááinéí tɛná gɛlarɛ́. These people are my supporters in this election. (Pk). See: ol-tórróboní Hunter.

ɛn-aɔk katampó   Mythological serpent that is so tall it drinks from the clouds. See: ɛnɛ-m-atatampó Mythological serpent.

ol-áómónónì   Nom pl: aomónòk. n. 1 • One who keeps on begging.

2 • [Chamus] Worshipper. Maasai people do not commonly beg, but this could be applied to Nairobi street children. See: a-omón To beg.

a-áp1   v.s. 1 • To become pregnant or give birth before circumcision. Usage: vulgar. Ɛ́táápá entitó ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ ɛ́mʉ́rátɨ̂ The girl has become pregnant before circumcision. It is tragic if this occurs; the girl is in disgrace and generally despised.

2 • [North] To be pregnant (of an animal). Kɛ́áp nkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ. The cow is pregnant. (SN).

3 • [North] To be in early stages of pregnancy.

4 • [South] To wrestle in a friendly way, usually done by warriors as play. LING: In K and W, this verb cannot occur in the progressive, nor in the inceptive. See: a-atá ɛ́-nátîû To be pregnant; a-ɨmalɨmál To fool about; ɛn-táápáí Girl who gets pregnant before circumcision; a-nʉtá To be pregnant; áà-nàŋàrò To wrestle.

a-apʉ́ [North]   [North] To become pregnant, of animals.

a-áp [North]2   v. [North] To help each other (e.g. raise a heavy object). Ɛtaápàtɛ̀. They have helped each other. (S). See: a-apʉ́ To lift, raise.

áà-àpà   v.mid.pl. To wrestle together as friends. Kítáápátè We will wrestle (friendly) with each other. See: a-aparɛ́ To wrestle with; áà-nàŋàrò To wrestle.

apá   [West]: ɔpá. adv. 1 • adv. Previous time: long ago, before, formerly. Nétií apá, ɔlmʉrraní óbo. Long ago, there was a warrior. Órè oshî táatá néméékúré kílótú aɨrɔrɔkɨ́ ánàà apá. Nowadays you don't come to see me like before. Íkúɛ́t ɔpá? Did you used to run? (W). The first apá in the following sentence brings out the meaning that the "action was suppose to have been done before" and now it is time to do it. Képuoi taá apá áàsàì amʉ̂ ɔmɛsáyìà apá. She is going to be betrothed because she was not betrothed before. Ɛshɔmɔ́ doí apá (~ ɔpá)? Ɛákʉ̀? He has actually gone long ago. Isn't that right? (W).

2 • adv. Later, afterwards. peê iponúnù apá áàrìk entíto. so that [when everything is done] you can come to lead [marry] the girl.

3 • adj.quant. Former. áàsʉ̀j ɨnapá kíshú ɛnyɛ̂ to follow those cows of theirs. LING: The root apâ may be prefixed with demonstratives to mean 'the one(s) previously mentioned'. ɛniapá iná búkù a book from a long time ago (i.e. that has been superceded by more recent books).

n-kapá apá   Long time ago events.

ɔl-ápà   1 • Previous one. Ɛlɛ̂ áshê apá ɛwalatá ɔ́ lapá kɨ́nɛ́ oteyiaŋá. This calf is what he gave for the exchange of the castrated he-goat he slaughtered. Ant: kɛnyá Someday in the future.

ɔl-ápà1   Nom sg: ɔl-ápâ. Acc pl: ɨl-apaitín. Nom pl: ɨl-ápàìtìn. [North] Acc pl: l-apatín. [North] Nom pl: l-ápàtìn. n. 1 • Moon. Ɛwákɨ̀ ɔlápà. It is the first sighting of the new moon. (lit: The moon has been taken.).

2 • Month; one lunar cycle. In Maa, "moon" implies "month", and vice-versa. The plural specifically indicates 'months'. The Maasai month is divided into two parts of two further parts each. The two main parts correspond from the waning of the moon until full darkness; and from the new moon to the full moon. See: ɨm-paashát Fortnight.

ɔl-kádɛ́d  

ol-ónyókíé  

e-sopíà naitúrùkù  

e-sopíà ɛ pɔ́lɔ̀s  

e-sopíà nabayíé   Hym: apá Long ago.

ɔl-ápà2   Nom sg: ɔl-ápâ. Acc pl: ɨl-ápà(y)ì. Nom pl: ɨl-ápáì. n. Mushroom. See: ɛm-pɔ́pɨát mushroom.

apáayîâ   greeting. 1 • Respectful term of address used by a man when greeting an unfamiliar man, whose age is uncertain but likely of one's own age-set and younger than the speaker's father. If the speaker imagines the addressee is the same age as his father, then he would say mpápá, mpapa áí, pápà. If the addressee is older than the speaker's father, he would say inkúyìàà.

2 • [North] Respectful term of address for greeting an older man.

l-apáí [North]   n. [North] The first drop of milk when milking a cow. See: kʉlɛ́ Milk.

ɨl-apaitín   Nom pl: ɨl-ápàìtìn. n.pl. Months of the Maasai calendar; season. Some Maa speakers suggest the following are names of months: Ilapaitín loó nkókùà 'Season of the long rains'; oladalʉ́ 'The one that becomes scorched' (January); arát 'Green just at the bottom of the valleys' (February); ɔɛnɨ́ ɔɨŋɔk 'The ritual tying of bulls' (March); olodoyíóríê inkókúâ 'When the Pleiades set' (April); Ilapaitín lɔ́ lɔɨrʉjʉ́rʉ̀j 'Chilly season'; ol-oilépunyie inkókúâ 'When the Pleiades rise' (May); kújú ɔ̀rɔ̀k 'Long black hair' (June); mórusásìn 'Thin stones' (July); ɔl-ɔ́ɨ́bɔ́r árɛ̀ 'White foamy water' (August); Il-apaitín ló ltúmùrèt 'Season of short rains'; kúshîn 'African pied wagtail' (September); ol-gísàn (October); pʉshʉ́kà 'Flower buds' (November); ntʉ́ŋʉ́s 'Short rain' (December). See: ɔl-ápà Moon, month.

l-aparasíyíó [North]   n. [North] Type of song sung by women at the door of the house where a girl was excised or a boy was circumcised, some hours after the operation. See: [North] n-tírrá Song by warriors; [North] l-ɔ́dɔ̀ Song by old men; [North] n-dikíé Song by boys; [North] l-ɛbártà Mockery song for almost-circumcised boys; [North] l-kíshúrótó Raiders' song of victory; [North] l-kulonkóì Song by night trekkers; [North] n-kérèyìò Song by uninitiated girls; e-wókò Song to narrate one's achievement.

a-aparɛ́   1 • v.mid v.inst. To wrestle with s.o. Káaaparɛ́. He will wrestle with me. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà aaparɛ́ Lékùmòk Osinyú peê ɛ̀dɔ̀l tɛ̀ náà kɛ́ɨ́dɨ́mʉ̀. Lekumok is wrestling with Osinyu, to see if he is able to (put him down). (W) [This necessarily implies that Osinyu is stronger than Lekumok.]. Kájì eikó ɔltʉ́ŋání peê ɛaparɛ́ ɛnkÁí? How can a man wrestle with God? (W).

2 • v.dir v.mid. [South] [West] [North] To hide.

3 • v.dir v.mid. [West] To go alongside sth. extended in space. Ɛáparɛ̂ entîm peê mɛ́dɔ́l ɨlmáŋatí. They hid (on the other side of) the bush so that the enemies could not see them. (W) [This implies that the enemies were on one side of the forest, while the plural subject was moving along the other side (i.e. not stationary).]. Ɛgɨ́rà aaparɛ́ oreyíét aɨŋɔrʉ́ ewúéjì nɛlaŋíé. He is going alongside the river to look for a place to cross. (W).

4 • v.dir v.mid. [North] To cure. See: a-ishíú To recover; a-itomwáí To cure.

5 • v.dir v.mid. [North] To take care of an injured person. Káálótú aaparɛ́. I will come to take care of you. (SN).

6 • v.dir v.mid. [South] [North] To work hard.

apáyìà   greeting. 1 • [North] Term of greeting a respected older man.

2 • Term for greeting someone your age that you don't know.

nk-apenîâ [North]   Nom sg: nk-ápenîâ. n. [North] Milk fat found in cooled fresh milk. See: ɔl-arámpâî Cream; rapátì Soup fat.

apiyíó [North]   Nom sg: ápiyíó. Acc pl: apiyioní. Nom pl: ápiyioní. n. [North] Uncle.

nk-ápiyio   Aunt. See: ápùyìà Uncle.

n-apɔrsaɨnɨá [Chamus]   n. [Chamus] Spider. See: ol-kédì Spider; e-súrùsùrì Spider; ol-pipí Spider.

a-apʉ́   v.dir. v.dir. To raise sth. up, lift; support sth. (e.g. a falling table); lift sth. heavy. Ɛapʉ́ ɛnkɛráí osoít. The child is lifting up a (heavy) stone. Etaápúá ɛnkɛráí osoít ŋolé. The child lifted the stone yesterday. (W). Káápʉ́ lórika. Can I lift the chair? (SN).

2 • v.dir. [North] To give psychological support. LING: This stem apparently does not occur in the simple form *ap without some suffix. The aspect suffixes are characteristic of an active verb (v.a).

a-apaá   [North] To pick sth. up, collect sth. lying down. Ɛápáà ɛnkɛráí osoít. The child is moving the stone (e.g. to clear it away). (W). Káápáà nkáɨ́ná. I will lift my hand. (SN). Usage: Though both apá nkáɨ́ná and apáà nkáɨ́na are possible, the former has more of a sense that something is being done to the hand..

a-apɨtá [North]   [North] To be lifting something up. Káápɨ́tà nkɛ́ráí. I am lifting the child. (SN). See: [North] a-rrapʉ́ To pick up.

nk-apúpôî [North]   [North] Nom sg: nk-ápupôî. [North] Acc pl: nk-apúpôî. [North] Nom pl: nk-ápupôî. n. [North] Wing. See: ɛn-aipúkôî Wing.

ɔl-apúrrònì   Nom sg: ɔl-ápúrróní. Acc pl: ɨl-apurrók. Nom pl: ɨl-ápúrrók, ɨl-apurrók. n. Thief. Ɛɨbʉ́ŋá ɨsɨ́karɨnɨ́ ɔlapúrrònì. The policemen have arrested the thief. (i.e. he has his hands tied up and has been carried off to jail) (W). Ɛ́tɨ́giɨ́lá ɔlápúrróní ɛnkají nɛ́yà ɨmɔtíòò(k) pɔɔkiɨ́. A thief broke into the house and took all the pots. Syn: ol-púrríshóí Thief. See: ɔl-áínyámoní Livestock thief.

ɛnk-apʉtánì   Nom sg: ɛnk-ápʉ́tání. Acc pl: ɨnk-apʉták. Nom pl: ɨnk-ápʉ̀tàk. [North] Acc sg: nk-aʉtánì. [South] Acc sg: ɛnk-aʉtánì. n. Mother-in-law, from either husband or wife's perspective; feminine affinal relative, particularly of the same generation as the mother-in-law. A man cannot sleep under the same roof as his mother-in-law. Their interactions are cautious, respectful, and limited in scope. LING: If there is no possessive modifier, the default understanding is that ɛnk-apʉtánì would refer to "my mother-in-law". LING: The feminine plural form refers to wives of the father-in-law or wives of brothers of the father of a man's wife; or to wives of the brothers of the father of a woman's husband. It could be extended to refer to wives of the father-in-law's age-set.

ɔl-apʉtánì   Father-in-law, from either husband or wife's perspective. Acc pl: ɨl-apʉták.

1 • Male relatives of the father-in-law's age, male in-laws; fathers-in-law.

2 • In-laws, including both men and women.

ɔl-aʉtánì   Wife's father. See: ɛnk-apʉtɨ́ Marriage negotiations; yieyíô Mother.

ɛnk-apʉtɨ́   Nom sg: ɛnk-apʉ́tɨ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-aápʉ̀tɨ̀. Nom pl: ɨnk-aapʉtí. n. 1 • Marriage negotiations; the establishment of a relationship between in-laws. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ŋolé ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkapʉtɨ́ éntító ɛnyɛ́. The man went for the marriage negotiations of his daughter. ɛnkapʉtɨ́ includes the contact between the two people who are going to marry, between the families, and the formal instructions by parents and parents' friends to the people who are going to marry. The primary focus in the negotiations is on the man; typically women do not come to negotiation meetings until the final stages.

2 • Relative by marriage.

3 • [South] Relative (any). LING: The masculine counterpart does not exist for this word.

in-kíshú ɛ́ nkapʉtɨ́   Cattle for marriage negotiations.

ápùyìà   Variant: apú. n.voc. Term of address for uncle. Ápùyìà, kájì íló? Uncle, where are you going?

a-ár1   PF: tara. v.prog. 1 • To beat. Ɛárɨ́tà ɔlŋatúny olóítíkó. The lion is attacking the zebra. (W). Ɛ́táárá ɔlpáyìàn ɛnkɛ́ráí naɨmalɨ́mala. The man has beaten the child who has misbehaved. Táàrà ɨ̀nà kɨ́tɛ́ŋ mɛshɔ́mɔ̀ aɨŋuá kʉ́tʉ́k-ají. Beat that cow so it leaves the door of the house.

2 • To harm. Kɛ́ar doí iyíóók ɛlɛ̂ tʉ́ŋání. This person is indeed going to harm us (perhaps verbally or physically, or even kill us). (Pk). Ɛ́táárá ɔlɔ́ɨ́ŋɔ́nɨ́ ɔlɨkáɨ́ agɨ́l ɛnkɛjʉ́ The bull has harmed the other one by breaking its le.g.

3 • To verbally expose someone's guilt. Ɛ́táárá tɛ̀ nkutúk aɨmakɨ́ entorróni ɛnyɛ́. He has beaten him with the mouth to tell about his bad deeds. Tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k aké ɛ́táárá ayɨmakɨ́ ɛntorróní ɛnyɛ́ pɔɔkɨ́. It is only by mouth that he beat him to expose all his wrongdoing.

4 • [North] To reach as far as (as a radio transmitter capable of hitting Nairobi).

5 • Fought (PF). LING: táárà.

áà-rà   v.mid.pl. To fight. Ɛtaáràtɛ̀ ŋolé. They fought (physically) yesterday. (Pk). Míntikíkì áàrà pɛ́shɔ̀. Stop fighting for no cause. (Pk). Ɛ́tɔ́ná ŋolé áàrà tɔɔ́ nkʉtʉkíé ɔmɛtádóí ɛnkɔ́lɔ̀ŋ. They kept fighting verbally until the sun went down. (Pk). Kɨ́ará. We are fighting one another. (W).

a-ararɛ́   v.dir v.appl. To fight against sth. such as a person, idea, or policy; fight with, struggle with. Ɛtáràrɛ̀ ɔmɛ́ɨ́dimʉ́ kɛnyá. He fought against it until he won at long last. Órè tɛ̀ nkɛ́shâ ínyí ɨararɛ́rɛ̀ iŋók in your struggle against sin (lit: in your fighting with sin). Táàràrɛ̀ ɔmɨ́kɨ́tápálà. Fight with him until he stops fighting you.

a-ariár   1 • To beat and beat.

2 • To beat gently.

ɛ-ároyú   Takeable-away by force. Ɛároyú kʉnâ kíshù amʉ̂ éísidaîn olêŋ. These cows can be taken away by force because they are so good. LING: The infinitive *a-aroyú does not exist.

a-araá   To drive away. Kɛ́aráà ɛlɛ́ páyìàn ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛnyɛ́ tò roréí This man is going to drive away his child by his compaint.

a-arʉ́   To beat towards the speaker. Ɛarʉ́ ɛnkáyíóní inkíshú tɛ̀ oréyìèt. The boy will beat the cows from the river. Ɛarúno inkíshù tɛ̀ oréyìèt. Cows have been beaten out of the river . Ɛarúnoyú inkíshù tɛ̀ oréyìèt. Cows can be beaten out of the river. Ɛtɔ́rɔ́pá lpáyìàn látíá ɛnyɛ́ aishó ntáré payîê mélíkóò áàjò nɨnyɛ́ ɔ́tarúá nkíshú. The man has bribed his neighbours by giving them goats so that they may not report that he raided/stole[lit: beat toward the pt. of reference] the cows. (SN). See: a-idóŋ To beat; a-óC To beat; a-ósh To hit.

a-aryé   [North] To beat with.

a-ár2   [North]: árr. PF: taara. v.prog. 1 • To kill. Kɛ́ar doí iyíóók ɛlɛ̂ tʉ́ŋání. This person is indeed going to kill us. Áɨ́dɨ́mà ataárà ɔlŋátúny metúá ŋolé. I was able to kill the lion yesterday. (W). LING: For some speakers the perfect of 'kill' is a-tará, as opposed to a-taará 'beat'. Other speakers make no perfect distinction between the two meanings. Ɛ́tárá apá ɔlarinkóí ɨnjorín. Long ago Olarinkoi killed groups of warriors. Ɛtáárá oldîâ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ metúá. The dog killed the cow. (W). Ɛtáárá ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ oldîâ metúá. The cow killed the dog. (W). Ɛtáárá ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ metúá ŋolé. She killed the cow yesterday. (W). Ɛ́tárá ɛnkaí aarié ɔlálɛ́m ónyókíé. God killed him with a red sword. (i.e., in a terriably destructive way). (Pk). Ɛ́tárá olówùàrù kéri enkíné. A leopard has killed a goat. Áárɨ́tà. I am killing it. aár metúá to kill (lit. to kill/beat so it is dead) (W). See: a-sesekúán To kill.

2 • To extinguish. Usage: fire. Ɛ́tárá enkítòk ɛnkɨ́má tɛ̀ nkárɛ̀. The woman has extinguished fire with water. Áár nkɨ́má. I am putting out the fire. (SN).

3 • To make sth. disfunctional. Ɛ́tárá ɔlmalimúí sukúùl mɛtáà meponú ɨnkɛ́ra. The teacher has made the school dysfunction so that there are no more students coming. Ɛ́tárá olmórúò ɛngárì áí. The man has made my car dysfunctional. Kéríco rrárràt ɛ́ ltupá. Pieces of a broken bottle do hurt. (SN). LING: From K-e-ar-ico DSCN-3-kill-ANTPAS. LING: tárà killed (PFTV).

a-itaár, a-ɨtár   To cause to be beaten, extinguished.

a-ár metua [North]   [North] To kill.

a-arakɨ́ [North]   [North] To kill for.

a-aricó [North]   [North] To be a killer, to kill habitually.

a-aríé [North]   [North] To kill with.

a-ár ɛnkárɛ́   v.prog. 1 • To swim. Áárɨ́tà ɛnkárɛ́. I am swimming. Átááráyìè ɛnkárɛ́ aɨlɛ́p. I swam up out of the water. Maa has no basic term for the concept of 'swim'.

2 • [North] To fish. The Northern Samburu do not fish, but they know other groups who do in nearby Lake Turkana. See: a-ɨsɔmpɨrá To swim; a-sʉjarɛ́ To swim; a-pór ɛnkárɛ́ To swim; [North] a-lɔ́p ɛnkárɛ́ To swim.

a-ár ɛn-kɨ́mà   v.prog. To sweat. Káàrɨ̀tà ɛnkɨ́mà. (lit: Fire is beating/killing me.) (i) I'm sweating! (K) (ii) The fire is heating me (e.g. I am near a fire and the fire is too hot.) (SN). Ákúɛ́tà ŋolé náaâr ɛnkɨ́mà. (lit: I ran yesterday and the fire beat(s) me.) (i) I ran yesterday and I sweated. (K) (ii) I ran yesterday and the fire burned me. (SN). LING: Note that ɛnkɨ́mà takes the Nominative form, while the person sweating is the object.

áà-àr en-kúkúó   v.pl. To play a guessing-game using a single charcoal piece hidden in the hand; players guess which hand it is in.

a-ará   [West]: a-araá. v.dir. To keep to one side, struggle toward one side. Ɛgɨ́rà ɔlárɛwání lɛ́ gárrì aaraá encótó ɛ́ tátɛ́nɛ́ ɔ́ lgwɛ̂ peê mɛ́rʉ́s inkíshú. The driver of the car is keeping/fighting to the right side of the road so that he doesn't hit the cows. (W). Kɛ́taráítìè kɨdɛ́nyɛ́. They kept to the left. (SN).

ɛn-árà   Acc pl: ɨn-araritín. Nom pl: ɨn-áraritín. n. Battle, fighting, war. See: ol-áràbàl War; en-jóré War.

áà-àrà   Variant: ara. v.mid.pl. To fight, fight each other. Ɛtaáràtè ŋolé. They fought yesterday. (Pk). Míntokíkì áààrà pɛ́shɔ̀. Stop fighting with no reason. (Pk). See: árà Battle, fighting; a-ár To beat, to kill.

ɛn-áráá1   Nom sg: ɛn-araá. n. Leaves laid down to act as a table for laying meat on, after roasting the meat. Syn: [North] n-tasá Leaves for laying meat on top of. See: ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass.

l-áráá [North]2   Nom sg: l-araá. Acc pl: l-áráân. Nom pl: l-araán. n. [North] Type of grass that grows on the banks of a river; reeds. See synonyms at: See: ɛn-kʉ́jɨ́tá Grass.

ɔl-arábànì [South]   n. [South] Beater, attacker. See: ɔl-aárànì Beater, attacker.

l-arágòlè [North]   n. [North] Sth. one throws, and it comes back to you; boomerang.

ɛnk-arakɨ́   Nom sg: ɛnk-árakɨ́. n.sg. Reason, because of. Ɛɨtʉ́ elo Renóí sukúùl tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ emueyíán. Renoi has not gone to school because of sickness.

arakɨ́   conj. Or. Tɛ́gɛlʉ́ enkishúí arakɨ́ kɛɛ́yà. Choose between life or death. Syn: arashʉ̂ Or, unless.

ɔl-árámátànì   n. Shepherd.

ɔl-arámpâî   Nom sg: ol-árampâî. Acc pl: ɨl-arámpa. Nom pl: ɨl-árampá. n. 1 • Fat part of milk which rises to the top; cream.

2 • [West] Green scum-like material that develops over water; algae. See: ɛn-kapianá Milk fat; ɛ-ŋɔrnɔ̂ Ghee.

ɔl-árànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áránì. Acc pl: ɨl-áràk. Nom pl: ɨl-áràk. n. Murderer, killer. See: ɔl-aárànì Beater, attacker.

ɔl-arányànì   Nom sg: ɔl-árányání. Acc pl: ɨl-aranyák. Nom pl: ɨl-árányák. n. Singer.

ɔl-aranyɨ́   Nom sg: ɔl-áranyɨ́. n. Song. See: [North] l-kení song; o-sínkólio Song.

ɔl-áràò   Nom sg: ɔl-áráò. Acc pl: ɨl-aráon. Nom pl: ɨl-áraón. n. 1 • Piece of leather, or "broom", about the size of one's palm, usually used by women for cleaning out a pen for sheep or calves. Tɔrrɔ́k kʉlɔ́ áraón. These cleaning skins are bad. (W).

2 • [North] One who brings in cows from raids.

ɛnk-áràò   [North] Water trough. See: e-orét Broom; [Camus] l-piríyeét Broom.

ɛnk-ararâî   Nom sg: ɛnk-árarâî. Acc pl: ɨnk-arará. Nom pl: ɨnk-áràrà. n. 1 • Plastic.

2 • Quill.

árárɛ́ [North]   n. [North] Wax.

a-ararí   v. 1 • To keep to one side. Táarari kédíányɛ́! Keep to the left! Ɛ́mintókì áàràrì idia áló! (You pl.) keep to that side! Ájó áípótù meéù ɛná shótó ɔ́ lgʉ̂ɛ̂; nɛ́arárì aló ɛnkáɨ́ shótó. I tried to call him to come to this side of the road; then he kept on going/struggling towards the other side. (W).

2 • [North] To be scared away. Kórè peê ɛ́dɔ́l iyioó lósowuaní nɛ́arárì áàɨ̀sɨ̀g. When the buffalo saw us, they ran away fleeing. (SN).

3 • [South] To go astray, rebel. See: a-póŋ To miss.

ɛ-árárotó   Nom sg: ɛ-arárotó. Acc pl: ɨ-ararót. Nom pl: ɨ-árarót. n. 1 • Captivity. Órè apá ɨltʉ́ŋáná pɔɔkɨ́ ɔɔ́tɨmɨrakɨ́ nɛ́yáɨ́ ɛárárotó. All the people that were defeated were taken into captivity. (Pk). Órè apá peê áâ ɔlɛ́ɨ́lɔ̀ órèrè náà mɛ́nyɛ́ apá ɔ́aráro. He became of that people because his father was the one taken into captivity. (Pk).

2 • Captive.

ɔl-arásì   Nom sg: ɔl-áràsì. Acc pl: ɨl-arâs. Nom pl: ɨl-áràs. n. Rib. Ɨlpayianí oshî ɔ́ɔnya ɨlarâs lɔ́lkɨtɛŋ It is men who eat the bullock's ribs. See: [North] l-máràì Rib; [North] l-babák Rib.

arashʉ̂   Variant: aashʉ̂. [West]: aashʉ́. [North]: o aashû. conj. 1 • Or. Shɔ́mɔ̀ áŋ o aashʉ̂ɔlɔɨnyaŋɨ́. Go home or to the market. Áításhe o aashʉ̂ atɔ́n. I will stand or sit down. Tɛ́gɛlʉ́ enkishúí aashʉ̂ kɛɛ́yà Choose between life or death.

2 • So as to prevent the possibility of sth.; lest. Ísumayú arashʉ̂ ɨbatáta. Study lest you fail. (Pk).

3 • Unless, if. Arashʉ̂ aké teníkínyórrù ínâ kátá aké árét. If you love me, that is when I will help you. (Pk). See: aashʉ̂ Or; aɨashʉ̂ Or. Syn: arakɨ́ Or.

arát1   Nom sg: áràt. Acc pl: ɨ-arát. n.sg. 1 • n.sg. February; the second month in the calendar. Arát oshî euníékì ɨlpáyɛ̂k. It is in February that they usually plant maize.

2 • adj. The quality of greenness at the bottom of a valley, just as the valley opens out to the plain, due to the greater moisture at that point.

l-arát [North]2   Nom sg: l-áràt. Acc pl: l-aratí. Nom pl: l-áratí. n. [North] Metal object inside a bell that rotates to make the bell ring; clapper. See: ɛnk-arɛ́t Clapper.

ɛnk-arbúálì   n. Blood clot. See: ɛnk-albúálì Blood clot.

aré   Nom pl: árè. num. Two (feminine). This is the form used in simple counting, e.g. one, two, three, four, etc. Ɛ́rá ɨnkɛjɛ́k ɔ́ ltʉŋánì aré A person has two legs. Ɛ́rá inkíyiáá ɔ́ ltʉŋánì aré. The ears of a person are two. (Pk). Népúónú inkítùààk árè. Two women came. ɛlʉ́kʉ̀ŋʉ̀ aré two hens. kʉnâ búkuí aré sidaîn naárɔɔ́k these two good black books (W). See: aárè Two (msg).

-arɛ1   Variant: -ore. appl voi. Suffix complex containing Middle plus Instrumental applicative. Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkɛráí kɨ́tɨ̀ aɛlarɛ́ ɛnkapianá. The little child is smearing herself with milk fat found in cooled fresh milk. (Pk). Ɛgɨ́rà ɛnkáyíóní adalarɛ́ intótò. The boy is playing with pebbles. (Pk). Nónokúà nkíshú náírukurukórè ntaré. There are the cows moving together with the goats. (SN). Káya ɛnâ motí aló aɨtaás eyíárárɛ́. I am taking this cooking pot so that I can use it for cooking with. (Pk).

-arɛ2   Variant: -ore. nmlz. Nominalizer for active verbs, creating a noun referring primarily to the action. With some verbs, -arɛ gives the idea of repeated instances of an action, in contrast to nominalizations in -ata which may refer to single instances of the action. Mayíólò ajó káɨ́nyɔɔ náyawúá ɛnâ síàì ɛsɨ́ŋárɛ̀ oltiól. Kájó kʉlɔ́ keék ɔɔ́dànyɨ̀tà ɨntapʉ́kà. I don't know what brought about this act/business of sneezing. Maybe it is because of these trees that are flowering. See: -ata Nominalizer.

ɔl-árɛ́1   Nom sg: ɔl-árɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨl-áríák. Nom pl: ɨl-aríák. [North] Acc sg: l-árɛ́. [North] Nom sg: l-árɛ̀. [North] Acc pl: l-áríák. [North] Nom pl: l-aríák. n. 1 • Swamp; low land that is seasonally flooded.

2 • Oasis. Ɛshɔmɔ́ dúóó ilmoŋí áàòk ɔlárɛ́. The oxen have gone to drink from the oasis. (Pk). Syn: ɔl-cɔ́rrɔ̀ Well. See: ol-túrótó Well.

ɛnk-árɛ́2   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀. Acc pl: ɨnk-áríák. Nom pl: ɨnk-aríák. n. 1 • Water. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɛndâ kilásì matoókìè ɛnkárɛ́. Give me that glass that I may drink water with it. (Pk). Ɛwá ɛnkají ɛnkárɛ̀ The house has been consumed by fire. (lit: Water carried the house away.). Míntókì abukoó inkáríák tì ájì amʉ̂ kɛ́ɨ́táshàl. Stop pouring out (containers of) waters because it makes the house wet. (Pk). Usage: euphonistic [euphemistic?]. See Mpaayei, Inkuti Pukunot, p.49.

2 • River. The plural inkáríák refers to rivers, streams, dams, seas, etc. collectively, and means great quantities of water. Etym: *kárɛ́ 'water' Proto-Eastern Nilotic 1559 water; < *aR Proto-Nilotic 1559 to flow.

ɔl-árɛ́   Salt water.

a-pór ɛnkárɛ́   To float on the water.

a-ár ɛnkárɛ́   To swim (lit: To beat the water).

ɛnk-árɛ́ dápásh   n.prop. Maasai name for the Mara River, Narok District, Kenya. The Mara River has its source in the Mau Narok range, but acquires the name 'Mara River' at the point where the Amala River and the Nyangoris River come together near Emarti. It flows through the western parts of Kenya Maasailand into Tanzania, where it flows into Lake Victoria at Musoma. It is the largest river in Maasailand. This river is also called En-kɨ́páɨ́.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Kɨtɨ   n.prop. Name of the southernmost small river flowing flowing from the Inkurman Escarpment at Pagasi, Narok District, Kenya. This has been the site of some prehistoric finds.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Márà   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀ Márâ. n.prop. Name of a river which flows between Isiolo and Archer's Post, Kenya. This river should not be confused with the Mara River, which is a major river flowing into Lake Victoria.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀ Náɨ́rɔ̀bɨ̀. n.prop. Nairobi River. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, derives its name from this river. The Maasai originally made a distinction between the name and the place, calling the place Nakúsò Intélòn. Various anglicised forms of Nairobi in the past have included Neirobi and Nyrobi. See: Nakúsò Intélòn Original Maasai name for Nairobi City.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Nárɔ́k   [ɛ̀ŋkáɾɛ́ ! náɾɔ́k]  Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ́ Náròk. n.prop. 1 • Name of a river in Narok district. This river originates in the Mau Narok range and flows southwards through the town of Enkare Narok, usually abbreviated to simply Narok. From there it continues to flow south and joins the Euaso ŋiro. Together they form the Enkare ŋiro, the Brown River, which flows into Lake Natron. This lake has no outlet.

2 • Narok town. Áló ɛnkárɛ́ Nárɔ́k tááisérè tɛ́nɛ́kɛ̀nyʉ̀. I will go to Narok tomorrow. (pK). See: e-wúásò River.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Ŋirô   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀ Ŋírò. n.prop. Name for the southern part of a river which originates in the Mau Narok range and flows in a southernly direction through the town of Ɔlɔlʉlʉ́ŋa. From there the river continues south and gives its name to a small trading-center. The Maasai call it Enkiporôî, 'The Scar'. Beyond this place, the river joins with the Enkárɛ́ Nárɔ́k, cascades off the Inkurmân Escarpment through some spectacular waterfalls, and then continues its southward flow as Enkárɛ́ Ŋirô into Lake Natron.

ɛnk-árɛ́ Ŋʉ́sʉ́r   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀ Ŋʉsʉ́r. n.prop. Short river that flows from the Mau Hills.

ɛnk-árɛ́ pʉ̂s   n. Milk mixed with water. This is drunk after carrying a corpse. Along with bathing, it serves to ritually cleanse the one who carried the corpse.

ɛn-arɛ́t1   Nom sg: ɛn-árɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨn-arɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨn-árɛ̀tà. n. Weapon. Ɨncɔɔ́kɨ̀ ɨnarɛ́tà máapɛ́ aár olowuarú kérî ɔɨnɔsá intaré. Give the weapons so that we can go and kill the leopard which eaten the little sheep and goats. (Pk). ɨnarɛ́tà tɔrrɔ̂k lethal weapons. See: ɨ-rʉpárɛ̀n Weapons.

ɛnk-arɛ́t2   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨnk-arɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨnk-árɛ̀tà. n. Metal object inside a bell that rotates to make noise; clapper. Merû oltualá lémétíi ɛnkárɛ̀t. A bell without the clapper will not make noise. See: [North] l-arát Clapper.

ɛnk-arɛ́wà   Nom sg: ɛnk-árɛ̀wà. Acc pl: ɨnk-arewaní. Nom pl: ɨnk-árɛwaní. n. Wedding necklace. Eishopókokí entíto narikí ɛnkarɛ́wà. A wedding necklace has been put on the girl being married off.

ɔl-árì   Nom sg: ɔl-árî. Acc pl: ɨl-arín. Nom pl: (NOM.PL)differs from TM. n. 1 • Rainy season, monsoon; period of time during the year in which rains fall on a regular basis, usually from March to April, and even up through July. Ɛtabáúá ɔlárî peê méítokini áàpùò áàòk incoó tɔɔ́ lkɛjɛ́k, amʉ̂ enótokí ɛnkárɛ́ narúkò. The rainy season has come so the cattle herds will not be taken to wells, because flowing water has been found.

2 • First rain; single instance of rain; non-continuous rain.

3 • Year; one calendar year, from January through December. Ɛ́ɨ́dɨ̀p ɨnkɛ́râ sukúùl tɛ̀ nkitiŋotó ɛ́lɛ̀ árì. Children will finish school at the end of this (calendar) year. Ɛɨkɛnákɨ̀ apá ɨltʉ́ŋánákárêî tɛldɛ́ árî. The populace was counted (i.e. a census was taken) last year. ɨlarín tikítàm twenty years. In Kenyan Maa, ɔl-árì refers to both what American-English speakers refer to as the "calendar year" (Jan-Dec), and to the "school year" (January-March, May-July, and September-November).

ɛnk-árì   Short rainy season (typically November-December). Ɛnkárì apá kínotitô tɔltúmúrèt nɛɨtʉ́ nɨnyɛ́ ɛɨtʉbʉ́lʉ̀ ɨnkʉ́jɨ́t naábaɨkɨ́ intaré. We got a short rainy-season which was not enough to make grass grow that can satisfy sheep and goats. Ant: ɔl-adalʉ́ Dry season. See: ɛn-cán Rain; en-kókúáí Pleiades; Long rainy season; ol-túmùrèt Short rainy season.

-árì   voi. Suffix complex containing Motion Away plus Middle. Nɛ́pɨrɨrɨŋárì Ɔlárìnkòì Olarinkoi rolled down. LING: Historically this may be a combination of the motion away -a(r) plus plus the Perfect(ive) Middle . LING: This combination appears to be (almost) homophonous with the Motion away plus passive combination, except that the -ATR passive form has -árɨ̀ or -arɨ́. See: -a Motion Away; -ɛ̀ Perfect(ive) Middle; -ʉ́nyɛ̀ Motion Towards plus Middle.

-árie   dir voi. Suffix complex containing Motion Away plus Instrumental Applicative. Ɨ́nʉ́kári.e. I will bury him with it. Ɨ́tʉ́nʉ́karíé. I buried him with it. See: -únyè Motion Toward plus Instrumental Applicative.

ɔl-aríkònì   Nom sg: ɔl-áríkóní. Acc pl: ɨl-arikók. Nom pl: ɨl-áríkók. n. Leader, whether political, administrative, traditional, or by influencing opinion. Kɛ́ányɨ̀t oshî ɨltʉŋaná(k) ɔlaríkònì lɛnyɛ̂. People respect their leader. A traditional leader's responsibilities include leading meetings, arbitrating between individuals, making peace between warring communities, presiding over cultural ceremonies, and sometimes acting as a linkage between the government and people. See: a-rík To lead; ɔl-aɨtɔ́rìànì Ruler; ol-oibónì Ritual expert; ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Leader of age-set.

l-árínkóí [North]   Nom sg: l-arinkóí. Acc pl: l-arínkòn. Nom pl: l-árinkón. n.pl. [North] Group of Samburu young men who like fighting and causing mayhem. See: ol-kíríkóí Vagabond.

árìp   Nom sg: árîp. Acc pl: arípi. Nom pl: arípí. adj. To show love and care towards s.o. Ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ árìp A cow that shows much love for its young one.

ɔl-arɨ́pànì   Nom sg: ɔl-árɨ́pání. Acc pl: ɨl-arɨpák. Nom pl: ɨl-árɨ́pák. n. Tailor.

l-aripó [North]   n. [North] Skink. See: sʉ́yɛ̀ɛ̀ Skink.

ɔl-arɨ́shànì   Nom sg: ɔl-árɨ́shání. Acc pl: ɨl-arɨshák. Nom pl: ɨl-árɨ́shák. n. 1 • Judge.

2 • Arbitrator, reconciler. See: a-rɨ́sh To settle a dispute; ɔl-aigúɛ́nànì Judge; ɔl-áíkúmúnònì Judge.

l-aríshònì [North]   Nom sg: l-áríshóní. Acc pl: l-arishók ??. Nom pl: l-áríshók ??. n. [North] One who kills things, especially wild animals. See: ɔl-árànì Murderer.

ɛnk-áríyíánó   n. Plan. ɛnkáríyíánó inó your plan.

ɛnk-árná   [ɛ̀ŋkárná]  Nom sg: ɛnk-arná. Acc pl: ɨnk-árn. n. Name. Kéduŋókì aké ɨnkárn ánàà iwuejitín nɛɛ́manyá. They are given names according to the places they live. (KS). Children are not named after people who died young, though it is fine to name them after someone who died in old age. This is especially so if the deceased was wealthy, but not if the deceased was o-sóít.

ɛnk-árná ɛ́ ncɔríò   Maiden name (or middle name).

ɛnk-árná é misígiyíòì   First name given to a person by parents.

ɛnk-árná oó nkitúààk   Name given to a woman after marriage. This is a term of address to the woman by other people including her husband and other men of his age-set.

ɛnk-árná ɔɔ́ lmʉ́rràn   Name given to a warrior by other warriors. It can be a praise or ridicule name and should strictly be used by warriors.

-árò   voi. Reciprocal action. Kɛ́ɨ́dɨmárò. They can face each other. See: -a Middle.

ɔl-áróí   Nom sg: ɔl-aróí. Acc pl: ɨl-árôn. Nom pl: ɨl-arón. n. 1 • Stomach. Usage: contemptous.

2 • Mean, unfriendly person. See: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔkɛ̀ stomach.

ɔl-arónyònì   n. One who shaves as their primary job; barber. See: ɔl-abárnònì Barber, shaver.

a-aroyú   Variant: a-raroyú. [West]: a-arayú. v.mid. 1 • To be takable by force. Ɛároyú. / Ɛarároyú. It is takable by force. It could be something so valuable that people would want to take it by force. Ɛyároyú ɛnâ tókî amʉ̂ ɨmɛɨshɔrʉ́nɨ tɛ̀ sidáí. This thing can be taken by force because it cannot be given out nicely. (Pk). Ɛrároyú kʉná kíshù amʉ̂ éísidaîn olêŋ. This cows are worth taking by force because they look so good.

2 • To be beatable, cane-able. Ɛárayu ɛná kɛráí. This child is caneable. (This may imply that the child has been misbehaving.) (W). Ɛárayu ɛná âŋ. This home is takeable/robbable by force. (This primarily implies that the home has something valuable, but also that it is poorly defended.) (W). See: a-ár To fight, kill, beat.

ártàm   num. Forty. Etym: *^rt^m, rom Proto-Baz *afartam forty.

ɔl-ártàt   Nom sg: ɔl-ártât. Acc pl: ɨl-ártatí. Nom pl: ɨl-ártatí. n. 1 • Walking stick.

2 • Ceremonial stick used in special ceremonies. Nɛ́dʉmʉ ɨlártatí ɔ́ ɨlkɨláni ɔ árè They pick up two (ceremonial) sticks and skin robes [to go to betroth a girl]. See: sóbúá Walking stick; ɔl-cártʉ́lá Walking stick.

a-arʉ́   In some suffixed forms: a-arʉ́n. v. To cause sth. to keep to this side, crowd to this side. Áarʉ́ ɛnâ áló. He will make me keep to this side. Áarʉnɨ́ ɛnâ áló. I will be made to keep to this side. Though the verb often co-occurs with ɛná áló 'this side', the verb itself conveys 'this side'. Thus, it cannot co-occur with idia áló 'that side'. See: a-arʉnyɛ́ To keep/force one's self in this direction.

ɔl-arʉ́kâî   n. Snail. See: ɔ-sɨkɨrâî Snail.

ɛ-árúnotó1   Variant: ɛ-yárúnotó. Nom sg: ɛ-arúnotó. Acc pl: ɨ-arunót. Nom pl: ɨ-árùnòt. n. Loot, spoil, booty, treasure. Ɨmɛmayíánà áɨ́kátá ɛarúnotó náoruní kʉlɨ́káɨ́ tʉ́ŋáná. Loot taken away from other people is never blessed. See: a-ár Fight, beat.

ɛ-árúnotó2   Nom sg: ɛ-arúnotó. Acc pl: ɨ-arunót. Nom pl: ɨ-árùnòt. n. Beating/pushing towards the point of reference. Tápàlà doí ɛnâ áárúnotó inó náâ ɛnâ áló aké ílótú. Stop your pushing towards me that you keep on coming this way. (Pk). This sentnce implies that the speaker is really annoyed. See: a-ár Fight, beat.

a-arunyé   v.dir. To force sth. this way. Ɛshɔmɔ́ ɨlmʉ́rrán áàrùnyè ilKokóyò inkíshú. The morans have gone to take the cows by force from the Kikuyu. (W). LING: This is distinct in ATR value from the Middle form a-arʉnyɛ́.

a-arʉnyɛ́   v.dir v.mid. 1 • To move with force towards the point of reference, against an apparent obstacle. In W, this verb cannot be used for remaining in a position towards a side, even if that requires force. Rather, movement is necessary. Ɛtaarʉ́nyɛ̀. He kept to this side. Ɛ́táárʉ́nyɛ̀. It forced itself to come this way. (W). Ɛ́mintókì dúóó áàrʉ̀nyɛ̀ ɛnâ áló. (You pl.) Stop keeping to this side! (Pk). Ágɨ́rà aarʉnyɛ́. I am keeping to this side. Áshɔ́mɔ̀ amɨ́r incereretí tɛ̀ mparét nɛ́ɨ́rrág aké áàrʉ̀nyɛ̀. I went to chase the monkeys from the farm and they just kept forcing themselves (back) this way. (W).

2 • To protrude, distend; especially a sick part of the body (such as the stomach, an abnormal head, etc.). Ɛtaarʉ́nyɛ̀ ɛnkɛ́ráí namúéí ɛnkɔ́shɔ́kɛ̀. The sick child has her stomach protruding. (Pk). Emuoítà Pápaáɨ́. Ɛgɨ́rà áàrʉ̀nyɛ̀ intíkân toó lgósò. My father is sick. The lymph nodes are protruding from his neck. (W). See: a-rʉ́ To crowd to the side; a-poŋú To swell (of the stomach); a-jeyú To swell. Ant: a-ararí To keep to that side.

arʉ̂s   Nom sg: árʉ̀s. Acc pl: arúsì. Nom pl: árusí. adj. 1 • Spotted black and white on the sides to underside; spots typically spread from the dewlap to the teats. Restrict: cattle. Náà ɛ́ntɛrɛwakákɨ̀ ɔlɔɨŋɔ́nɨ̀ láí arʉ̂s. And please bring me my bull that is spotted black and white underneath. (Pk).

2 • Black mixed with white (e.g the hair of an elderly ethnic black person, before it has turned completely white).

3 • Spotted, referring to the skin of a person. Usage: derog. Órè olconí lɛ Lɛriónkà nɛ́taá apá arʉ̂s tɛnkárakɨ́ ɨlɛpɛ́dɔ̀. Lerionka's skin is spotted because of scabies. If an animal is arʉ̂s over its whole body, it may be called pʉ̂s. See: pʉ̂s Blue.

ɛnk-arʉ̂s   n. Spotted one. Kéló ɛnkárʉ̀s. The spotted one will go. (Pk).

ɨl-Arusa   n.pl. Name of a Maasai section.

ɔl-árràbàl   Nom sg: ɔl-árrábàl. Acc pl: ɨl-arrabalí. Nom pl: ɨl-árrabalí. [South] Acc sg: ɔl-árrábâl. n. 1 • Quarrel, conflict. Mányaakɨ́ áàyàgìè ɛlɛ̂ árràbàl amʉ̂ ɛ́táá sápʉ̀k. Let us leave this quarrelling and be calm, because it is too much. (Pk). For KS, ɔl-árràbàl indicates a less-serious conflict than en-joré 'war, cattle raid.'.

2 • Battle.

3 • War. Mátòrìk ɨ́lɔ̂ mʉ́rránì ɔlárràbàl amʉ̂ pádán. [ɪ̀lɔ̀ ... àmʊ̂ pàdàn] Let's take that warrior to war because he is a sharp-shooter. (W). Eibónò ɨlárrabalí. The wars have been divined. (W). See: ɛn-árà War; en-jóré War.

ol-árràbàl   Nom sg: ɔl-árrábàl. Acc pl: ɨl-arrabalí. Nom pl: ɨl-árrabalí. n. War; fighting. See: ɛn-árà War; en-jóré War.

n-arrarrayîôk [North]   Nom sg: n-árrarrayîôk. n. [North] Chameleon. See: tánkì Chameleon.

arrárrɨ̀ [North]   adj. [North] Old. Ɨ́ra arrárrì. You are old. Kɛ́arrárrì ɛlɛ́ páyìàn. This man is old. See: naárrɨ̀ Long ago. Syn: mʉsánà Old; mórùò Old.

nk-árrárró [North]   n. [North] Oldness (esp. of animate entities). aná árrárró this oldness.

a-arrarrú [North]   v. [North] To become old (of people, animals, or things). Kɛ́taárràrrà alɛ́ píróí. This firestick is old. (SN). Kɛ́taárràrrà alɛ́ píróí. This firestick is old. (SN). Kɛ́taarrárrɨtâ kʉlɔ́ pirón. These firesticks are old. (SN). Meisúpàt lpiróí ɔ́taárràrrà olêŋ. The firestick which is very old is not good. (SN). Kápéjóò lpíróí ɔtaárràrrà táatá. I will burn the firestick which is old now. (SN). LING: There is no form *a-arrárr.

ɨnk-árrɛ̀r   Nom pl: ɨnk-árrɛ̂r. n.pl. Milk to which water has been added; diluted milk. See: kʉlɛ́ Milk.

ɛnk-arrí   Nom sg: ɛnk-árri. n. Greedyness (typically for food). Ɛátà ɛnkarrí. She is greedy.

ɔl-árríákí   Nom sg: ɔl-arriakí. Acc pl: ɨl-árríák. Nom pl: ɨl-arríák. [North] Acc sg: l-árríá. n. Oxpecker.

ɛnk-árríánó   Nom sg: ɛnk-arrianó. n.sg. Smartness, expertise. ɛná árríaánó this expertise (W). See: árriyíá Skilled.

ɔl-arrípònì   Nom sg: ɔl-árrípóní. Acc pl: ɨl-arripók. Nom pl: ɨl-árrípók. n. 1 • Guard, watchman, custodian. Etíí ɔlárrípóní kishómì adɔlʉ́ ɨltʉ́ŋánák ɔɔ́yɨ̀mʉ̀. The guard is at the gate watching people coming through it. (Pk). ɨlarripók

2 • [North] An uninvited guest waiting to eat food that he/she is not welcomed to. See: a-rríp To guard; ɔl-aɨŋʉ́rànì Watcher; adúáànì Observant.

l-arrítènì [North]   Nom sg: l-árríténí. Acc pl: l-arrɨták. Nom pl: l-arrɨták. n. [North] Old grown up boy who has not yet been circumcised.

árriyíá   Nom sg: árriyíá. Acc pl: árriyíâk. Nom pl: árriyíâk. adj. 1 • Skilled, skillful, whether by training or naturally; precise, very good at doing sth. Árá árriyíá. I am skilled. (Pk). Káárriyíá nɨ́nyɛ̀ ɛlɛ́ tʉ́ŋání mɛɛ́ta entókì néméyíólò aɨtɔ́bɨ̀rà. This person is skillful as he knows how to make everything. Kákè árriyíá siî íyie ɛlɛ́ mʉrraní tɔ̀ sinkólìò. But this warrior is skillful in singing. (Pk).

2 • Deft at.

ɛnk-árriyíá   n. The best solution; the right thing. ɛ́máɨ́ŋɔrʉ́ ɛnkárriyíá nárɛ́ʉ̀ iyíóók dʉkʉ́yà Let's look for the best solution that will make us move forward (out of the stalemate).

2 • Female who is skilled. Ant: álànì Clumsy, not skillful. See: a-yioló To know; ŋɛ̂n Clever, smart; abárànì Careful; sídáí Good.

árrɔ̀   Nom sg: árrɔ̂. Acc pl: árròì. [árròì with two final moras]  Nom pl: árróî. Variant: árróì. adj. 1 • With downward pointing horns. Ɛtoíshíé dúóó ɛnkɨ́tɛ̀ŋ árrɔ̂. The cow with downward pointing horns has given birth. (Pk). Syn: púrúk With downward pointing horns.

2 • [South] Dangerous, fierce.

3 • [North] Dishonest, not straight-forward; in between two decisions in order to please someone.

ɔl-árrɔ̀   n. 1 • Buffalo. ɔlárrɔ̀ kúkúó a charcoal-black buffalo. Átódúàà ɔlárrɔ̀ ɔdáà tɛ̀ ntîm. I have seen a buffalo grazing in the bush. Syn: ol-ósòkùàn Buffalo; ol-ósòwùàn Buffalo; l-máàcà Buffalo.

2 • [South] Large bull, nearly the size of a buffalo.

3 • [South] Gigantic person.

ɛnk-árrónìshò [North]   n. [North] Conflict, commotion, chaos, friction between human beings. See: ɛnk-arruoíshò Conflict, commotion.

ɔl-arrʉ́kâî   Nom sg: ɔl-árrʉkâî. Acc pl: ɨl-arrʉ́kà. Nom pl: ɨl-árrʉká. [North] Acc sg: l-arrʉ́gâî. n. 1 • Snail.

2 • Maggot that lives in dry dung, found especially on houses smeared with dung. See: ɔ-sɨkɨrâî Snail.

n-arrúlɛ̀ [North]   n. [North] Strong neck muscle of a bull. See: ol-kúríáí Strong neck muscle of a bull.

ɛnk-árrúóíshò   Nom sg: ɛnk-arrúóíshò. n.sg. Conflict, commotion, chaos, friction between human beings. Asɨnyʉnyɛ́ naá doí esíááí nátií ɛnkarruoíshò atúa. Can work grow blessedly which has conflict (chaos) in it? See: [North] nk-árrónìshò Conflict, commotio; súújìshò Badness.

árrùònì   Acc pl: árrùòyò. adj. 1 • Wicked, belligerent, liking violence; thinking and then doing bad things; plotting, scheming. ɨlŋojɨ́nìàà árrʉ̀òyò wicked hyenas (W). Kákè árrùònì oshî ɛlɛ̂ tʉ́ŋání ɔ́lɔɔ́larâs. But this person of Loolaras is belligerent/wicked. (Pk). Ɛ́rá árrùònì. He is wicked. (W). Ɛtáá ɛnkáyíóní árrùònì. The boy became wicked. (W).

2 • Dangerous. Árrùònì olkínyaŋ olêŋ. The crocodile is dangerous. (W). LING: W dialect does not allow addition of the i- prefix to this (*eirruoni), unlike many other adjectival concepts. Nor does it allow addition of a Relative Clause prefix (*ɛnarruoni).

ɔl-árrùònì   n. Wicked one. See: árrɔ̀ Fierce.

ɛnk-árrúónisho   n. Evil, gossip, slander, wrongdoing. ɛndá árrúónisho this evil (W). See: árrùònì Evil.

a-ás   v.prog. To do. Ɛásɨ́tà Kónené ɨmbáà naɨ́sharɨ́ ɔpá. Konene is doing things that were over a long time ago (e.g. revision of an exam). (W). Káà taá kiâs? What shall we do? Káyíéú náás ɛnâ síàì pɔɔkɨ́ aɨdɨ́p táatá aké. I want to do the whole of this work and finish it today. (Pk). Éísídáí taá doí ɛntáaní amʉ̂ áítúmókì ataásà intokitín kúmòk tɛ̀ nkatá nábò. Nearness is good because you can do so many things at the same time. (Pk). Nɛ́kɛnyʉ́ kɨ́âs ɛntɛ́mátá. [nɛ́kɛ̀nyʊ́ kɪ̀às ɛ̀ntɪ́mátá] The next morning we did (took) the exam. (W). mɛásà to undo (W).

a-asɨshɔ́  

a-asicó [North]   To work, do. Ɛásɨshɔ. He will work. Ɛgɨ́rà oshî táatá Lɛ́rìònkà aasɨshɔ́ tɛ̀ ndá áŋ. Lerionka nowadays is working in that home. (Pk). Etíí Kɨ́ɨ́tamɛ́t ɛnkâŋ ɔ́lɛ̀ Mɔsɨ́ány aasɨshɔ́. Koitamet is in Ole Mosiany's home working. (Pk).

a-asishioré   To work at, work with, work together with. Káyíéú náítókì aasishoré Mɛɨpɔnyɨ́. I want to work with Meiponyi. (Pk).

a-asicieré [North]   v.inst. [North] To use, work with, concretely or conceptually.

áà-àsàkìnò   v.mid.pl. To work together, work for each other. Ɛgɨ́rà Kérínâ ɔ́ Kʉ́kát áààsàkìnò esíààì. Kerina and Kukat are working for each other (or together). (Pk).

a-asayú   1 • To happen. Káɨ́nyɔ́ɔ́ doí nágɨrá aasayú tené? What is happening here? (Pk). Ɛ́táá doí kɛnyá kɛ́sɨ́páyù ajó kɛ́ɛ́sáyù esíáàì ɛ́ kʉ́lɔ́ tʉ́ŋáná. The work of these people is almost effectively taking place. (Pk). LING: This inceptive form can only take a third person event-type subject.

2 • To be doable.

a-ás esíáàì   To work.

ás siááì [North]  

ás síáì [Chamus]   See: ɛ-ásátá Working; in-kiaasîn Deeds, works; e-síáàì Work; a-ɨtɔbɨ́r To do; a-ikó To do.

a-asá [North]   [North] To be done.

a-asíé [North]   [North] To do something in a given manner.

l-asá [North]   n.pl. [North] Termites. See: [North] l-aá lasá Termites mound.

a-asaayá   [North]: a-saayá. v. 1 • To visit a sick, weak, or suffering person. Áló tááisérè asaayá olákùìyìà amʉ̂ emúóítà. I will go to find out how my grandfather is because he is sick. (W). Ɛásááyà olákùyìà. He is finding out how the old man is. (W). Ɛshɔmɔ́ pápaaí aasaayá ɛndâ áŋ naituráyìè enkiyîô. My father has gone to visit that family that has lost a child. (W).

2 • To look for. Ɛshɔmɔ́ Lérìònkò aasaayá inkíshú tò ldóínyó. Lerionko has gone to look for cows in the mountain. (W). LING: In W this word cannot be conjugated for perfective or progressive meaning. See: a-rʉ́m To visit a sick person; a-ɨŋɔ́r(r) To look at.

ɔl-ásákútònì   Nom sg: ɔl-ásákútóní. n. Sorcerer; minor witch. See: [North] l-airúpònì Sorcerer.

ol-ásàr(r)   Nom sg: ɔl-ásâr(r). Acc pl: ɨl-ásàrrì. Nom pl: ɨl-ásárrì. n. Sacrifice; offering to a deity. Eitáíkia apá Abraham ɛnkáí ɔlásàr. Abraham made a sacrifice for God. For a study of sacrifices in Maasai society, see Priest (19**).

a-itayú ɔl-ásàr   To give up something of great value, e.g. devoting oneself to doing something extraordinary. aitayú ɔlásàr arét ɨlaɨsɨnák To devote oneself to helping the poor.

ɛ-ásátá   Variant: ɨ-yasát. Nom sg: ɛ-asatá. Acc pl: ɨ-asát. Nom pl: ɨ-ásàt??. n. 1 • Deed.

2 • Action; process of doing sth. Órè ɛsɛ́mpɛ́ràrɛ̀ ɛ́ lɛ́ shámpà náà eyíéú ɛásátá sápʉ̀k olêŋ. [ɛ́lɛ̀ shámpà] The weeding of this farm will require a lot of action. (W). See: a-ás To do; en-kiás Work, deed.

ásì   conj. Also, then, so. Ásì nɛ́bàù entítò. The girl also arrives. See: básì Then.

ɛnk-ásíléí   Nom sg: ɛnk-asiléí. n. 1 • Tsetse fly. Ɛ́ɨ́nɔ́sá ɛnkasiléí inkíshú ometómitikí ɛdaá. The tsetse fly have stung cows until they cannot graze anymore (i.e. they are so distracted they cannot graze in peace). (Pk). LING: The singular is used even when one knows there are many flies. See: ol-kímpáí Tsetse fly; ɔl-ɔjɔŋánì Fly.

2 • Trypanosomiasis, sleeping-sickness. See: en-tórròbò Trypanosomiasis.

l-asɨnká [North]   n. [North] Village. See: [North] l-orórà Village.

asɨ́pànì   Acc pl: asɨpák. Nom pl: asɨpák. adj. 1 • Trustworthy.

2 • Truthful. Káasɨ́pànì ɨ̀lɔ̀ lɛ́ɛ̀ mmɛɛ́tà imónkò. That man is truthful; he does not lie. (lit: That man is truthful; he has/there are no lies.). ɔtʉŋánì asɨ́pànì person who is truthful. Kɛ́ɨ́sɨ́pà ɨnâ báɛ̀; kákè mmɛ̂ asɨ́pànì ɛmbáɛ̀. That fact is true; but we cannot say a fact is truthful. (Pk).

ɔl-asɨ́pànì   n. A person who is truthful, who says things right. See: a-sɨ́p To say correctly or truthfully; a-dedé To be true.

ɔl-ásʉ́ráí   Nom sg: ɔl-asʉráí. Acc pl: ɨl-asúriaa. Variant: ɨl-asúriaá. Nom pl: ɨl-ásuriaá. n. Snake. ɨlasúriaá ɔáárè two snakes (W).

ɛnk-ásʉ́ʉ́dáí   Nom sg: ɛnk-asʉʉdáí. Acc pl: ɨnk-asʉʉdaní. Nom pl: ɨnk-ásʉʉdaní. n. 1 • Bottle top. Kɛ́ŋasí áàìtàyù ɛnkásʉ́ʉ́dáí tò ltúpa ɛ́ɨ́tʉ̂ ebukuní soda. The bottle-top has to be removed from the bottle first before soda is poured out.

2 • Disrespectful person. See: [North] n-kirikírì Bottle top; em-pílílí Bottle top.

l-asháʉ́ [North]   n. [North] North Maa plural variant of l-áshê 'calf'. See: ɔl-áshê Calf.

acê [North]   interj. Thank you! Ashê olêŋ tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ɔlapá áshê líkítúshúkóko. Thank you very much for the (straying) calf that you have returned to me. (Pk). Ashê olêŋ kɨ́tɛ́rɛ́wáká ɛlɛ̂ áshê otoshoróyìòkì. Thank you for bringing me this calf that went with other people's cows. (Pk).

ɛn-ashê   Nom sg: ɛn-ashê. Acc pl: ɨn-ásheí. Nom pl: ɨn-áshéí. [Purko] Nom pl: ɨn-asheí. n. Gratitude. Ɛnashê sápʉ̀k kíshukú tɛ̀ nkárakɨ́ ɛrámátàtà nɨncɔɔ̂ iyíóók kʉnâ ɔ́lɔ̀ŋɨ̀ pɔɔkɨ́. We are giving our great gratitude to you for having taken care of us all these days. (Pk).

ɔl-áshê   Nom sg: ɔl-ashé. Acc pl: ɨl-ashɔ́. Nom pl: ɨl-áshɔ̀. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨl-áshɔ́. [South] Acc sg: al-áhe. [North] Acc sg: ɔl-ácê. [North] Nom pl: l-áshàʉ̀. n. 1 • Calf; male calf. Átɨ́pɨ́ka ɔláshê keshúróí ɔlálɛ́. I have put the calf with a white face into the calf pen. (Pk). A male calf that has just been weaned is considered equivalent in value to a castrated he-goat. Cf. a-lák 'to compensate'.

2 • Young boy. Usage: affectionate, v. informal. Ɨ́rrɨ́tá taá táatá intaré mɛtáraposhotó ɔláshê láí. You herded the sheep and goats today, until they were satisfied, my calf.(Pk). Usage: (e.g., a congratulation to a boy from his father). Ɛgɨ́ráɨ́ áàcùk ɨláshɔ́ ɔlálɛ́. The calves are being returned to their fold. Kɛ́ɨ́pirarɨ́tà láshàʉ̀. The calves are jumping around. (SN).

ɛnk-áshê   Variant: ɛnk-óshê. Acc pl: ɨnk-ashɔ́. Female calf, heifer; belittled calf. A heifer is considered equal in value to an ox. Ɛ́ɨ́shɔ́ɔ́ apá ɔltʉ́ŋání ɔ́yà entíto ɔlapʉtánì ɛnkáshê peê erík entíto ɛnyɛ́. The bridegroom gave his in-law a heifer before marrying his daughter. See: ɛn-táwúó Heifer.

ɔl-ashɛ́pànì   n. 1 • One who traverses; pursuer.

2 • Large ravine or gully.

ɛnk-ashɛ́pànì   Small ravine or gulley.

ɔl-áshɛ́rɨ̀   Acc pl: ɨl-ashɛ́r. n. Tick.

ɛ-ashɛ́t   Nom sg: ɛ-áshɛ̀t. Acc pl: ɨ-yashɛ́tà. Nom pl: ɨ-áshɛ̀tà. n. Piece of wood or stick woven into a lattice to make sth. firm, such as a wall, door, bench. Eitáyio enkítòk órí́kíè tɔɔ́ ɨáshɛ̀tà. The woman has made marks (in the dirt) with the lattice sticks. See: o-lóómí Rafter.

ɨl-ashɔ́   n.pl. Calves. See: ɔl-áshê Calf.

ɛn-ashɔmɔ́   n.r. 1 • One who has gone away.

2 • Sth. finished. Etópúá ɔlcátá tuunó ɔlápà ɔshɔmɔ́. The tree that I planted last month is reviving. (e.g. Perhaps it was wilting and almost dying when I planted it.) (W). LING: Ɔlápà ɔshɔmɔ́ can only mean 'last month' and not any preceding month.

3 • Deceased person (female). Usage: polite.

ɔl-ɔshɔmɔ́   Deceased male.

a-ashʉ́   In some suffixed forms: a-ashʉ́t. v.prog. To pluck sth. from above using an instrument other than one's hand; hook. Ɛlákúá lɨdɔ́ ŋánayíóì kákè káló aashʉ́ tɛ̀ ná shɛ́tà. That fruit is far away but I'm going to pluck it with this stick. (W). Átááshúá ŋolé olŋanayíóì. Yesterday I plucked a fruit (e.g. with a stick). (W). Áshʉ́tɨ́tà ɛnkají. I am plucking sth. (e.g., grass) from (the roof of) a house. (W). This implies that something is plucked over and over so as to leave the place devoid of it, e.g. removing all the grass from a roof by plucking it. Átááshúá tɛ̀ nkájì ŋolé. I plucked it (one item that was on top of the roof) from the house yesterday. (W).

ɔl-áshʉ́mpáí   Nom sg: ɔl-ashʉmpáí. Acc pl: ɨl-ashʉmpá. Nom pl: ɨl-áshʉmpá. n. 1 • European or Asian. Áɨ́shɔ́ɔ̀ náají ɔlashʉmpáí ɛntarubínì ɛnyɛ̂ maɨŋórìè ɨltɔmíá oókìtò ɛnkárɛ́. The European gave me his binoculars to observe elephants drinking water. (Pk). Ɨ́ncɔ̀ɔ taá peê ɛlɨmʉ́ tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k ɔ́ɔ lashʉmpá nɨ́ncɔ́rʉ̀ iwalát tɛ̀ nkʉtʉ́k ɔ́ɔ lMáásâɨ̂. If he speaks in English, give the translations in Maa. (lit: If he speaks in the mouth of the Whites, give the translations in the mouth of the Maasai.) (Pk).

2 • Person who has adopted dress mode, behaviors, skills traditionally associated with white-coloured people; term used for educated people, including Maasais, to distinguish them from traditional Maasais. Usage: ɨlashʉmpá focuses on behavioral characteristics, while ɨlɔ́ɨ́bɔ̀rr focuses on skin color..

ɨl-ashʉmpá oónyòkìè   People whose skin is not as white as that of Europeans, but lighter than that of Blacks, e.g. Asians, Indians, Brazilians, Saudi Arabians. See: [South] ɔl-áísúnkúí European or Asian.

-at   num. Plural verb suffix for perfective middle voice. Ɛtɨgɨ́làtɛ̀ ɨlalá láinêî. My teeth broke. (W). Nɨ́mɨ́kɨ́ncɔ̂ aké nɨnyɛ́ méínepunotó. We don't let them meet each other.

-át [North]   nmlz. [North] Nominalizer creating a noun referring to the instrument with which an action is done. l-arát clapper (inside a bell). See: -ɛ́t Instrumental nominalizer.

-át1   Nom pl: -àt. nmlz. Plural nominalizer for active verbs. induŋót aré two sections (e.g. of land) (lit: two cuttings).

a-atá   v.s. 1 • To own, possess, have (physical object); have physical object located at. Ɛátà entitó ɛnkají. The girl owns a house. Ɛátà ɛldɛ́ páyìàn ɨntaré îp. That man has got a hundred sheep. Ɛátà ɛná titó ɛncipâî. This girl is happy. (W). Ɛátà Ole-Rónkei intóyìè naáàdɔ̀. Ole-Ronkei has tall girls. Áátà ɔlcɔrɛ́ súpàt olêŋ. I have a very good friend. Ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá nabô oshî ɛátà ɔltʉ́ŋání. A human being has one head. Ɛátà oltóô ɛnkárɛ́. The barrel has (contains) water. Maátà ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ. I do not have a cow. (W). Maátà enkérr, nɛ́máátà enkíné. I have neither a sheep nor a goat. (W).

2 • To be characterized by (quality); be composed of. Kéíshíákíno nɛ́yà intóiwúó náààtà ɛnkɨ́dɨ́mátá ɨnkɛ́rà sukúùl. Parents who have the ability should take their children to school.

3 • To exist. Mɛátà ɔltʉŋánì óítieu. There is no one who dares to face him. Imeékure ɛatâɨ̂ ɛnkɨ́tɛ́ŋ nabô. There is no longer any cow. Káà ɨ́ásɨ́tà? Mɛátà ɛnáásɨ́tà. What are you doing? I am doing nothing. (lit: What are you doing? There is nothing that is doing.). Ɛɛ́taɨ. They exist. LING: The argument whose existence is being posited occurs in the Accusative case.

4 • To observe, celebrate, enact; hold. Kɛ́átà ɨlkɨ́shʉ̀rʉ̀ ɔlŋɛshɛ́r. The Ilkishuru age-set has a ceremony (to make them senior elders). Órè oshî ɛ́tɔ̂n mɛɛ́taɨ ɛnkɨ́páátá kɛ́dar aké ɔláyíóní óbo. Now normally before the initial ceremony, one boy first shouts. LING: The root often surfaces with the form [ɛta] after a third person ɛ́- prefix. See: a-tií To be at.

-átá   Nom sg: -atá. Variant: -ótó. Acc pl: -át. nmlz. 1 • Nominalizer for active verbs, creating a nominal that refers to a single instance of an action or situation. ɛŋórótó oó nkíshú the shooting of cows (on the juglar vein).

2 • Nominalizer creating a nominal that refers to the result of an action or situation, for selected active verbs. Átóníŋò oltóíló laíjó ɛsɨ́ŋátá tiaáúlùò. I have heard a sound like a sneeze outside. (W). Órè ɨsɨŋát ɔɔ́ ntarɛ́ náà ɛyáʉ̀ olkúlùp. The sneezes of the sheep+goats bring mucous. (W). See: -arɛ Nominalizer for active verb roots; -án Nominalizer for stative verb roots. LING: Though there are exceptions, with nominalizations of three moras or less the Accusative singular tone is frequently -átá, while the Nominative is -atá. The Accusative plural is generally -át, while the Nominative plural is either the same or has a HL pattern over the word. Roots ending in /r/ and /n/ and Class II verb roots frequently have distinctive tone patterns in this nominaization form.

átà   [North]: kátá. interj. 1 • Even. Átà tɛ̀ nɛ́shà náà kɨ́ngʉrán aké. Even if it rains, we will still play. (W). Kɛ́asɨshɔ́ átà kipukóò. We will work even when/while we are starving. (W).

2 • Or.

a-atá ɛ-lʉ́kʉ́nyá   v.s. v.phrase. 1 • To be reliable, responsible. Ɛátà ɨná kɛráí ɛlʉ́kʉnyá amʉ̂ eipírríó sokónì néshukúnyè èìtù èlò aɨmalɨmál. That child is responsible because she ran to the market and returned without going to goof off. (W). Etuŋúáyìè inkíshú ɨná kítòk nɛ́mɛ́átà ɛlʉ́kʉ́nyá. That irresponsible woman has left the cows. (W).

2 • Crazy, mentally disturbed. Usage: negative form. Mɛátà ɛlʉ́kʉnyá ɨná áyíóní nábuaáyà. That boy who is making noise running away is crazy. This sense of the negative form does not imply mentally retarded, but something more like "craziness". In traditional Maasai thought, the boy has almost certainly been attacked by an evil spirit.

a-atá ɛ́-nátîû   v.phrase v.s. 1 • To be expectant, pregnant. Usage: polite. Kɛ́átà ɛ́nátîû. She is pregnant. Syn: a-iroishí To be heavy, pregnant; a-nʉtá To be pregnant; a-iturukúm [North] To be pregnant.

2 • To be in a strange behavioral condition (possibly due to bewitching). Ɛátà ɛ́nátîû nɛnâ tóyîê . (i) Those girls have something strange about them. (ii) Those girls are pregnant. Káɨ́nyɔ́ɔ́ peê ɛŋɔjɨnárì ɛldɛ́ túŋání? Kájó ɛátà ɛ́nátîû. [ɛ̀átà ! ɛ̀nàtìù, one final mora] Why is that person limping? Maybe he has a problem. (e.g. an injury).

a-atá en-cótó   v.phrase v.s. 1 • To be partisan; take one side. Nímíló aké entúmò ɛnyɛ́ amʉ̂ ɛátà encótó. And don't go to his meeting because he is partisan. (W).

2 • To have direction in life. LING: en-cótó will mostly appear as shótó in this sense. Órè ɔlaríkònì náà ɔltʉŋánì ɔátà shótó A leader is somebody who has direction in life. Mɛátà encótó. He does not have direction. (i.e. He is heading no-where, is confused, has lost his bearing with reference to his life in general.).

mi-kí-àtà encótó   To be comfortably settled in a good way, such that one doesn't have to move to a new place. Ɛ́kɨ́ntɨrrɨ́ŋa aké, mikíàtà shótó. We are settled, we don't intend to move to anywhere. (lit: We do not have any side).

a-atá ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀   v.phrase v.s. 1 • To be greedy for food, be gluttonous. ɔltʉŋánì ɔáta ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀ A person who is greedy.

2 • To be pregnant. Restrict: women.

3 • To have a big stomach. Ɛátà enkítòk ɛnkɔ́shɔ̀kɛ̀. (i) The woman is pregnant. (ii) The woman is a glutton. (iii) The woman has a big stomach.

a-atá ɛn-kʉ́tʉ́k   v.s. v.phrase. 1 • To be talkative. ɔltʉŋánì ɔátà ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k person who is talkative.

2 • To be good at speaking. Máɨ́taá Kakɛ́nyà enkarórònì amʉ̂ ɛátà ɛnkʉtʉ́k. Let's make Kakenya our speaker because she is a good (e.g. skillful, effective) speaker. (W).

3 • To be a gossiper. Ɛátà Náserián ɛnkʉ́tʉ́k; ɛshɔmɔ́ alikí Papaáɨ́ ajó áɨ́támá inkíshú ɛmpárɛ̂t. Naserian is a gossiper; she has gone to tell my Dad that I made the cows eat the farm. (Implication: I wanted to keep it a secret.) (W).

ata ol-oirírua   v.s. v.phrase. 1 • To be crazy, deranged due to an evil spirit. Ɛátà oloirírua. He's deranged. (lit: He has an evil spirit.).

a-atá omóm   [North]: a-atá nkomóm. v.s. v.phrase. 1 • To be a person who brings good favor and fortune to others. This is a natural gift or ability that one typically has throughout life.

2 • To be lucky, fortunate.

a-atakinoré   v. To have bad relations with; have a grudge against. Kɛ́atakínoré enkítòk ɛnkainí amʉ̂ ɛ́táárá ɛnkáínì ɛnkɛ́ráí ɛnyɛ́. The woman has a grudge against her co-wife because her co-wife has beaten her child.

ɔl-átálúnònì   n. Spy. See: a-tál To survey, scout, reconnoitre.

ɛnk-atampôî   Nom sg: ɛnk-átampôî. Acc pl: ɨnk-atampó. Nom pl: ɨnk-átàmpò. n. Cloud. Kɛ́atà ɨnkátàmpò ɛncán. Clouds have rain. Syn: en-kidís Cloud.

ɔl-átàrt   n. Stick.

ɛnɛ-m-atatampó   Variant: k-atatampó. Nom sg: ɛnɛ́-m-atatampó. Acc pl: ɨ-nɔɔ́ nɛ-m-atatampó. Nom pl: ɨ-nɔ́ɔ̀ nɛ-m-atatampó. [North] Acc sg: nk-atatampó. n. Name of a mythological serpent which is so tall that it drinks from the clouds; "whale" See: ɛnk-atampôî Cloud; ɛn-aɔk katampó Mythological serpent; ɔl-ásʉ́ráí Snake.

átɛ́   pn. Plural reflexive and reciprocal pronoun; selves. Kɨ́nyaŋákɨ̀ átɛ́ ɨlnyɛ́nyà. We buy ourselves tomatoes. (W). Ɛgɨ́rà inkɛ́rá áàèlìè átɛ́ erékò. The children are painting themselves with the red ochre. (Pk). máatɛ by themselves. Ɛ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ épúó máatɛ amʉ̂ ímíkípúô iyioók. Let them go by themselves because we are not going to go. (Pk). Kɨ́ntàrɛ̀ɨ̀tà átɛ́. We are escorting each other. (W). ɨntáɨ́ aaté you yourselves. See: kɛwán self.

-átɛ̀   voi asp. Perfect / Perfective Plural Middle suffix. kʉldɔ̂ tʉ́ŋáná ɔɔ́tʉmʉratátɛ̀ those people who are already circumcised. Ɛtɛŋɛ́ràtɛ̀ ilkónsósí ŋolé. The bags tore yesterday. (W). See: -ɛ̀ Perfect(ive) Singular Middle.

ol-átím   Acc pl: ɨ́l-átímî. n. 1 • Twigs placed at the entrance of the house where newly-initiated boys and/or girls live. Usage: plural.

2 • Ceremony. Memítoyi ndáâ ɛ́ látím. Food in a ceremony cannot be denied. (SN). See: n-koperrerrí [North] Twigs placed at the entrance of the house where newly-initiated boys and/or girls live.

ɛnk-atiní   Nom sg: ɛnk-átiní. Acc pl: ɨnk-atinîn. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨnk-aátìnì. n. Story, tale. Ɛ́ɨ́nɔsáká ŋolé iyíóók kókóô ɛnkatiní kííjìtò ɛnkɨ́má. Grandmother narrated to us a story yesterday as we warmed ourselves at the fireplace. (Pk). Náajokí yéíyioô ɛnkatiní ɔɔ́ nkuukuní. My mother told me a wild animal story. (W). Mɛɨnɔsɨ ɛnkatiní dámà Stories are not told during the day. See: ol-aigéetíâî [South] Tale.

nk-atipítipî [North]   Nom sg: nk-átípítipî. n. [North] Drizzles. Syn: n-aituríáá payianí [North] Drizzles. See: enk-oirujúrujî Drizzles.

atûâ   Nom sg: átùà. n.r. 1 • The inside, inside, in. Ɛtɨmɨ́ráká oldîâ ɛncɛrɛ́rɛt atûâ entîm. The dog chased the monkey into the bush. (W). Ant: enk-oríóŋ Back, outside.

2 • Until.

3 • Among, within the central nature of. Etíi oloitikó atûâ inkíshú. The leopard is among the cows. (W). Níkìtùm tì átùà ɨltʉ́ŋáná intokitîn naatîû néjìà We got from people things like that.

tiátùà   Inside. Kɛ́ɛnɨ́ inkíshú ɨnkɛjɛ́k tiátùà ɛnadúóó áŋ. The cow's legs are tied inside that homestead. See: tì átùà In, inside.

atúa ilomón   The idiomatic (as opposed to literal) meaning of one's words.

n-aulélèn [North]   n. [North] Grazing around home. See: pɛ́rpɛ̀r Grazing around home; línká The driving or herding of cattle at dawn to eat the grass when it is still dewy, and then bring them back later for milking..

aulúó   Nom sg: áúlùò. Acc pl: ɨnkáúlèlè. [North] Acc sg: auló. n.r. Outside; ground outside village. Ɛtárá ŋolé ɔláŋóróní ɔrmɛʉ́t ti áúlùò àŋ. Yesterday a hunter killed a giraffe just outside our home. (Pk). Ɛ́tayú lɛ́lɔ́ kuóô tɛ̀ mʉatatá ɛ́ntɛ̀rɛ̀ʉ̀ aulúó. Remove those kids and lambs from the sheep-fold and take them outside the village. (Pk). Ɛɨtʉ́ taá doí oshî táatá aitókì anɛtarɨ́ aulúó aké átíi. Of late, I have not been going (pulling) very far away, just within the vicinity of the kraal. (Pk).

ɛn-áùnèr   Nom sg: ɛn-áúnèr. Acc pl: ɨn-aúnèrrì. Nom pl: ɨn-áunerrí. n. To plant. See: a-ún.

ɔl-aúnònì   Nom sg: ɔl-aúnóni. Acc pl: ɨl-aunók. Nom pl: ɨl-áùnòk. n. Warrior selected from different clans within a community to be an overall leader. Rules constrain the selection of this man: his body must be completely intact (e.g. no teeth are missing), and his father and mother must be alive and in good health. This man should be given several cows. See: ol-otunó Age-set leader.

l-aúrr [North]   Nom sg: l-áùrr. Acc pl: l-aurrí. Nom pl: l-áurrí. n. [North] Male camel.

nk-aúrr   [North] Female camel, young male camel. See: ɛn-tamɨ́s Camel; nyɨ́rɨ̀g Young camel.

áuuî!   [North] Acc sg: láuuî. interj. Cry for help, mostly used by women when being beaten, or when something horrific happens such as death, being chased by a beast, etc. Áuuî! Káɨ́nyɔ́ɔ́ dúóó nátookó kʉlɛ́ ɛ́mɛ́nyɛ́ Siamántà? Oh no! Who drank Siamanta's father's milk? This implies the father, who is the most important man of the home, will not have food. See: óóí Help!.

ol-áuûî   Nom sg: ol-áuûî. n. Short poisonous plant with oval red fruits approximately two to three centimeters in length. The leaves are broad with zig-zag edges and prominent veins, about five centimeters in length. Órè ɛlɛ́ áuûî náà esayíét. This plant ol-áuûî is poisonous. (Pk). Kɛ́ɨ́tɔrrɔ́nɔ̂ ɛlɛ̂ áuûî olêŋ. This ol-áuûî plant is very bad. (Pk).

nk-áwáí [North]   Nom sg: nk-awáí. Acc pl: nk-áwà. Nom pl: nk-áwâ. n. [North] Meat cooked so that fat is extracted from it (though the meat is still quite fatty), typically from the tail of a sheep; fried fatty meat. A few of these can quckly nauseate s.o. Áaɨtɨrɨkɨtâ nkáwâ. The fatty meats have nauseated me. (SN). Kácám aná áwáí. [kátʃám àná ! áwáí] I like this piece of fried fatty meat. (SN). See: ɨ-rɔ́nkɛ́nà Defatted meat.

ɛnk-áwùò   Nom sg: ɛnk-áwúò. Acc pl: ɨnk-áì. [Purko] Acc pl: ɨnk-áwuoí. n. 1 • n. Bow. Ɛ́ntʉdʉmʉ́ ɨnkáì ɔ́ mbáà, ɛ́máapɛ́ áààr kʉldɔ̂ meutí. Get your bows and arrows so that we can go kill a giraffe. (Pk).

2 • n. Wooden portion of a bow (not including the string).

3 • n.pl. Wooden bow(s) with ɛm-pító (bow string) removed, carried as symbols of peace. Usage: sacred. Anyone, of any gender or age, may carry ɨnk-áì with this significance, and is considered to be ɔl-ámál. Anyone doing damage to someone carrying ɨnk-áì is fined. LING: In K, the the plural form ɨnk-áì has both the literal sense 2, and the symbolic sense 3. In Pk, the plural variant ɨnk-áwuoí indicates the physical referent corresponding to sense 2, while the plural ɨnk-áì is reserved for the symbolic sense 3. See: em-píto Bow string.

ɛnk-ayá   Nom sg: ɛnk-áyà. Acc pl: ɨnk-áyáítíé. Nom pl: ɨnk-ayaitíé. n. Stomach. See: ɛnk-ɔ́shɔ́kɛ́ Stomach; ɛnk-ɔnyɔ́rɨ̀ One of the stomach's of a cow.

Ayam   n.prop. Name of a river in Laikipia District.

áyia   interj. Term of agreement; all right, okay. Áyia. Kálótú tááisérè. Okay. I will come tomorrow. (Pk). Népùò apá ɨlɛ́wâ áàjò, "eé, áyia shɔ́mɔ̀..." The men go and say, "Yes, all right go...".

áyia sérè!   Good bye!

ɔl-ayíárànì   Nom sg: ɔl-áyíárání. Acc pl: ɨl-ayiarák. Nom pl: ɨl-áyíárák. n. Cook.

(ɛnk)-áyíókìshò   Nom sg: ayiókìshò. Acc pl: ?. n. 1 • Boyhood; the age between about 12 and 15, when boys are typically intelligent, strong, brave. Ámaâ siî doí ɨlɛ́wà ɔɔ́mʉ̀ràtà kɛ́tɔ́n apá aké ɛ́ɛ́tâ áyíókìshò. Even men who are uncircumcised still have boyhood in them. (Ie. conduct unacceptable for a circumcised men, such as playing with dogs). Ɛ́táá kéyíókisho ɛndá ayiʉni. That boy is almost to the stage of boyhood.

2 • Boyishness. LING: Since the plural of 'boy' is taken as the base for 'boyhood', it suggests that that plural is the basic form. See: ɛnk-ayíónì Boy.

enk-íyókòrè   Boyhood.

a-yíénì [South]   [South] A man with boyhood characteristics.

ɛnk-ayíónì   Nom sg: ɛnk-áyíóní. Acc pl: ɨnk-ayîôk. Nom pl: ɨnk-áyìòk. [North] Acc sg: l-ayíénì. n. 1 • Boy prior to circumcision. Ɛ́ncɔ̀ɔ̀ ɛnkayíónì élô aɨrrɨtá ilkuoóo tiaúlùò. Let the small boy go herd the lambs and kids outside the village compound. Éló ɔláyíóní aɨrrɨtá inkíshú. The boy will go to look after the cows.

2 • Son. Ɔlayíónì láí doí dúóó ótií eneoríékì inkíshú náarɛwakɨ́ naáɨ́sʉ̀l. It is my son who was in the place where the cows were shared out, and he brought me the best.

ɔl-ayíónì   Big boy. Dúóó táatá ɛjɨŋɨ́ ɛnkáŋ ɔ́lɛ̀ Parmuát peê ɛ́mʉ́rátɨ̂ ɔlayíónì tááisérè. Today is the day the distinguished guests go to Ole Parmuat's home, because tomorrow is when a boy will be circumcised.

ɨl-ayîôk lɔɔ́ lkɨlánì   Boys about to be initiated who wear black cloaks.

ɔl-arrítènì   Old grown up boy who is not yet circumcised.

áyíókìshò   Boyhood.

ɛnk-áyìàm   Nom sg: ɛnk-áyîâm. n. Small calabash used for beer, or for milk used in blessing ceremonies. See: en-kúkúrí Calabash; ɛnk-ɔtɨ́ Small calabash.

-áyìè   Variant: -óyìè. dir asp. Motion away plus Perfect(ive) aspect. See: -a Away; -a Perfect(ive) aspect.

ɨnk-ayîôk   n.pl. Boys. See: ɛnk-ayíónì Boy.

á'a   interj. No. Á'a, ḿmɛ̀ nɨnyɛ́! No, it is not him! In Arusha, á'a is used only after ḿ́mɛ̀ has been used several times. It is a final 'no,' and would not be polite as an initial refusal. Q: Ɨ́shɔ́mɔ̀ dúóó Naɨrɔ́bɨ̀? A: Á'a, ɛɨtʉ́ aló, átíí díóó aké áŋ. Q: Did you go to Nairobi? A: No, I did not go, I was just at home. See: ɨ́'ɨ́ No.